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Regents review part ii


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Review of Content from 1930-Present

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Regents review part ii

  1. 1. Global History 10 Content Review Part II
  2. 2. Rise of Totalitarianism •Stalin, Ataturk, Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, and Franco
  3. 3. Modernizing Turkey & Iran • Mustafa Kemal [Ataturk] declared the Republic of Turkey; he passed laws which westernized his state (secularization, laws against veils, Latin script, ended Shariah). • Shah Reza Khan Pahlavi also westernized Iran and pursued modernization of infrastructure, civil rights, health and education.
  4. 4. Fascist Italy • Post-war Italy supported the Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini. • The March on Rome led to Fascist takeover of Italy. • Black Shirts [squadristi]. • Normalized relations with the Pope [Lateran Pacts]. • Italian nationalism [Mare Nostro, Italia Irredenta]; opposed democracy and communism.
  5. 5. Japanese Expansion • Due to the need for industrial resources and markets, Emperor Hirohito and Tojo, launched an era of military expansion. • Annexation of Korea in 1910 • Later referred to as the Rising Sun, secured resources. • Became allied with Hitler and Mussolini. Axis Alliance
  6. 6. Stalinist Rule • Joseph Stalin rose to power after isolating Trotsky [executed] in the Party. • Pursued Five Year Plans [collectivization]; led to the Terror Famine [kulaks]. • Eliminated enemies in the Great Purge (1936-39). • Used the NKVD [secret police] and gulag prisons. • Sponsored Socialist Realism in the arts and atheism.
  7. 7. Nazi Germany • Weimar Republic was plagued by instability and hyperinflation. • Adolf Hitler and his Nazis tried to take power in Beerhall Putsch. • Wrote Mein Kampf [anti- Semitism, Aryan Master Race theories]. • Became chancellor and ended democracy (1933) • Pursued militaristic and nationalistic agendas.
  8. 8. World War II (1939-45) • M.A.N.I.A. and the Invasion of Poland (by Non-Aggression Pact). • Munich Conference - Appeasement • Blitzkrieg tactics • Big Three: US [FDR], USSR [Stalin] and Britain [Churchill]. • Pearl Harbor invasion. • Turning points: Miracle at Dunkirk, Stalingrad, Midway, D-Day
  9. 9. End of the War: Europe • Allied Invasion of Italy (Mussolini overthrown) • D-Day Invasion and the Liberation of France. • Battle of the Bulge • Fall of Berlin [Suicide of Adolf Hitler] - known as V.E. Day. • Yalta and Potsdam Conferences – plans for the future of Europe.
  10. 10. End of the War: Pacific • US forces pursued “island hopping” strategy to Japan (reached Okinawa and Iwo Jima). • Allies liberated Philippines, Indochina and China. • Dropped atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. • Japan surrendered to Allies – V.J. Day
  11. 11. The Holocaust • Nazis pursued the extermination of the Jews (Final Solution). • Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) • Passed Nuremburg Laws to deprive Jews of all human rights. • Extermination and labor camps (planned at Wannsee Conference). • Nuremburg Trials
  12. 12. Indian Nationalism • The Indian National Congress followed Mahatma Gandhi in his pursuit of non- violent resistance [ahimsa] of British rule [Amritsar Massacre]. • Famous Salt March to the sea [self-reliance; boycott of British goods] was a success.
  13. 13. South Asia: India • Jawaharlal Nehru pursued socialist policies; non- alignment; banned caste system; fought two wars over Kashmir. • Indira Gandhi [emergency rule; nuclear bomb; war over Bangladesh; attack on Sikh Golden Temple] and son Rajiv Gandhi were both assassinated. • World’s largest democracy
  14. 14. South Asia: Pakistan • Founded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah [Muslim League]; two territories - E. Pakistan became Bangladesh. • Election of Benazir Bhutto [assassinated]. • Dictators ruled until 2011 [Pervez Musharraf]. • Nuclear weapons power.
  15. 15. Chinese Nationalism • Manchu [Qing] dynasty was overthrown by Dr. Sun Yixian [declared the Republic of China, 1911]. • Pursued Three Principles: Nationalism, Democracy, Livelihood. • Founded the Guomindang [Nationalist] Party and even worked with Communists.
