Silver and Latin America

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Silver and Latin America

  1. 1. The Rise and Decline of the Spanish Empire Period 4: 1450-1750
  2. 2. King Charles V From 1519 to 1556 •Ruling two empires involved Charles in constant warfare. •As a devout Catholic, he fought to suppress Protestantism in •Ruling two empires involved Charles in constant warfare. •As a devout Catholic, he fought to suppress Protestantism in Germany. Germany. •He faced military threats from the French, from German Protestant princes, and from the Ottoman •He faced military threats from the French, from German Protestant princes, and from the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman. Empire under Suleiman.
  3. 3. The Empire of Charles V (Hapsburgs) •In 1556, an exhausted Charles gave up his titles and divided his empire. His brother Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor, and his son Philip ruled Spain, •In 1556, an exhausted Charles gave up his titles and divided his empire. His brother Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor, and his son Philip ruled Spain, the Netherlands, and the vast Spanish overseas empire. the Netherlands, and the vast Spanish overseas empire.
  4. 4. •Charles V provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan, the first to •Charles V provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan, the first to circumnavigate around the world. circumnavigate around the world. •New Spain was considerably extended by conquistadors like Hernán Cortés •New Spain was considerably extended by conquistadors like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. and Francisco Pizarro.
  5. 5. Aztec and Inca location in Mesoamerica
  6. 6. Reasons for Spanish Conquest over the Aztecs A. Diseases, smallpox, measles, influenza B. Alliances with Aztec enemies, Tlaxcalans – helped by translator Dona Marina (Malinche) C. Spanish technology and animals (Guns, canons, horses, dogs) D. Aztecs initially thought Cortez was God Quetzalcoatl E. Spanish Method of warfare – Aztecs fought to capture enemy, Spanish killed the enemy “We have pounded our hands in despair against the adobe walls, for our inheritance, our city, is lost and dead.” - Aztec Warrior
  7. 7. SOCIAL HIERARCHY P C M Z, I & A Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World Mestizos: Indian + European blood Mulattos: African + European blood Zambos, Indians and Africans CAUSES M Film Clip Peninsulares: Spanish born in Spain
  8. 8. Colonization of the Americas Latin American Society Both North American Society Spain conquered major centralized Empires (Aztec, Inca) Mostly settled by men (85%) Spanish/Portuguese men had relations with Native/African – miscegenation Led to Mestizos – increased population Lived in cities – European style - distinct communities – mixed marriages Encountered tribal groups – war or trade Borrowed cultural elements from Natives and Africans – clothing, plants, drums, flags, Castas system develops Developed societies based on race Used slavery food, etc. Roman Catholic – converted natives – could be saved Women more numerous – mostly married within own group French fur trading involved with native women – Mestis – helped build alliances English looked down at natives and Africans Lived in small farming villages - developed racism and strict boundaries Did not acknowledge mixed races – considered them black Protestant – others could not be saved
  9. 9. Spanish Empire of King Philip II Catholic Church dominates •Widespread conversion of the Catholic Church dominates •Widespread conversion of the Indians by Jesuits Indians by Jesuits •Constructed baroque cathedrals •Religious schools and universities •Constructed baroque cathedrals •Religious schools and universities •During his 42 years reign, Philip II expanded Spanish influence, strengthened the Catholic Church and claimed •During his 42 years reign, Philip II expanded Spanish influence, strengthened the Catholic Church and claimed •He conducted the Inquisition to eliminate Protestants, New Spain controlled by bureaucracy •Council of Indies •Two Viceroyalties (Mexico City & Lima) •Ten Audiencias - Make and enforce Spanish law •Local magistrates applied the law, collected taxes, and assigned work required of Indian communities absolute power. absolute power. •He conducted the Inquisition to eliminate Protestants, Jews and Muslims. Jews and Muslims. Ruled from 1556-1598
  10. 10. Spain’s Tributary Empire A. Spanish Conquistadors took over existing tributary networks B. Like Indian Ocean, Spanish began to tap into vast commercial systems and exploit the existing indigenous empires C. Unlike Indian Ocean, the New World was not restricted to commercial outposts. It involved the control of large amounts A. Spanish Conquistadors took over existing tributary networks B. Like Indian Ocean, Spanish began to tap into vast commercial systems and exploit the existing indigenous empires C. Unlike Indian Ocean, the New World was not restricted to commercial outposts. It involved the control of large amounts
  11. 11. Spanish Control of New Territory 1. Provinces were ruled by a 1. Provinces were ruled by a viceroy, or royal governor, a representative of the king. viceroy, or royal governor, a representative of the king. 2. Plantations called haciendas, 2. Plantations called haciendas, grew sugar cane to make sugar, molasses, rum. Needed workers to make plantations profitable. grew sugar cane to make sugar, molasses, rum. Needed workers to make plantations profitable. 3. Encomienda system – King 3. Encomienda system – King granted conquistadors land to settle, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it. granted conquistadors land to settle, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it. Eventually, the King prevented encomiendas from being hereditary. Eventually, the King prevented encomiendas from being hereditary. Once an encomendero died, his land reverted to the crown. Once an encomendero died, his land reverted to the crown.
