India And The Indian Ocean Basin


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India And The Indian Ocean Basin

  1. 1. India and the Indian Ocean Basin
  2. 2. The Quest for Centralized Imperial Rule <ul><ul><li>a. Fall of Gupta in the 400s led to period of _________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Tension existed between regional kingdoms and nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Harsha (606-648) restored unified rule in North India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Used military to rule much of the central and eastern Gangetic Plain. </li></ul><ul><li>* Developed a time of peace and prosperity, Restoration of _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>* Built roads, hospitals, temples and Buddhist monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>* Patron of the arts – wrote three Sanskrit plays </li></ul><ul><li>* _______________________ of other religions </li></ul>Decentralization Gupta Age Tolerance Harsha was a gifted warrior - administrator, a sensitive poet and playwright, and became one of India's most celebrated heroes. In 641 Harsha sent an envoy to the Chinese emperor and established the first diplomatic relations between India and China. Does Harsha’s Kingdom compare more to Charlemagne’s rule or to the Renaissance? Why?
  3. 3. Introduction of Islam to Northern India <ul><ul><li>a. The Sind were conquered by Arab Muslims and passed to the Abbasids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Muslim merchants formed small communities in all major cities of coastal India – diffusion of Indian ideas such as numerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Turks convert to Islam and moved to Afghanistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Mahmud of Ghazni controlled Afghanistan and mounted raiding expeditions into Northern India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Destroyed ________________ and __________________ sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Plundered and raided wealth of Indian cities </li></ul></ul>Hindu Buddhist How did Mahmud’s actions in India impact the spread of Islam? When Mahmud ascended the throne in 998 at the age of 27, he already showed remarkable administrative ability and statesmanship. At the time of his accession, Ghazna was a small kingdom. The young and ambitious Mahmud aspired to be a great monarch, and in more than 20 successful expeditions he amassed the wealth with which to lay the foundation of a vast empire that eventually included Kashmir, the Punjab, and a great part of Iran.
  4. 4. The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526) <ul><ul><li>Mahmud’s successors conquered north India, 1206 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established an Islamic state known as the ______________________ of Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority of the sultan did not extend far beyond the capital at Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> * No permanent bureaucracy or administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> * Depended on the goodwill of ___________ kings to carry out policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> * Sponsored Islam and helped to secure a place for their faith in India </li></ul></ul>Sultanate Hindu
  5. 5. The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526) Film Clip Qutb Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret. Construction commenced in 1193 under the orders of India's first Muslim ruler Qutb-ud-din Aibak, and the topmost storey of the minaret was completed in 1386 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The Qutb Minar is notable for being one of the earliest and most prominent examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.
  6. 6. Patterns of Conversion <ul><ul><li>a. Limited forced conversion: _____________ Mystics and traders carried Islam to new areas of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Most converts were ___________________ who saw some similarities in religious practices of the Sufis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Some converts were low caste Hindus – drawn to promise of social _________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Most Hindus did NOT convert – saw Muslims as foreign out-castes </li></ul></ul></ul>Sufi Buddhist equality
  7. 7. Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India <ul><ul><li>The south was politically divided but relatively peaceful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chola Kingdom (850-1267) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Kingdom that controlled Coromandel coast, Ceylon, and parts of S.E.Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________ dominated waters from South China Sea to Arabian Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not have a tight ________________ government but local autonomy was strong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raja Raja the Great. He ruled from 985-1014 AD – expanded the empire, minted coins for trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began to decline by the 12 th century </li></ul></ul></ul>Navy centralized Film Clip The Chola kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth. The temples acted not only as places of worship but also as centers of economic activity, benefiting their entire community.
  8. 8. Chola Kingdom and Empire
  9. 9. Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India <ul><li>Kingdom of Vijayanagar (1336-1565) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by two Indian brothers – Harihara and Bukka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They renounced _________ in 1336 and returned to their Hindu faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated the whole southern end of India and as far north as the Krishna River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital city of Vijayanagar (City of Victory) – had more than half a million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligarchic Rulers – great wealth from precious stones - __________ of arts and built temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overran by __________ invaders </li></ul></ul>Islam Patrons Muslim Film Clip Vittala Temple – The main pavilion consists of 56 pillars elaborately carved and when struck, emit different musical notes.
  10. 10. Kingdom of Vijayanagar Virupaksha Temple is the main center of pilgrimage at Hampi and has been considered the most sacred over the centuries. It is fully intact among the surrounding ruins and is still used in worship. The temple is dedicated to Shiva.
  11. 11. Kingdom of Vijayanagar