  16. 16. Chinese Civil War • After Dr. Sun’s death, Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kaishek] led the Guomindang. • Cleared China of warlords with Communist aid. • Turned on Communists [Shanghai Massacre] and pursued them into the mountains [Long March]. • Japanese invasion of China [Rape of Nanjing] caused both sides to stop fighting.
  17. 17. Communist China (1949) • Jiang Jieshi’s exhausted Nationalist forces were easily defeated by the Chinese Communists of Mao Zedong (1949). • Jiang’s government fled to the island of Taiwan – still called itself Republic of China. • Mao’s People’s Republic of China was declared.
  18. 18. Mao’s Policies • Great Leap Forward [collective farms] and five year plans led to millions of deaths – Mao withdrew from public. • Cultural Revolution – Mao purged his rivals [pragmatists] with the Red Guards. • “Little Red Book”
  19. 19. Pan-Africanism • Developed in ideas of Marcus Garvey and Leopold Senghor [negritude] • Belief in the unity of the African peoples. • Response to European imperialism and the rise of nationalism in Africa.
  20. 20. African Independence • Ghana – Kwame Nkrumah used general strikes for independence. • Kenya – Jomo Kenyatta and the Mau Mau uprising [terrorism]. • Nigeria – Ibo declared Republic of Biafra [led to death of millions] • Congo – democracy overthrown by rebel groups; Mobutu Sese Seko became dictator.
  21. 21. Origins of the Cold War • Stalin’s need for a buffer zone in Eastern Europe led to rise of the Iron Curtain. • Division of Berlin and Two Germanys • Berlin Blockade and Airlift • Greek Civil War • U.S. Containment policy: Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. • NATO and Warsaw Pact
  22. 22. The Arms Race • Development of atomic bombs: US (1945) and USSR (1949). • Hydrogen bombs: US (1952), USSR (1953). • ICBMs: USSR - Sputnik (1957), US (1959). • MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction) led to détente and arms talks. • SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979) reduced arsenal and technology.
  23. 23. Post-Stalin USSR • Nikita Khrushchev – de-Stalinization (1955); “Thaw;” Hungarian Uprising (1956); Sino- Soviet split; ousted by the Party (1964). • Leonid Brezhnev – dissidents; stagnation; Prague Spring (1968); Invasion of Afghanistan (1979).
  24. 24. Western Europe • W. Germany – “Economic Miracle” [Konrad Adenauer]. • Rise of the Welfare State – Britain, France, W. Germany. • European Unity: European Community (1957) expands into European Union (1993). • Margaret Thatcher – limits on the welfare state; privatized industries. • France – Withdrew from NATO.
  25. 25. Cold War in Asia • Korean War – UN Army pushes back N. Koreans; Two Koreas established. • First Indochina War [Ho Chi Minh defeats French] – Two Vietnams (No/So). • Vietnam War [2nd Indochina] – US involvement fails; North and Vietcong defeat South. • Conflict expands to Laos and Cambodia [Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot] • Cambodian “Killing Fields”
  26. 26. Communist Cuba • Cuban Communists led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara overthrew US- backed dictator Battista. • Bay of Pigs Invasion – Failed US attempt to oust Castro. • Cuban Missile Crisis – US- Soviet tension over missiles in Cuba; ends with missile withdrawals on both sides. • US imposes trade embargo
  27. 27. Southeast Asia • Indonesia –Sukarno led nation to independence; Suharto ordered killing of 500,000 and overthrew him. • Philippines – Dictator Marcos overthrown by “People Power” uprising led by Corazon Aquino. • Myanmar – military rulers put democratically elected Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest for 20 yrs; Nobel Peace prize winner.
  28. 28. End of the Cold War • Mikhail Gorbachev – glasnost, perestroika; non-interference. • Eastern European Revolts (1989): end of Warsaw Pact. • Reunification of Germany • August Coup of 1991: Hardliners fail to stop pro- democracy forces led by Boris Yeltsin. • Fall of the USSR: 15 new states, including the Russian Republic.
  29. 29. Post-Cold War Flashpoints • Chechnya – Russian region pursuing violent path to independence [terrorism]; crushed by Vladimir Putin. • Collapse of Yugoslavia – led to violence in Bosnia [Muslims, Serbs and Croats fight]; Dayton Peace Accords ended civil war; Kosovo. • Rwanda and Burundi – ethnic strife between Hutus and Tutsis leads to massacre of 800,000.