  12. 12. Bartolome de las Casas – Priest who spoke out against the evils of Bartolome de las Casas – Priest who spoke out against the evils of the encomienda system. the encomienda system. Bartolome de las Casas To fill labor shortage, Las Casas urged colonists to get workers from Africa. They would be immune to disease and have useful farming skills. Led to the To fill labor shortage, Las Casas urged colonists to get workers from Africa. They would be immune to disease and have useful farming skills. Led to the African Slave Trade in 1502. African Slave Trade in 1502.
  13. 13. Mercantilism - Government (Monarch) stresses the creation of a Mercantilism - Government (Monarch) stresses the creation of a favorable balance of trade for their nation. favorable balance of trade for their nation. A) Promote internal economy 1. Limit imports - keep profits from enemy or rival states 2. Set Tariffs on imported goods 3. Encouraged and funded merchant fleets and trading companies A) Promote internal economy 1. Limit imports - keep profits from enemy or rival states 2. Set Tariffs on imported goods 3. Encouraged and funded merchant fleets and trading companies
  14. 14. Colonialism and Mercantilism Colony Mother Country Resources Profits Manufactured goods B) Need for Colonies 1. Provided raw materials and labor source 2. Encouraged industry at home - manufactured goods 3. Colonies used as a guaranteed new market B) Need for Colonies 1. Provided raw materials and labor source 2. Encouraged industry at home - manufactured goods 3. Colonies used as a guaranteed new market
  15. 15. What were the major products exported from the Americas by the Spanish? How is this an example of mercantilism?
  16. 16. How did the Spanish discovery of Silver in Americas impact the world? “Global trade emerged when all important populated “Global trade emerged when all important populated continents began to exchange products continuously. It is true that there was an important intercontinental trade before 1571, but there was no direct link between America and Asia, so the world market was not fully coherent or complete. The singular product most responsible for the birth of world trade continents began to exchange products continuously. It is true that there was an important intercontinental trade before 1571, but there was no direct link between America and Asia, so the world market was not fully coherent or complete. The singular product most responsible for the birth of world trade was… Silver.” was… Silver.” - Dennis O. Flynn, Born with a Silver Spoon - Dennis O. Flynn, Born with a Silver Spoon How do you think silver became the first global product?
