Belgian Congo and British in South Africa


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  • In 1879, Stanley was off again to Africa, this time under commission from King Leopold to colonise Congo for him. Stanley used the gun, cheap European goods and plain-faced deceit to win over 450 local chiefs and their people and take over their land.
  • As more villages resisted the rubber order, Leopold's agents ordered the Force Publique army to raid the rebellious villages and kill the people. To make sure that the soldiers did not waste the bullets in hunting animals, their officers demanded to see the amputated right hand of every person they killed. As Hochschild puts it, "the standard proof was the right hand from a corpse. Or occasionally not from a corpse. 'Sometimes', said one officer to a missionary, 'soldiers shot a cartridge at an animal in hunting; they then cut off a hand from a living man'. In some military units, there was even a 'keeper of the hands', his job was the smoking [of them]."
  • Belgian Congo and British in South Africa

    1. 1. New Imperialism in Africa Two Case Studies:
    2. 2. Berlin Conference “We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod. We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers and lakes were.” - British Politician 1. What was the name of this meeting where they gave away mountains and rivers? 2. What land are the Europeans dividing? 3. Why did the Europeans divide this land among themselves? 1. What was the name of this meeting where they gave away mountains and rivers? 2. What land are the Europeans dividing? 3. Why did the Europeans divide this land among themselves?
    3. 3. The Congo Sparks Interest “I do not want to miss a good chance of getting a slice of this magnificent African cake.” “I do not want to miss a good chance of getting a slice of this magnificent African cake.” ________________of Belgium commissioned the explorer Henry Stanley to secure agreements from the tribes who inhabited the Congo Basin in Africa. Stanley did so through a combination of promises, threats and trickery. King Leopold II
    4. 4. The Congo Sparks Interest In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land. The United States was the first nation to recognize the Belgian Congo. The Congo Sparks Interest
    5. 5. The Ivory Industry
    6. 6. Two Inventions change the Game for the Congo!
    7. 7. Rubber Tires!Rubber Tires!
    8. 8. Abuses of the Native Congolese People Leopold licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans, by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants.
    9. 9. The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas or who disobeyed the white man's rules. Film ClipFilm Clip
    10. 10. The man lost his hand from ropes tied too tight by Belgian Rubber Company soldiers. The boy lost his hand from soldiers that wanted to claim him as a kill.
    11. 11. A man who refused to go work in the rubber plantation looks at the severed foot and hand of his 5 year old daughter.
    12. 12. The Belgian Congo 1. Why does the cartoonist portray King Leopold II as a snake? 2. What is the claim of the cartoonist?
    13. 13. What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against humanity?
    14. 14. The World Demanded Changes • Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of Leopold's rule. His financial backing eroded and he required loans from the Belgian government. • In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. The conditions of the natives slowly improved, but justice was never served to those responsible for these crimes against humanity. "The condition of things in the Congo is atrocious, as shown by the photographs of children whose hands have been cut off. Leopold thinks this can go on because the Congo is a distant out-of-the- way country. But once we can get England and America to investigate, and take this matter up, something will be done. We Americans are especially interested, because it was our recognition of the flag there that led to recognition by other powers." -- Mark Twain in the Boston Herald (Nov. 6, 1905). Edmund Dene Morel
    15. 15. The British in South Africa
    16. 16. The history of South Africa is a history of _________, ______ ___ ____________ clashing over land and resources. Although the African lands seemed empty to the Europeans, there were huge areas claimed by various ethnic groups. Three Groups Clash over South Africa Africans Dutch and British
    17. 17. The _____ were a South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader ____________. Under Shaka’s rule, in 1818, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa. This marked the beginning of “Mfecane,” a time of wars among the Africans which caused mass migrations and alterations in African political organization. Shaka Zulu was assassinated in 1828. Zulu Expansion Zulu Shaka Zulu
    18. 18. By the 1870s, the British had begun to adopt a ________________in the region, hoping to bring the various British colonies, Boer republics and independent African groups under common control, with a view to implementing a policy of economic development. The war began in January 1879. Three columns of British troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Lord Chelmsford invaded Zululand. The Anglo-Zulu War Forward Policy
    19. 19. What are the similarities and differences between these men? Who do you think would be victorious in battle? Why? Film Clip
    20. 20. Battle of Isandlwana On 22 January, 1879, under Lord Chelmsford's personal command, the British were defeated at _______________ mountain. In one of the worst disasters of the Colonial era, over 1300 British troops and their African allies were killed. Isandlwana Film Clip
    21. 21. Battle of Isandlwana Film Clip
    22. 22. Battle of Rorke’s Drift
    23. 23. Lord Chelmsford reorganized his forces, and in late May was poised to mount a new invasion on the Zulu capital, Ulundi.
    24. 24. Chelmsford defeated the Zulu army in the last great battle of the war. Ulundi was put to the torch, and King Cetshwayo fled. Chelmsford resigned after the victory but it took several weeks for the British to suppress lingering resistance in the outlying districts.
    25. 25. King Cetshwayo was eventually captured and sent into exile at Cape Town. The British divided his country up among thirteen pro-British chiefs - a deliberately divisive move, ____________________which led to a decade of destructive civil war.Divide and Rule,
    26. 26. The Dutch first came to the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to establish a way station for their ships sailing between the Dutch East Indies and home. British Boers and Settlers in the Cape
    27. 27. _______(Dutch for “farmers”), were Dutch settlers who gradually established large farms. When the British took over the Cape Colony in the 1800s, the Boers left seeking their own state. British Boers and Settlers in the Cape Boers
    28. 28. In the 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers began to move north. This movement has become known as the __________________. The Great Trek Great Trek
    29. 29. The Boers soon found themselves fighting fiercely with Zulu and other African groups whose land they were taking. What do these pictures remind you of? How is it similar to that event?
    30. 30. __________and ________were discovered in southern Africa in the 1860s and 1880s. Suddenly, “outsiders” from all parts of the world rushed in to make their fortunes. GoldDiamonds
    31. 31. The Boers tried to keep the outsiders from gaining political rights. An attempt to start a rebellion against the Boers failed. The Boers blamed the British. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. This conflict was known as__________________. The Boer War The Boer War The Boer War
    32. 32. Compare these two pictures of soldiers. Which group seems more advanced? Compare these two pictures of soldiers. Which group seems more advanced?
    33. 33. In many ways the Boer War was the first modern “total” war. The Boer War
    34. 34. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The “Hairy Mary”The “Hairy Mary”
    35. 35. What do you think is happening in these images? The concentration camps claimed the lives of 27,972 Boers. Of these, 22,074 were children The concentration camps claimed the lives of 27,972 Boers. Of these, 22,074 were children Film ClipFilm Clip
    36. 36. Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
    37. 37. In 1902, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing __________________, controlled by the British. Union of South Africa
    38. 38. •How does this ABC book portray the native people in the colonies? •How do they portray themselves?
    39. 39. The establishing of colonies signaled a change in the way of life of the Africans. The Europeans made efforts to change the political, social and economic lives of the peoples they conquered.
    40. 40. POSITIVE NEGATIVE •European medicine & improved nutrition increased life span of Africans. This caused an increase in population. •Modern transportation & communications; telegraphs, railroads, steamships, and telephones •A small minority received improved education and economic opportunities. •European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationships •African peoples were treated a s inferior. Forced to work long hours for low pay. •Europeans divided up Africa ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. These divisions have led to ongoing tribal clashes Film Clip