What event is this poster based on? Is this an effective propaganda poster? Why? Do Now
Breaking the Stalemate! By 1917 the conflict we call The First World War had been raging for over two years, drawing in troops from Europe, Africa, Asia, North America and Australia, although the main battles were in Europe.
The Sinking of the Lusitania One result of this German policy was that a British passenger ship, the Lusitania , was sunk by a German submarine on May 7, 1915, with a loss of more than 1,100 passengers and crew, including 124 Americans.
How do you think U.S. citizens felt about this? What should be done?
The United States Government Responds Department of State, Washington, May 13, 1915 To Ambassador Gerard: In view of recent acts of the German authorities in violation of American rights on the high seas which culminated in the torpedoing and sinking of the British steamship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, by which over 100 American citizens lost their lives, it is clearly wise and desirable that the Government of the United States and the Imperial German Government should come to a clear and full understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted. The Government of the United States, therefore, desires to call the attention of the Imperial German Government … the objection to their present method of attack against the trade of their enemies … in the destruction of commerce without disregarding those rules of fairness, reason, justice, and humanity.... The Government and the people of the United States look to the Imperial German Government for just, prompt, and enlightened action in this vital matter….. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan Do you think this letter was a sufficient response to the sinking of the Lusitania?
In 1917, the focus of the war shifted to the high seas. That year, the Germans intensified the submarine warfare that had raged in the Atlantic Ocean. Germany decided that a naval blockade of Great Britain would cause severe food shortages and give them an advantage. In January 1917, the Germans announced that their submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Britain. This policy was called ___________________________. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The Zimmerman Note The 'Zimmerman Telegram' – often called the Zimmerman Note - was a memo sent from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the German Ambassador to Mexico through a supposedly secure channel devoted to peace negotiations. It informed the ambassador that Germany would be resuming its policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (USW) and proposed an alliance. If Mexico would join in a war against the US, they would be rewarded with financial support and re-conquered land in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. Why do you think this was such a threat to the U.S.
The German high command knew renewed USW would probably cause the US to declare war on them, but they gambled on shutting Britain down before an American army could arrive in force. The alliance with Mexico and Japan, as proposed in the Zimmerman Telegram, was intended to create a new Pacific and Central American Front, greatly distracting the US and aiding the German war effort. British intelligence intercepted the telegram and, recognizing the effect it would have on US public opinion, released it to America on February 24th 1917. It was released to the world press on March 1st. The U.S. generally felt kinship with Great Britain (common language, culture, history) the US public - still concerned at Mexico's intentions following trouble between the two - was aghast. A vast majority reacted to both the Note, and weeks of growing anger at USW, by backing war against Germany. When the American Congress approved Wilson's decision to declare war on April 6th, there was just 1 vote against. How would the U.S. public react? Why would the telegram be published in U.S. newspapers? Why would the Germans propose such an alliance?
The United States United States – Maintained a policy of noninvolvement, yet economically were benefiting by selling goods. Sinking of the Lusitania – German submarine warfare affected Americans. Zimmerman Letter – Germany sent a letter to Mexico encouraging them to fight the U.S. The letter was intercepted. The United States entered the war against Germany in 1917.
An Armistice is Declared Germany put their all into an attack on March 21 st 1918. For several months the offensive pushed the Allies back, but in July the Germans were stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne. The Allied counter-offensive began in August and in what became known as the Last Hundred Days, they pushed the Germans back. Germany sought an armistice which came into effect at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918.
The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the events and process of the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did American politics have on the treaty process? </li></ul>
THE BIG FOUR lloyd George Victorio Orlando Victor Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson Jan. 18, 1919 - Peace Conference opens in Paris
Feb. 14, 1919 - Wilson submits Draft Covenant for a League of Nations What did Wilson believe to be the answer to the world’s problems? Would it work? Wilson’s Idealism
The Goals of France <ul><li>According to this cartoon, what was Clemenceau’s main concern? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think Clemenceau was nicknamed “The Tiger?” </li></ul>
The Treaty of Versailles Lasting-Peace Peace-Revenge Germany pays reparations, Poland is created, Creation of the League of Nations, War-Guilt clause, Alsace-Lorraine to France, Germany forbidden to join League, France controls Rhineland, Arms limitation, Polish corridor established, no secret alliances Germany lost territory A rms Limitation Creation of the League of Nations Polish Corridor established France controls Rhineland Poland is created War-Guilt clause- B lame Germany pays R eparations Germany lost T erritory Germany forbidden to join League No secret alliances Alsace-Lorraine to France
New Map of Europe! <ul><li>Which major empires lost the most land? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems could occur due to the structure of the European landscape? </li></ul>
What is the major concern in dealing with Foreign Affairs? How does this cartoon represent the political atmosphere of post a World War I United States?
What will Wilson do in order to gain support for the League of Nations? Wilson’s Mission
Wilson’s Journey Sep. 25, 1919 - Wilson collapses in Pueblo, Col.; returns to D.C.; suffers stroke Oct. 2; ill for 7 months
Results What does this Political Cartoon accuse the United States of doing? July 2, 1921 - Congress ends war by joint resolution The Congress does not approve to membership in the League of Nations.
The Title of the cartoon is “We told you it wouldn’t work!” Why didn’t the League of Nations work and could anything have made it successful?