Do Now: If Tsar Peter the Great is cutting off the beards of nobles to makethem look like Western Europeans, what other kinds of changes do you think he will bring to Russia? Tsar Peter the Great with a pair of shears, about to remove the beard of a conservative subject.
Aim: How did Peter the Great try to change the Russian Empire in the time period 1450-1750? Easter in Moscow in the 1600s. The Churches reflect Russianarchitectural traditions, but the wall design was created by Italian and English architects.
What is “Westernization”?• An attempt to incorporate the culture, attributes and especially the technology of the Western world (Western Europe). Consider: What do you think might keep Peter’s dream of a westernized Russia from happening?
RISE OF RUSSIA HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? OLD RUSSIAN METHODS WESTERNIZED METHODS POLITICAL Centralized Feudal gov’t – Prince ruled Centralized gov’t – led by Czar as with help of the Noble landlords aristocratic power declined, Enlightenment(Boyars.) Major decisions were made by ideals adopted (Enlightened Despots) the prince and confirmed by the Boyar Developed schools, literacy, science Duma. A bureaucracy (prikazy) Censored some western literature, upgraded developed – conducted everyday rule. military Secret police used for control. Military expansion used to gain loyalty, church- state unity
HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? SOCIAL Orthodox Religion dominated, Heroic Italian architects design buildings and palacesepics, music, festivals, onion shaped domes Royal Court spoke French, perform balletreligious art icon painting, written history, Advanced schools for elite, culture gap strong family ties, many relatives women develops between elite and commoners seen as inferior, strict role
HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? ECONOMIC Agricultural - primitive methods, local Developed trade network - manufacturedconsumption small merchant class, small goods, furs, timber, wheat, begin to use cities, no major technological changes natural resources Government regulations, Based on serfdom (Coercive labor) created Port city of St. Petersburg enforced feudal system (Window to the West)
Building A Glorious Empire in Russia Louis XIV’s Versailles Palace Peter The Great’s Winter PalaceWhat was Peter trying to tell the world by building a palace like this one? Answer as if you are Peter.
Peter the Great’s Westernization Reforms • Traveled secretly in Western Europe to learn the new __________ science and __________ techniques. military • Brought western European artisans and technicians back to Russia. • Built a modern Western European style __________________. army and navy • Imitated Western European artistic and _______________ styles architectural • Imported Western European – especially ________ - manners to French the royal court. • Made the nobles dress in Western European clothes and learn French and English.
St. PetersburgOne of Peters main goals was to regain access to the Baltic Sea and Baltic trade. In 1700One of Peters main goals was to regain access to the Baltic Sea and Baltic trade. In 1700 he started the Northern War with Sweden, which lasted for 21 years, and resulted in aa he started the Northern War with Sweden, which lasted for 21 years, and resulted invictorious Russia taking the vast lands on the Baltic coast as its spoils of war. During the victorious Russia taking the vast lands on the Baltic coast as its spoils of war. During the course of the war St. Petersburg was founded (1703) on the delta of the Neva River and course of the war St. Petersburg was founded (1703) on the delta of the Neva River and the city rapidly grew to become aamajor seaport, as Russia gained greater and greater the city rapidly grew to become major seaport, as Russia gained greater and greater access to European trade routes. access to European trade routes.
A Westernized Russia? Though photographed in the late 19th century, these woodchoppers look much like their ancestors during the time of Peter the Great. • How much impact do you think Peter’s Westernization program had on their lives? • How do you think they felt about their local noble dressing like a Westerner?
Based on thisgraphic, what effect do you think Peter’s reformswere having on the Russian civilization? Predict: Do you think Russia will be able to compete with Europe in spite of the cultural and economic split between the nobles and the peasants?
The Church of Our Savior on Spilled Blood 1905 and Today
Magnificent Great Palace at Petrodvorets, Peterhof (a placeoutside St Petersburg), the abundance of fountains, gold and greenery.
