ABCs of Immigration: L-1B Adjudications
By Greg Siskind1
After years of waiting, the promised USCIS L-1B policy memorandum was released today. L-1Bs are
intracompany transfer visas for individuals who possess “specialized knowledge” of a company’s
operations. The new memo supersedes and rescinds various prior policy documents and is being
released now as part of President Obama’s pro-business visa modernization efforts announced last
November. According to USCIS, the memorandum’s goal is to “promote consistency and efficiency in L-
1B adjudications.” The memorandum also provides important information on placing L-1Bs at third party
sites and on providing deference to prior decisions when extensions are adjudicated.
The following is a summary of the guidance memorandum.
When does it take effect?
The memorandum will not take effect until August 31, 2015
What is the standard for adjudicating L-1B petitions?
L-1B petitioners must demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the petition meets the
requirements for L-1B classification. This means that the claim is “more likely true than not” or
“probably” true and is a lesser standard than “beyond a reasonable doubt” or “clear and convincing
What three things requirements must an L-1B beneficiary demonstrate?
1. The beneficiary possesses “specialized knowledge”;
2. The position offered involves “specialized knowledge” held by the beneficiary; and
3. The beneficiary has at least one continuous year of employment abroad in a managerial,
executive or specialized knowledge capacity with the petitioning organization or a qualifying
foreign organization within the prior three years.
And if the employee is going to be located at the workplace of an unaffiliated company, the petitioning
company must show that the beneficiary qualifies under the L-1 Visa Reform Act which requires such
positions be 1) controlled and supervised by the petitioning organization and 2) provided in connection
Greg Siskind is a co-founder of Siskind Susser, PC – Immigration Lawyers and can be reached at
email@example.com or www.visalaw.com .
with an exchange of products or services between the petitioning organization and the unaffiliated
What is “specialized knowledge”?
The exist statute is vague simply defining “specialized knowledge” to apply to individuals who have 1)
“special” knowledge of the company product and its application in international markets; or (2) an
“advanced” level of knowledge or expertise of the processes and procedures of the company. INA
214(c)(2)(B). The corresponding regulation at 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(D) defines “special knowledge” to be
that which is possessed by an “individual of the petitioning organization’s product, service, research,
equipment, techniques, management, or other interests and its application in international markets, or
an advanced level of knowledge or expertise in the organization’s processes and procedures.”
The new guidance looks to common dictionary definitions and defines “special” as “surpassing the
usual,” “distinct among others of a kind,” “distinguished by some unusual quality,” “uncommon,” or
Advanced is defined in dictionaries as “greatly developed beyond and initial stage,” or “ahead or far or
further along in progress, complexity, knowledge, skill, etc.”
Taken together, USCIS now will use the following definitions:
• special knowledge, which is knowledge of the petitioning employer’s product, service, research,
equipment, techniques, management, or other interests and its applications in international
markets that is demonstrably distinct or uncommon in comparison to that generally found in
the particular industry or within the petitioning employer; or
• advanced knowledge, which is knowledge or expertise in the organization’s specific processes
and procedures that is not commonly found in the relevant industry and is greatly developed or
further along in progress, complexity and understanding than that generally found within the
Does an L-1B need to possess both “special knowledge” and “advanced knowledge”?
No. A beneficiary need only possess one or the other.
Is the new definition easier to meet than prior ones?
USCIS makes clear that it is applying a more reasonable standard when it states
With respect to either special or advanced knowledge, the petitioner ordinarily must
demonstrate that the beneficiary’s knowledge is not commonly held throughout the particular
industry or within the petitioning employer… However, such knowledge need not be proprietary
in nature or narrowly held within the employer’s organization.
A beneficiary can meet the definition of “special knowledge” by presenting evidence that he or she has
knowledge that is demonstrably distinct or uncommon in comparison to the knowledge of other
similarly employed workers in the particular industry or within the petitioning organization. To show
“advanced knowledge,” the beneficiary can show he or she has knowledge or expertise that is “greatly
developed or more complex in comparison to other workers in the employer’s operations.”
What factors may USCIS consider in determining whether a worker’s knowledge is specialized?
The memorandum contains a non-exclusive list of factors USCIS may consider when determining
- The beneficiary is qualified to contribute to the US operation’s knowledge of the foreign
operation’s conditions as a result of having knowledge not usually found in the industry or the
organization’s US operations.
- The beneficiary has knowledge that is particularly beneficial to the employer’s competitiveness
in the marketplace.
- The beneficiary has been employed abroad in a capacity involving assignments that have
significantly enhanced the employer’s productivity, competitiveness, image, or financial
- The beneficiary’s claimed specialized knowledge normally can be gained only through prior
experience with that employer.
- The beneficiary possesses knowledge of a product or process that cannot be easily taught to
another individual without significant economic cost or inconvenience.
- The beneficiary has knowledge of a process or product that either is sophisticated or complex,
or of a highly technical nature, although not necessarily unique to the firm.
What evidence may be submitted which would show these factors?