  17. 17. The Silver Trade A. Discovery of Silver in the Americas made Spain powerful B. Mita system developed – forced labor in gold, silver, mercury mines. C. Spain used silver to pay long term debts D. Purchased manufactured goods and items from China A. Discovery of Silver in the Americas made Spain powerful B. Mita system developed – forced labor in gold, silver, mercury mines. C. Spain used silver to pay long term debts D. Purchased manufactured goods and items from China and Far East and Far East SSiillvveerr mmiinnee iinn PPoottoossii
  18. 18. E. Spent money funding military, navy, and European wars. Mighty Spanish Armada was able to rule the seas and dominate trade. “The Spanish government used its ‘Super Profits’ - derived from control of silver “The Spanish government used its ‘Super Profits’ - derived from control of silver production - to launch a deadly, multi-front war against the emerging capitalistic states to the north (England and the Netherlands). The northern powers nearly went bankrupt defending themselves against Iberia’s religion-inspired military fanaticism.” production - to launch a deadly, multi-front war against the emerging capitalistic states to the north (England and the Netherlands). The northern powers nearly went bankrupt defending themselves against Iberia’s religion-inspired military fanaticism.” - Dennis O. Flynn - Dennis O. Flynn
  19. 19. Mining in Potosi A. Potosi is a major mining city in modern day Peru. B. In Potosí, Spanish administrators initially recruited laborers by adapting the Inca system of draft labor to their own needs. C. Workers often died of disease and overwork. Some Indians rebelled. A. Potosi is a major mining city in modern day Peru. B. In Potosí, Spanish administrators initially recruited laborers by adapting the Inca system of draft labor to their own needs. C. Workers often died of disease and overwork. Some Indians rebelled.
  20. 20. Silver Trade Impacts the World Where does most of the Silver seem to come from, and where does it end up?
  21. 21. Silver Trade Impacts the World A. The “Silverization” of China in 1430s A. The “Silverization” of China in 1430s led to the mass import of Silver world wide. China becomes “Silver Sink” led to the mass import of Silver world wide. China becomes “Silver Sink” B. Market Value of silver was twice as B. Market Value of silver was twice as high in China as in Spain. Europeans now have something to offer China for silks, porcelain and spices. high in China as in Spain. Europeans now have something to offer China for silks, porcelain and spices. C. High overvalued demand and low C. High overvalued demand and low costing supply resulted in biggest mining boom in human history. costing supply resulted in biggest mining boom in human history. D. Japan produced 30% of world’s silver. D. Japan produced 30% of world’s silver. Silver profits helped Tokugawa defeat rivals and consolidate power. Silver profits helped Tokugawa defeat rivals and consolidate power.
  22. 22. Spain’s Golden Century • The Hapsburgs were patrons of the arts. • Among the most famous painters of the period was El Greco. His most famous work was the Burial of the Count of Orgaz. Spain’s golden century also produced outstanding writers like Cervantes who wrote Don Quixote (1605), the first modern novel in Europe which makes fun of medieval tales of Chivalry. Spain’s golden century also produced outstanding writers like Cervantes who wrote Don Quixote (1605), the first modern novel in Europe which makes fun of medieval tales of Chivalry.
  23. 23. Impact of Silver on Spain Silver Production: Spanish America: 325 tons a year (Official) Silver Production: Spanish America: 325 tons a year (Official) 325-450 tons a year (Illegal) 325-450 tons a year (Illegal) Japanese: 200 tons a year Japanese: 200 tons a year • Less than 50% of silver remained in Spain • At no point did American treasure imports make up more than 25% of Spain’s national revenue • Less than 50% of silver remained in Spain • At no point did American treasure imports make up more than 25% of Spain’s national revenue With such large production numbers, what effect will this have on the value of silver around the world? With such large production numbers, what effect will this have on the value of silver around the world?
  24. 24. SSppaanniisshh DDeecclliinnee:: “The poverty of Spain resulted from the discovery of the Indies.” A. Too much Silver production led to inflation and loss of value. B.Bankers lent money to Spanish crown due to promise of future silver - despite the A. Too much Silver production led to inflation and loss of value. B.Bankers lent money to Spanish crown due to promise of future silver - despite the crown’s falling credit and value. crown’s falling credit and value. C.Spanish government occasionally went bankrupt D. Bought most manufactured goods. Never developed manufacturing of their own C.Spanish government occasionally went bankrupt D. Bought most manufactured goods. Never developed manufacturing of their own
  25. 25. In the 1600s, Spanish power slowly declined. Even though it ruled a huge colonial empire in the Americas, its strength slipped away. E. Spent money fighting wars with Northern capitalistic competitors. The British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. By the time the last surviving ships reached Spain, half of the original Armada was lost and some 15,000 men had perished. E. Spent money fighting wars with Northern capitalistic competitors. The British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. By the time the last surviving ships reached Spain, half of the original Armada was lost and some 15,000 men had perished.

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