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Ming and Qing China

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Ming and Qing China

  1. 1. Absolutism Centralized government, bureaucracy, divine right EX: Hongwu, Tokugawa, Sultans, Mughal (Akbar), King Louis XIV, Osei Tutu (Asantehene) Rise of Europe Portugal and Spain led the way Northern Europe looks outward Search for new trade routes Gold, God, Glory Colonization of Latin America Protestant Reformation/Counter Reformation Coercive Labor Slavery Serfdom The Big Picture 1450-1750 Consumerism Mita System Sugar, Silver, Slaves Global Trade Truly global – Americas Columbian Exchange Indian, Atlantic, Pacific Oceans Atlantic Slave Trade Mercantilism Cultural and Intellectual Developments Renaissance Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Humanism Exploration Neo-Confucianism Sailing technology Printing press Gunpowder developments Mining
  2. 2. Chinese Timeline Do Now: Create a timeline on your handout of major events in Chinese history 1. Kublai Khan, a Mongol, establishes the Yuan dynasty (1271 AD) 2. Shang dynasty established – oracle bones used (1766 BC) 3. Han Dynasty adopts Confucianism (206 BC) 4. China Experiences a Golden Age – Song Dynasty (907 AD) 5. China develops a feudal system during the Zhou dynasty (1122 BC) 6. The Qin dynasty adopts Legalism (221 BC) 7. The Ming dynasty restores Chinese rule in China (1368 AD) 8. Han Dynasty collapses (220 AD) 9. Tang Dynasty unites China (618 AD)
  3. 3. RReeccoovveerryy aanndd RReeppaaiirr TThhee N Neeww M Miningg D Dyynnaassttyy l oloookkeedd t too i titss p paasstt t too e ennhhaannccee i titss f fuuttuurree!! • Focus on strong Centralized Government – Recovered Order • Focus on strong Centralized Government – Recovered Order • Reintroduced Confucian Bureaucracy, Civil Service Exam • Erased all signs of Mongol rule • Abolished Chief Minister position – Emperor had Absolute Power! • Reintroduced Confucian Bureaucracy, Civil Service Exam • Erased all signs of Mongol rule • Abolished Chief Minister position – Emperor had Absolute Power! Reading: What reforms did Hongwu make to root out Reading: What reforms did Hongwu make to root out corruption? corruption? Zhu Yuanzhang Zhu Yuanzhang
  4. 4. Major Events in Chinese History Timeline 0 1766 BC Shang Dynasty established 1122 BC Feudalism under Zhou 221 BC Qin Dynasty adopts Legalism 206 BC Han Dynasty Adopts Confucianism 907 Song Dynasty Golden Age 1368 Ming Dynasty Restores Chinese Rule 1271 Mongols Establish Yuan Dynasty 220 AD Han Dynasty collapses 618 AD Tang Dynasty unites China
  5. 5. MMiinngg DDyynnaassttyy CChhiinnaa 1368-1644 PPeerrioiodd 4 4: :1 1445500-1-1775500 •• R Reeccoovveeryry a anndd R Reeppaairir •• R Reebbuuilidldiningg o of fa a D Dyynnaasstyty • Emperor Hongwu looked to past Confucianism to bring order • Emperor Yongle rebuilt Great Wall and Grand Canal to • •R Reeccoonnnnaaisisssaannccee f ofor ra ann E Emmppiriere continue power of the dynasty • Zheng He went on 7 voyages to gain respect and tribute for Ming China MMaajojorr C Chhaannggeess •Focus on sea-based Indian Ocean trade rather than land-based Silk Road •Creation of northern capital (Beijing) and Forbidden City •Building of massive naval fleet and arrival of European merchants •Arrival of Christianity by Jesuit missionaries CCoonntitninuuitiiteiess •Use of Confucianism and mandate of heaven, collection of tribute •Threats from nomads in the north •Role of Women as inferior (Confucianism) •Merchants having low status – land ownership = status •Global need for Chinese goods (Silk, porcelain, tea, sugar, etc)
  6. 6. MMiinngg DDyynnaassttyy CChhiinnaa 1368-1644 • •R Reeccoovveeryry a anndd R Reeppaairir • •R Reebbuuilidldiningg o of fa a D Dyynnaasstyty • •R Reeccoonnnnaaisisssaannccee f ofor ra ann E Emmppiriere Period 4: 1450-1750 Period 4: 1450-1750 TThhee RReeeemmeerrggeennccee ooff aann EEmmppiirree
  7. 7. EEnndd ooff tthhee YYuuaann DDyynnaassttyy • Black Death Plague devastated China – 1340s • Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty suffered defeats in Japan, Vietnam and Java. • Kublai Khan’s successors were weak. • Corruption, high taxes on peasants, forced labor, piracy and crime increased. • Many groups emerged to challenge Mongol rule. • Black Death Plague devastated China – 1340s • Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty suffered defeats in Japan, Vietnam and Java. • Kublai Khan’s successors were weak. • Corruption, high taxes on peasants, forced labor, piracy and crime increased. • Many groups emerged to challenge Mongol rule. KKuubblalai iK Khhaann China had a total population of more than 120 million, but a 1393 census found only 65 million Chinese surviving. Some of that missing population was killed by famine and upheaval in the transition from Yuan to Ming rule, China had a total population of more than 120 million, but a 1393 census found only 65 million Chinese surviving. Some of that missing population was killed by famine and upheaval in the transition from Yuan to Ming rule, but many millions died of bubonic plague. but many millions died of bubonic plague.