Petitioners should submit a detailed description of the services to be performed as well as evidence of
the beneficiary’s prior education, training and employment qualifying him for the position. Other
documentation which will show specialized or advanced knowledge include
• Evidence of training, work experience, or education establishing the number of years the individual
has been using the specialized knowledge at the employer;
• Evidence of how the transfer of the beneficiary will help the organization’s U.S. operations;
• Proof the beneficiary is able to contribute to the U.S. operation’s knowledge of foreign operating
conditions because he or she has knowledge not generally found in the industry or the organization’s
• Contracts, statements of work, or other documentation showing the beneficiary’s background would
be particularly beneficial to the organization’s competitiveness in the marketplace;
• Evidence, such as correspondence or reports, showing the beneficiary has had assignments that have
significantly enhanced the organization’s productivity, competitiveness, image, or financial position;
• Personnel or in-house training showing the beneficiary’s knowledge can only be gained through prior
experience or training with that employer;
• Curricula and training manuals for internal training courses, financial documents, or other evidence
showing knowledge of a product or process that cannot be transferred or taught to another individual
without significant economic cost or inconvenience;
• Evidence of patents, trademarks, licenses, or contracts awarded to the organization based on the
beneficiary’s work, or similar showing beneficiary’s knowledge is sophisticated or complex, or of a highly
technical nature, although not necessarily proprietary or unique to the petitioning organization; and
• Payroll documents, federal or state wage statements, resumes, organizational charts, or similar
evidence showing the positions held and the wages paid to the beneficiary and parallel employees in the
Does specialized knowledge need to be proprietary or unique?
No. USCIS says it need not be proprietary or unique to the petitioner.
Does the L-1B petitioner need to test the US labor market?
No. Though the petitioner needs to show the beneficiary’s knowledge is not generally or commonly held
in the relevant industry, it specifically notes that this does NOT involve a test of the US labor market and
a petitioner doesn’t need to show a lack of readily available workers to perform the relevant duties in
the US. The test is not whether workers in the US are available, but whether there are “so many such
workers that the knowledge is generally or commonly held in the relevant industry, and thus not
specialized.” If there are a lot of workers in the US with similar knowledge to the beneficiary’s, the
petitioning employer must show the beneficiary’s knowledge is truly specialized.
Does the specialized knowledge need to be narrowly held within the petitioning company?
No. This was a requirement in prior memoranda, but USCIS says that while such comparisons with other
employees may be useful, such knowledge need not be narrowly held within the company. Multiple
employees within a company may possess the same specialized knowledge and the mere existence of
other employees with similar knowledge should not, in and of itself, be a ground for denial.
Note, however, that if there are many employees in the US with the same specialized knowledge, USCIS
may consider the organization’s need to transfer the beneficiary to the US.
If there are other workers in the US operation with the same specialized knowledge, what factors should
a USCIS examiner consider?
- How the duties to be performed by the beneficiary that require his or her specialized
knowledge may or may not differ from those already employed in the US operations;
- The extent to which the petitioner would suffer economic inconvenience or disruption to its US
or foreign-based operations if it were unable to transfer the beneficiary;
- Whether the salary to be paid to the beneficiary is comparable to similarly situated peers in the
Being paid much less than US peers may indicate a lack of specialized knowledge and the employer will
need to show valid business reasons to explain the discrepancy.
Does the specialized knowledge worker need to occupy a managerial or similar position or command
a high salary compared to his or her peers?
No. Rank and salary might be factors considered when analyzing whether a beneficiary has specialized
knowledge, but there is no requirement that a beneficiary be of a certain rank or have a salary
“elevated” compared to his or her peers. This is especially true for start ups.
Does it matter that an L-1B applicant might qualify for another non-immigrant classification?
No. The fact that another classification may be available is irrelevant.
Does the one year of work outside the US need to be the same type of work the beneficiary will
perform in the US?
No. For example, a manager abroad could qualify for a specialized knowledge, non-managerial position
in the US.
How does working offsite affect an L-1B adjudication?
As noted above, the L-1 Visa Reform Act of 2004 requires the petitioner to show that the beneficiary: (1)
will not be “controlled and supervised principally” by the unaffiliated employer; and (2) will be placed
“in connection with the provision of a product or service for which specialized knowledge specific to the
petitioning employer is necessary.” In short, the law is designed to prevent “labor for hire”
To meet the law’s requirements, a petitioner must show that it is providing products and services and
not merely supplying workers. The new memo notes that an L-1B beneficiary may be located at a third-
party worksite if, based on the “totality of the circumstances,” the unaffiliated employer does not
principally control and supervise the beneficiary’s activities. Factors that may be considered include
- The petitioner at all times retains the authority to dictate the manner in which the work is to be
- The petitioner may reward or discipline the worker for his or her work performance
- The petitioner provides the worker’s salary and any normal employer-provide benefits such as
L-1Bs must be using their specialized knowledge in connection with providing the petitioner’s products
or services to the third-party client in order to show that the arrangement is not merely labor for hire.
Does USCIS need to give deference to its prior decisions when adjudicating L-1B extensions?
Yes. In matters relating to an extension involving the same petitioner and employee and the same
underlying facts, USCIS should give deference to prior approvals. Re-adjudications should only happen
when there was a material error in a prior case or there has been a substantial change in circumstances
since that approval or there is new material information that adversely impacts eligibility.