Do NowWhat event is this poster based on? Is this an effective propagandaposter? Why?
Breaking the Stalemate! By 1917 the conflict we call The First World War had been raging for overtwo years, drawing in troops from Europe, Africa, Asia, North America and Australia, although the main battles were in Europe.
In 1917, the focus of the war shifted to the high seas. That year, the Germans intensified the submarine warfare that had raged in the AtlanticOcean. Germany decided that a naval blockade of Great Britain would cause severe food shortages and give them an advantage. In January 1917, the Germans announced that their submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Britain. This policy was called Unrestricted Submarine Warfare ___________________________.
The Sinking of the Lusitania One result of this German policy was that a British passenger ship, the Lusitania, was sunk by a Germansubmarine on May 7, 1915, with a loss of more than 1,100 passengers and crew, including 124 Americans.
How do you think U.S. citizens felt about this? What should be done?
The United States Government RespondsDepartment of State, Washington, May 13, 1915To Ambassador Gerard:In view of recent acts of the German authorities in violation of American rights on the high seaswhich culminated in the torpedoing and sinking of the British steamship Lusitania on May 7,1915, by which over 100 American citizens lost their lives, it is clearly wise and desirable that theGovernment of the United States and the Imperial German Government should come to a clearand full understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted.The Government of the United States, therefore, desires to call the attention of the ImperialGerman Government … the objection to their present method of attack against the trade oftheir enemies … in the destruction of commerce without disregarding those rules of fairness,reason, justice, and humanity.... The Government and the people of the United States look to theImperial German Government for just, prompt, and enlightened action in this vital matter…..Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan Do you think this letter was a sufficient response to the sinking of the Lusitania?
Sussex Pledge The Sussex Pledge was a promise given by the German Government to the United States of America on May 4th 1916 in response to US demands relating to the conduct of the First World War. Germany promised to alter their naval and submarine policy ofunrestricted submarine warfare and stop the indiscriminate sinking of non-military ships. Instead, Merchant Ships would be searchedand sunk only if they contained contraband, and then only after safe passage had been provided for the crew and passengers.
The Zimmerman Note The Zimmerman Telegram – often called the Zimmerman Note - was a memo sent from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the German Ambassador to Mexico through a supposedly secure channel devoted to peace negotiations. It informed the ambassador that Germany would be resuming its policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (USW) and proposed an alliance. If Mexico would join in a war against the US, they would be rewarded with financial support and re-conqueredWhy do you think this was such a threat land in New Mexico, Texas, and to the U.S. Arizona.
Why would the Germans Why would the telegram be How would the U.S. public propose such an published in U.S. react? alliance? newspapers? The U.S. generally felt The Germans knew kinship with Great Britain renewed USW would British intelligence (common language,probably cause the US to intercepted the culture, history) declare war on them. telegram and, US public - felt need to Gambled on shutting recognizing the effect end isolationism. Britain down before an it would have on US A vast majority American army could public opinion, reacted to the Note and arrive in force. released it to America renewed USW by backingAlliance with Mexico and on February 24th war against Germany.Japan, as proposed in the 1917. When the American Zimmerman Telegram, It was released to the Congress approved was intended to create a world press on March Wilsons decision to new Pacific and Central 1st. declare war on April 6th, American Front. there was just 1 vote against.
The United StatesUnited States – Maintained a policy ofnoninvolvement, yet economically werebenefiting by selling goods.Sinking of the Lusitania – Germansubmarine warfare affected Americans.Germany breaks the Sussex PledgeZimmerman Letter – Germany sent aletter to Mexico encouraging them tofight the U.S. The letter was intercepted. The United States entered the war against Germany in 1917.
An Armistice is Declared Germany put their all into an attack on March 21st 1918. For several months the offensive pushed the Allies back, but in July the Germans were stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne. The Allied counter-offensive began in August and in what became known as the Last Hundred Days, they pushed the Germans back. Germany sought an armistice which came into effect at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918.
The Treaty of Versailles Objective: • To understand the events and process of the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. • What impact did American politics have on the treaty process?
World War I EndsOn January 18, 1919 representatives of 32 nations attended a conference at the Palace of Versailles outside Paris, France to establish terms of peace. Paris Peace Conference This was called the _________________________________ The four personalties who dominated the conference were known as the ______________________ Big Four
Wilson’s Idealism There were heated debates among these nations as they all wanted different things. Woodrow Wilson wanted lasting peace and wanted the Fourteen Points to be the ________________ basis for peace. This was a list of terms for resolving this and all future wars. It called for the end of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade and the large scale reduction of arms. What did Wilson believe to be the answer to the world’s problems? Would it work?
Wilson also felt that self- determination was important. The right of a people to determine how their ownnation should be governed.
The Goals of France The British and French were more interested in demanding harsh treatment for the Germans. The French leader had bore the nickname “The Tiger” for his fierce war policy. His goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never threaten France again. 1. According to this cartoon, what was Clemenceau’s main concern? Why? 2. Why do you think Clemenceau was nicknamed “The Tiger?”
The Treaty of Versailles Lasting-Peace Peace-Revenge War-Guilt clause- Blame Poland is created Germany pays Reparations Creation of the Arms Limitation League of Nations Germany lost Territory Alsace-Lorraine to France No secret alliances France controls Rhineland Polish Corridor established Germany forbidden to join League War-Guilt clause, Germany pays reparations, Arms limitation, Germany lost territory, Alsace-Lorraine to France, Poland is created, Creation of the League of Nations, Germany forbidden tojoin League, France controls Rhineland, Polish corridor established, no secret alliances
New Map of Europe!1. Which major empires lost the most land? Why?2. What problems could occur due to the structure of the European landscape?
Results of WWI Costs of War New Nations Treaty of Versailles•Millions of lives lost •Germany, Austria- •Germany accepts war Hungary, Ottoman guilt •$338 Billion spent Empire, Russia were •Germany pays•Land, towns, cities broken up reparations were destroyed •Poland, Yugoslavia, •Germany loses colonies Czechoslovakia, Finland •Germany limits size of •Led to worldwide •Baltic states – Lithuania, military depression Estonia, Latvia •League of nations is •Turkey, Saudi Arabia, created but U.S. and Iraq, Iran, Palestine, U.S.S.R. are not Syria, Egypt, Trans members Jordan •Europe continues imperialism, rejects self- determination for colonies