  8. 8. RReeccoovveerryy aanndd RReeppaaiirr •Re-established Confucian Patriarchal social structure – Neo-Confucianism •Re-established Confucian Patriarchal social structure – Neo-Confucianism • Established Confucian schools and • Established Confucian schools and exams exams to to select select officials officials • • Block Block printing printing led led to to wider wider production production of of printed printed materials materials – – Novels Novels RReeddisisccoovveerreedd t htheeirir I dIdeenntittiyty!! • Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduced • Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduced European technology and beliefs. European technology and beliefs. RReeaaddiningg: : D Deessccrribibee t hthee v vaarrioiouuss r rooleless o of fw woommeenn i nin M Miningg s sooccieietyty. .
  9. 9. RReeccoovveerryy aanndd RReeppaaiirr • Focus on agricultural foundation – Recovery of Population • Focus on agricultural foundation – Recovery of Population • Efficient tax collection. Hongwu ordered surveys and censuses to collect data • Active traders in the Indian Ocean – ports of • Efficient tax collection. Hongwu ordered surveys and censuses to collect data • Active traders in the Indian Ocean – ports of Hangzhou, Guangzhou Hangzhou, Guangzhou • Major products were silk, cotton, fine porcelain • Traded for silver with Europe and Japan • Major products were silk, cotton, fine porcelain • Traded for silver with Europe and Japan • Stressed internal trade Economic Recovery • Stressed internal trade Economic Recovery • Repaired canals, reservoirs and irrigation system, planted trees – Repaired Infrastructure • Repaired canals, reservoirs and irrigation system, planted trees – Repaired Infrastructure RReeccoovveerreedd s seennssee o of fs statabbiliiltiyty!!
  10. 10. RReebbuuiillddiinngg ooff DDyynnaassttyy PPrrootteeccttiioonn ooff tthhee DDyynnaassttyy • RReebbuuiilltt && aaddddeedd ttoo GGrreeaatt WWaallll • RReeppaaiirreedd tthhee GGrraanndd CCaannaall PPrrootteeccttiioonn ooff tthhee DDyynnaassttyy • RReebbuuiilltt && aaddddeedd ttoo GGrreeaatt WWaallll • RReeppaaiirreedd tthhee GGrraanndd CCaannaall • WWrroottee ““YYoonnggllee EEnnccyyccllooppeeddiiaa”” aa CCoonnffuucciiaann mmaannuussccrriipptt • WWrroottee ““YYoonnggllee EEnnccyyccllooppeeddiiaa”” aa CCoonnffuucciiaann mmaannuussccrriipptt EEmmppeerroorr Y Yoonngglele
  11. 11. RReebbuuiillddiinngg ooff DDyynnaassttyy • Established a new capital city, Beijing, and built magnificent Imperial residence known as • Established a new capital city, Beijing, and built magnificent Imperial residence known as the Forbidden City the Forbidden City • Government regulation of trade – production of • Government regulation of trade – production of porcelain porcelain
  12. 12. RReeccoonnnnaaiissssaannccee aanndd BBuuiillddiinngg ooff aann EEmmppiirree • Explore trade opportunities in “Western Ocean” • Diplomacy – Opened relations with 200 new societies • Demonstrate strength, Power, Tribute System: – Collect tribute, gifts – Rituals of submission Admiral Zheng He • 1405 - Emperor Yongle commissioned the building of an enormous fleet for aggressive maritime expeditions. • Led by Zheng He, a Muslim Eunuch PPuurrppoossee
  13. 13. Reconnaissance and Reconnaissance and BBuuiillddiinngg ooff aann EEmmppiirree ZZhheenngg HHee aanndd tthhee TTrreeaassuurree FFlleeeett
  14. 14. ZZhheenngg HHee aanndd tthhee TTrreeaassuurree FFlleeeett The flagship of the fleet was a nine-masted vessel measuring 440 feet, carrying The flagship of the fleet was a nine-masted vessel measuring 440 feet, carrying 1,000 men. In comparison, Columbus’ St. Maria was eighty-five feet. 1,000 men. In comparison, Columbus’ St. Maria was eighty-five feet.