  30. 30. Mexican Revolution • Fueled by nationalism but was caused by oppressive Mexican leadership [dictator Porfirio Diaz]. • While democracy was gained, civil war led to millions of deaths. • Influenced the rise of the PRI [until 2000].
  31. 31. Latin American Dictators • Argentina – Juan Peron [with wife Evita] enjoyed popular support but was ousted by military; Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo – silent protest for missing relatives; dictatorship until 1983 [after defeat in Falklands War]. • Chile – Socialist Pres. Salvador Allende overthrown by dictator Augusto Pinochet. • OAS [Organization of American States] formed to promote democracy in the region.
  32. 32. Latin American Conflicts • Nicaragua – ruled by the Marxist Sandinista regime; challenged by US backed Contras; ended with elections (1990). • El Salvador – attacked by death squads [death of Archbishop Romero – liberation theology]; UN peace deal ended civil war (1991). • Guatemala – military regime targeted indigenous peoples [slaughtered thousands]; peace with rebels led to stability (1993).
  33. 33. Apartheid • Afrikaners passed apartheid, townships, homelands. • ANC [African National Congress] led by Nelson Mandela – jailed for treason. • Soweto Uprising; Sharpeville Massacre; Bishop Desmond Tutu spoke against gov’t. • Sanctions, divestment • FW deKlerk repealed laws; released Mandela. • Mandela became president.
  34. 34. Deng’s China • Deng Xiaoping arrested Gang of Four [Madame Mao] and ruled as premier after Mao. • Introduced policy of the Four Modernizations [economic reforms] and gradually brought capitalism. • Tiananmen Square Massacre - pro-democracy protests crushed in Beijing [Goddess of Democracy statue] • Return of Hong Kong from Britain (1997).
  35. 35. Pan-Arabism • The rise of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt led to focus on Pan-Arabism. • Believed in the unity of the Arab peoples across the Middle East (e.g. Arab League). • Pursued this in his UAR [United Arab Republic] with Syria (1959-61). • Declined in recent times.
  36. 36. Palestine: Two Nationalisms • Zionists [Theodore Herzl] were encouraged by the Balfour Declaration and settled in Palestine [rise of Jewish kibbutzim]. • Pan-Arabism and British promises of liberation [during World War I] made Arabs optimistic of establishing rule over their Arabic homelands. • British unable to control Palestine after World War II
  37. 37. Partitions in Asia • Partition of India into two states (India and E. and W. Pakistan) on religious lines. • Led to three Indo-Pakistani Wars over Kashmir and separation of East Pakistan [Bangladesh]. • Partition of Palestine into two states (Israel and Arab state) accepted only by Jews. • Led to four Arab-Israeli Wars.
  38. 38. Arab-Israeli Conflict • 1948: Israeli War of Independence [David Ben-Gurion]- victory over four Arab states • 1956: Suez Canal Crisis [Nasser nationalizes canal zone but loses war] • 1967: Six Day War [Golda Meir] – massive win for Israel • 1973: Yom Kippur War – slim victory for Israel [Anwar Sadat gains some prestige].
  39. 39. Middle Eastern Turmoil • Lebanese Civil War: Muslims v. Christians in Beirut (1975) • PLO [Palestine Liberation Organization] of Yasser Arafat used terrorism against Israelis. • Muammar Qaddafi of Libya had ties with terrorist groups. • Kurdish rebels fight Turks. • OPEC puts embargo on Western nations [leads to worldwide recession].
  40. 40. Islamic Fundamentalism • Iranian Revolution (1979) brought the Ayatollah Khomeini to power. • Created theocratic state ruled by Shariah law [based on the Quran] and the clergy; attacked West. • US Hostage Crisis. • Shi’ite leaders clashed with Sunni leaders: Iran- Iraq War (1980-88).
  41. 41. Irish Independence • Catholic Ireland was occupied by English Protestants (16th Cent.); nationalism grew with consequences of the Potato Famine and the struggle for Home Rule. • After Easter Uprising (1916), Ireland [except six counties] received independence (1922); IRA and paramilitary groups formed. • Good Friday Accord (1995) reduced the tensions in Northern Ireland.