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How did Renaissance ArtAnd Architecture Differ from theMedieval Period? Do Now: Study the picture above then answer the questions on your handout
1. Realism & Expressionr Expulsion from the Gardenh Masaccioh 1427h First nudes since classical times. Before SAINT DEMETRIUS OF SALONICA. High Middle Ages End of 14th century
Before Masaccio’s “Trinity” The first known painting to apply Brunelleschi’s system of linear perspective. Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence
2. Perspective The TrinityPerspective!Perspective! Masaccio Perspective! Perspective! 1427 Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear What you are, I once was;perspective! what I am, you will become.
Progression of the Use of Perspective1280’s 1380’s 1480’s
Perspective!Betrothal of the VirginRaphael 1504
6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Sfumato Leonardo da VinciChiaroscuro described sfumato as "without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane."
Famous works by Italian Renaissance ArtistsLeonardo RaphaelMichelangelo Donatello
The Renaissance “Man” “ Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. . Deep knowledge/skill in one area. k Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. d The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education. . Artist e Sculptor e Architect e Scientist e Engineer e Inventor1452 - 1519
Leonardo da Vinci, D The Virgin of the Rocks D Leonardo da Vinci D 1483-1486
Leonardo, the Artist:From his Notebook of over 5000 pages (1508-1519)
Leonardo Da Vinci Why is Mona Lisa so Fun Fact! Notice her lack of eyebrows! Women during this period would shave them off! It was considered fashionable to do so!Mona Lisa (La Giocande) Oil on wood panel
The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11 One point perspective. c All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts! i A great variety of poses. o Located in the papal apartments library. a Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel. e No Christian themes here.
The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11 Da Vinci Raphael Michelangelo
The School of Athens – Raphael, details Plato:looks to theheavens [or Aristotle: the IDEAL looks to this realm]. earth [the here and now]. Film Clip
Aspects of Italian Renaissance Art More secular thanthe religious Medievalperiod Focus onHumanism: Humanachievement and form Realistic: Emotion Linear Perspective: Distant objects smaller thanthose close to the viewer. Making scenes appear 3-Dimensional. Revival of classical themes
The Renaissance moves North!About 100 years after theRenaissance began it Italy,It moved north to Flanders(Northern Belgium). Took longer to recoverfrom the economic devastationbrought on by the black plague. 100 years war inFrance/England Remember me?
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art Contained great detail More landscape and nature paintings - usually darker and colder Oil painting on Canvas – allowed for vivid color Paintings are less secular. More religious questioning. More scenes of daily life.
Jan Van Eyck - Flanders The Wedding of Arnolfini Oil on canvas
Jan Van Eyck - Flanders Madonna Del Rolin Oil on wood
Medieval vs. Renaissance aRchitectuRe Gothic (Medieval) Renaissance•Gothic architecture was very large, •Revival of Arch and Dome“pointy” •Qualities of Greek and Roman•Flying buttresses supported large architecturewalls •Used columns for support•Stained glass told stories Intricate design
Renaissance Architecture vs. Medieval Architecture El Tempieto Notre Dame CathedralDonato Bramante
Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital(Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture Influcenced by archectiture of the classical period (Greece, Rome) Use of Domes, arches, and columns.
Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince• Machiavelli was from Florence (1469-1527)• Well educated in the classics• Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France• Written in Italian (not Latin)• Observations and commentary on political rule and power• Addressed the issue of effective rule – How to gain and maintain order and control – “…it is safer to be feared than to be loved…” – “The ends justify the means”• Stressed the practical (pragmatic) over the ethical or moral, more secular and humanistic• Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws
The Courtier by Castiglione• Written in Italian 1528• Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman• Stressed the value of education and manners• Influenced social mores and norms during the period
Erasmus - 1446-1536• Dutch• Biblical scholar and educator• Believed that the Bible was at the center of the Christian faith• Stressed Christian education and access to the scriptures (for everyone) – Believed that people should be able to read the scriptures for themselves• Highly critical of papal abuses and worldliness – The Praise of Folly
Sir Thomas More • Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England • Lawyer and scholar • Works reflect a commitment to the values and mandates of Scripture and the Church • Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society • Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy
William Shakespeare 1564-1616• English playwright – English vernacular• Many of his major works are a expression of Renaissance values of honor, heroism, and the struggle against “fate” and fortune• His view of man’s capacity for evil and self- destruction contrasted with the Renaissance humanistic ideal of humanity
The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emergingThe medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular andhumanistic) view of the world and humanity
How did the Renaissance change thought? Before AfterFocus on Afterlife Focus on this lifeThe Individual not important The Individual is importantLittle focus on learning and Focus on learning thethe arts “Classics” (The Iliad, Aristotle) to inspire learning and the arts“Dark” Ages “Rebirth”Age of “Faith” Age of Reason