Fall of Roman Empire: 476 C.E. Life Before the Turning Point Vast Empire under one law code. Led by an Emperor who had total authority. Pax Romana – 200 years of peace in Rome. Great achievements such as law, government, art and architecture (dome and arch), aqueducts, roads, etc. Increase in trade and security throughout empire. Turning Point Poor leadership, lack of method of succession, struggling economy, weakening military, and peasant and slave revolts led to the split of the Empire. Fell in 476 CE when Visigoths sacked Rome! Effects/Changes/Impact Led to Dark Ages! Lack of centralized government caused feudal society to emerge. Peasants looked toward local nobles for protection and worked the land for them. Manorialism developed – self sufficient economic system with limited trade. Most people lacked education and the Catholic Church dominated society. Gothic Architecture.
The Crusades: 1095-1272 Life Before the Turning Point Europe was in the Dark Ages. There was little trade and lack of education . Serfs worked the land and did not leave their manor. The Church dominated socially and politically. Turning Point Pope Urban II called for all Christians to unite and fight the Muslims to regain control of the Holy lands . Effects/Changes/Impact After four Crusades, the Muslims won control of the Holy lands. However, the crusades resulted in increased trade in Europe and the development of towns . Trade routes needed to be protected, which led to the rise of power of Kings and the decrease of power of the nobles.
The Printing Press: 1436 Life Before the Turning Point Many people were illiterate and ideas traveled slowly through trade. Most books were based on ideas of the church (Bibles) and were hand written. Most books were written in Latin . Turning Point Johann Gutenberg invented the Printing Press, a hand press, in which ink was rolled over the raised surfaces of moveable hand-set block letters held within a wooden form and the form was then pressed against a sheet of paper. Effects/Changes/Impact Created a revolution in the production of books. Led to the rapid exchange of ideas throughout Europe and an increase in literacy. Fostered the rapid development in science, arts and religion.
The Renaissance: 1400s Life Before the Turning Point Roman Catholic Church dominated social and cultural aspects of society. Art and architecture were influenced by religious ideals. Gothic Architecture was designed to show the power of God. Most people believed that they were meant to suffer on Earth in order to get to Heaven in the afterlife. Turning Point A renewal in Greco-Roman ideals led to belief in Humanism – humans are special and individuals can achieve great things. Popes, Kings, and wealthy merchants became patrons of the arts and hired artists to create paintings, sculptures, buildings, etc. Effects/Changes/Impact Artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci as well as writers such as Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Shakespeare would influence western culture. Ideals of humanism and questioning spirit would lead to the Reformation, Age of Exploration, Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.
The Protestant Reformation: 1517 Life Before the Turning Point The Roman Catholic Church dominated Europe. The Pope had power over Monarchs and could excommunicate anyone from the church. They also collected a tithe, a 10% tax that all land holders had to pay. The Church was also offering indulgences , where people could pay for the forgiveness of their sins. Turning Point Martin Luther , a German monk, posted his 95 Theses on the door of a Church in Wittenberg, Germany. He protested the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated when he refused to recant. Effects/Changes/Impact Europe was split religiously for the first time (North: Protestant, South: Roman Catholic.) Other Protestant groups developed such as Calvinism and the Anglican Church in England. Led to the Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition, religious wars, and aggressive missionary work.
Age of Enlightenment: 1600s-1800s Life Before the Turning Point Europe was led by Absolute Monarchs such as King Louis XIV of France, Phillip II of Spain, Czar Peter the Great of Russia, Empress Maria Teresa of Holy Roman Empire. The justified their rule by claiming Divine Right, power to rule from God. Turning Point Inspired by the scientific revolution, many scholars began to use reason and logic to question the rule of Absolute Monarchs. They believed in natural laws and rights that existed in politics and government. Effects/Changes/Impact John Locke, Jean Rousseau, and Voltaire became the major Enlightenment thinkers of the time believing in Natural Rights of “Life, Liberty, and Property,” the common good, and freedom of speech. Their ideas led people to question Divine Right rule and resulted in Revolutions in North America, France, and Latin America.
The Meiji Restoration: 1867-1910 Life Before the Turning Point Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate who ruled through a centralized Feudal system. The Shogun had isolated Japan from trade with other nations except China, Korea, and the Dutch. Japanese society was controlled by the government, which banned Christianity. Turning Point U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry made a trip to Japan in an attempt to become trading partners with them. The Japanese and U.S. signed the Treaty of Kanagawa which ended 250 years of isolation . Effects/Changes/Impact Led to the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, where the Emperor took over as leader of Japan. Japan began to rapidly modernize and westernize its military, industry, and social customs. This led to the need for Japan to imperialize other lands for resources. (annexation of Korea, Sphere of Influence in China, Russo-Japanese War)
World War I: 1914-1919 Life Before the Turning Point European nations were competing with one another for military and economic superiority. Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism were increasing. Turning Point The Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia was the spark that started the War. When Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia and France and WWI was on! Effects/Changes/Impact Mass production of weapons and new technology such as the Machine gun, airplane, tank, poison gas, and submarine caused enormous casualties and damage. Britain, France, U.S. and Italy won the war and forced Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Economic problems after the war would lead to the rise of Totalitarian leaders like Hitler and Mussolini. Also, during the war, Russia had a revolution- resulted in the first communist nation, the USSR.