  15. 15. RReeccoonnnnaaiissssaannccee aanndd BBuuiillddiinngg ooff aann EEmmppiirree Strait of Malacca Land travel not reliable Land travel not reliable aaftfeter rf afalll lo of fM Moonnggoolsls .Calicut Tap into Indian Ocean Basin Trade
  16. 16. End tthhee TTrreeaassuurree FFlleeeett VVooyyaaggeess?? Close: Explain how the decision to destroy the Treasure Fleet was a major turning point in history! I. Politics – Arguments for ending voyages A. Scholar-Gentry saw exploration as a _____________ Eunuch project B. Exploration was just one man’s interest (Emperor Yongle) not the push of an entire civilization. Costly C. Trips were extremely ____________________. Self-Sufficient D. Some Chinese believed China was already _______________ and there was no need for exploration. E. Suspicious of outside trade – could cause instability and undermine authority – creates problems, not opportunity. F. Scholar-Gentry thought money and focus should be on protecting the northern border from _M__o_n__g_o_l_ invasions.
  17. 17. End tthhee TTrreeaassuurree FFlleeeett VVooyyaaggeess?? II. Culture – Arguments for ending voyages A. Scholar-Gentry believed ________ land was primary form of wealth B. Farming was more noble than trading. Family Shrine 1. Merchants could not keep up a ________________ 2. Merchants could not perform religious rituals for ancestors overseas 3. Merchants live off other people’s hard work – parasites C. Scholars thought that inferiors should seek superiors D. Neoconfucianism did not have _______________ impulse of Christianity or Islam. Missionary
  18. 18. E. Role of Women – did not want women in market place 1. Strict role for women as homemakers 2. Practiced ______________ Footbinding on elite women
  19. 19. Fall ooff tthhee MMiinngg aanndd RRiissee ooff tthhee QQiinngg PPeerrioiodd 4 4: :1 1445500-1-1775500 1644-1911 After Zheng He died, the Treasure Fleets were dismantled and banned from being used. Government sponsored voyages ceased and all official records of Zheng He’s travels were destroyed! The Ming Dynasty discontinued the Treasure Ship voyages mainly due to their Confucian ideals. However, despite the short term financial and military benefits, China’s absence in world trade would allow Western Europe to dominate the region in the long term.
  20. 20. Fall ooff tthhee MMiinngg aanndd RRiissee ooff tthhee QQiinngg PPeerrioiodd 4 4: :1 1445500-1-1775500 1644-1911 After Zheng He died, the Treasure Fleets were dismantled and banned from being used. Government sponsored voyages ceased and all official records of Zheng He’s travels were destroyed! Why do you think the Chinese isolated themselves and discontinued the Treasure Fleet voyages? Beginning of Ming Isolation • Ming heavily restricted foreign trade and travel • Foreign merchants allowed to trade only at few ports, during certain times • Sought to preserve Chinese traditions • Policies impossible to enforce; smugglers carried out brisk trade with foreign merchants
  21. 21. RRiissee ooff tthhee QQiinngg 1644-1911 Defense Defense efforts efforts costly, costly, Led Led to high taxes to high taxes Weak Rulers led to increased corruption Weak Rulers led to increased corruption Famines, hardships led to Peasant Revolts Famines, hardships led to Peasant Revolts Qing hired Manchu warriors to put down peasant revolts Qing hired Manchu warriors to put down peasant revolts By 1644, the Manchu swept into Beijing and claimed the Mandate of By 1644, the Manchu swept into Beijing and claimed the Mandate of Heaven – Qing Dynasty! Heaven – Qing Dynasty!