Catherine the Great Treatment of Social Classes•Freed nobles from state services and taxes •Freed nobles from state services and taxes•Increased serfdom •Increased serfdom•Made nobles status hereditary, gave them full control over their serfs ––could sell them •Made nobles status hereditary, gave them full control over their serfs could sell them•No merchant class •No merchant class So much for all that “liberty” So much for all that “liberty” talk! If we complain, we will be talk! If we complain, we will be whipped and imprisoned for life! whipped and imprisoned for life!
Catherine the Great Enlightened Despot•Friend of Voltaire and other philosophes •Friend of Voltaire and other philosophes•Patronized the arts, created Hermitage Museum •Patronized the arts, created Hermitage Museum•Increased education ––especially for girls •Increased education especially for girls•Created medical commission ––took first vaccine in Russia and improved medical conditions •Created medical commission took first vaccine in Russia and improved medical conditions•Encouraged modernization of agriculture and industry •Encouraged modernization of agriculture and industry•Relaxed censorship laws •Relaxed censorship laws Catherine believed that all citizens are Catherine believed that all citizens are equal and subject to the same laws! equal and subject to the same laws! Did you know that Catherine is actually Did you know that Catherine is actually aapen pal of Voltaire! pen pal of Voltaire!
The Pugachev Rebellion Reaction of Peasants Pugachevs Rebellion (or the Cossack Rebellion) of 1774-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in Russia after Catherine II seized power in 1762.Tsar Peter III It began as an organized insurrection ofCossacks headed by Emelyan Pugachev, a disaffected ex-lieutenant of the Russian Imperial army. After the initial success, Pugachev assumed leadership of analternative government and claimed to be the assassinated Tsar Peter III. Emelyan Pugachev
Catherine the Great Reaction of PeasantsSet up gov’t in Ukraine ––abolished serfdom, did away with Set up gov’t in Ukraine abolished serfdom, did away withtaxes, threw compulsory military service taxes, threw compulsory military serviceCatherine mobilized against him ––captured him and Catherine mobilized against him captured him andbrought to St.Petersburg in aacage and killed. brought to St.Petersburg in cage and killed. These villainous nobles must be These villainous nobles must be executed! Catherine cages me like she executed! Catherine cages me like she cages all the peasants of Russia! cages all the peasants of Russia! Pugachev’s "royal decrees" or ukases were copied and sent to villages. In these documents, he promised to Pugachev’s "royal decrees" or ukases were copied and sent to villages. In these documents, he promised to grant the people land, salt, and grain. He would lower taxes, stop military conscription and free the serfs. grant the people land, salt, and grain. He would lower taxes, stop military conscription and free the serfs.
Catherine the Great Expanded the EmpireAdded 200,000 square miles to empireAdded 200,000 square miles to empireWon Crimean Black Sea port from OttomansWon Crimean Black Sea port from OttomansPushed for colonization of Siberia ––Claimed Alaska Pushed for colonization of Siberia Claimed AlaskaPartitioned Poland with Prussia and Austria Partitioned Poland with Prussia and Austria We have finally annexed the We have finally annexed the Crimea and have a warm water Crimea and have a warm water port into the Mediterranean! port into the Mediterranean!
Coercive Labor: Western Europe vs. Eastern Europe Western Europe Eastern Europe Lack of labor Lack of labor Monarchs allow peasants to Tsar increases peasant obligations to hire out their labor the nobles Nobles have near total control of the serfsPeasants leave for towns and cities chartered by the monarch Tsars cannot control the noblesPeasants pay taxes to monarchs; monarchs now build standing Pugachev Rebellion ends with the help ofarmies, infrastructure and navies the noblesAllows kings to control the nobles Catherine squashes towns and cities Limits on the nobility allows No merchant class develops in Russia merchant class to develop Serfs remain property of nobles Expansion and trade Nobles can sell serfs apart from the land Plantations and slavery