  22. 22. DDooccuummeenntt IInntteerrpprreettaattiioonn DDoorrggoonn’s’s D Deeccrreeee t oto t hthee P Peeoopplele o of fP Peekkiningg ( B(Beeijiijningg)) 1644 Top Source: The fall of the Imperial China. 1644 Top Source: The fall of the Imperial China. New York: The Free Press. 1975: 81. New York: The Free Press. 1975: 81. “We now occupy [the empire]. On behalf of your dynasty we took revenge upon the enemies of your ruler-father. We burned our bridges behind us, and we have pledged not to return until every bandit is destroyed. In the counties, districts, and locales that we pass through, all those who are able to shave their heads and surrender, opening their gates to welcome us, will be given rank and reward, retaining their wealth and honor for generations. But if there are those who disobediently resist us when our great armies arrive, then the stones themselves will be set ablaze and all will be massacred”. How will Dorgon and the Manchus rule China? Which words from the document support your How will Dorgon and the Manchus rule China? Which words from the document support your findings? findings?
  23. 23. TThhee QQiinngg DDyynnaassttyy As foreign invaders, the Manchus faced years of resistance from Chinese subjects still loyal to the Ming! • Qing bureaucracy and court ceremonies similar to Ming • Continued Confucian rituals and allowed Ming officials to keep their positions QQiningg G Goovveerrnnmmeenntt • Continued civil service exams and were generous patrons to the arts • Lowered taxes and state labor demands. • Repaired infrastructure – roads, bridges, dikes, canals, irrigation works
  24. 24. •Expansion was seen as a defensive necessity against nomadic invaders •Signed Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) •Expansion was seen as a defensive necessity against nomadic invaders •Signed Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) that marked Chinese-Russian that marked Chinese-Russian border border •Expanded the Empire to include Tibet, Mongolia, Taiwan and •Expanded the Empire to include Tibet, Mongolia, Taiwan and Manchuria Manchuria •Controlled Korea and Vietnam as •Controlled Korea and Vietnam as Vassal tributary states. Vassal tributary states. A Chinese Empire?
  25. 25. TThhee QQiinngg DDyynnaassttyy “Lose your hair, or lose your head!” Qing Society • Manchus made up less than 2% of the population – Manchus prohibited from marrying Chinese • Men had to wear hair in traditional Manchu style called a queue – form of submission • Women remained confined to the household – footbinding and female infanticide was common
  26. 26. The Reign of Emperor Kangxi 11666611-1-1772222 • Created encyclopedia and a dictionary of history and thought • Wanted to be benevolent Confucian ruler – lowered taxes, expanded empire • Tolerant of Christians and interested in foreign ideas and technology • Strong and effective 61 year reign kept tensions low • Kangxi was a significant Confucian scholar • Patronized arts, opened Confucian schools and a national library Could compare to Kublai Khan, Emperor Hongwu, and King Louis XIV Could compare to Kublai Khan, Emperor Hongwu, and King Louis XIV
  27. 27. Ethnocentrism and IIssoollaattiioonn lleeaaddss ttoo ddeecclliinnee PPoortr tc citiyty o of fM Maaccaaoo 1724 – Emperor banned Christianity when the Pope condemned Confucianism • By 1750, Qing Dynasty was declining– corruption, crime and banditry – rising population • Emperor Qianlong continued Ming policy of isolation, restricting foreign trade – some merchants, compradors, became wealthy and influential • Manchu saw Chinese civilization, products, as superior, expected foreigners to trade on China’s terms
  28. 28. TThhee QQiinngg DDyynnaassttyy • Brought Stability to China – peace and prosperity • Expanded borders and dominated region Portrait of a scene from Famous Qing novel, The Dream of the Red Chamber, mid 1700s Portrait of a scene from Famous Qing novel, The Dream of the Red Chamber, mid 1700s • Great rule of Kangxi led to golden age • Continued policy of isolation and strict economic regulation

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