Ethnic Conflict

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  • Ireland became a laboratory for colonialism – British experiment with rule on Ireland and then export it to America, Caribbean and India
  • Cromwell believed stories of Irish slaughtering of Protestants in 1641 Rebellion and sought revenge
    Oliver Cromwell left Ireland on May 26, 1650.  Only nine months in Ireland , Cromwell gave birth to death, exile, persecution, indentured slavery, and a form of 17th century ethnic cleansing.  His name is forever associated by the Irish people with fevered anti-Catholicism and a burning hatred for the Irish people.  Cromwell’s Settlement plan for Ireland can be fairly judged as being even more harmful to Ireland than his blood letting in 1649.
  • Ethnic Conflict

    1. 1. Conflict in Northern Ireland 1916-1999
    2. 2.  1100s: The _______________ expand into Ireland.  1500s-1600s: English laws limit the rights of Irish ___________.  1100s: The _______________ expand into Ireland.  1500s-1600s: English laws limit the rights of Irish ___________. Ireland Under British Rule The Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 ended the rule of the Irish High Kingship. English Catholics
    3. 3.  1649-1652: Oliver Cromwell invades Ireland to suppress Irish Catholic uprisings – The re-conquest was brutal.  Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics and confiscated large amounts of their land.  1649-1652: Oliver Cromwell invades Ireland to suppress Irish Catholic uprisings – The re-conquest was brutal.  Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics and confiscated large amounts of their land. Oliver Cromwell’s Invasion
    4. 4.  1845-1851: 1 million out of a population of 8 million dies from starvation or disease as a result of the _________________________  During this time English landowners demanded rents from Irish peasants and profited from higher food prices.  1845-1851: 1 million out of a population of 8 million dies from starvation or disease as a result of the _________________________  During this time English landowners demanded rents from Irish peasants and profited from higher food prices. Great Potato Famine Irish being evicted from their homes by British. Great Potato Famine Film ClipFilm Clip
    5. 5.  1916: After centuries of efforts by Catholic Ireland to throw off the rule of Protestant Britain, Irish rebels form the ______________________ or the _________ and revolt on Easter, 1916, beginning years of bloodshed and guerilla warfare, This event is known as the _____________________.  1916: After centuries of efforts by Catholic Ireland to throw off the rule of Protestant Britain, Irish rebels form the ______________________ or the _________ and revolt on Easter, 1916, beginning years of bloodshed and guerilla warfare, This event is known as the _____________________. Irish Nationalism Irish Republican Army IRA Easter Uprising Film Clip: Easter Rising 1916 Film Clip: Easter Rising 1916 Question: How did past events impact the relationship between the Irish and the British? Question: How did past events impact the relationship between the Irish and the British?
    6. 6.  A soldier and politician who was prominent in the struggle for Irish independence in the early 20th century.  Used guerilla warfare to fight the British during the War for Independence.  1921: He agreed to the Anglo- Irish Treaty and became leader the Irish Free State provisional government.  1922: Collins was assassinated during the civil war  A soldier and politician who was prominent in the struggle for Irish independence in the early 20th century.  Used guerilla warfare to fight the British during the War for Independence.  1921: He agreed to the Anglo- Irish Treaty and became leader the Irish Free State provisional government.  1922: Collins was assassinated during the civil war Michael Collins Michael Collins
    7. 7.  1922: Britain agrees to _______________________. The predominantly Catholic south eventually becomes a free nation, but Northern Ireland, where a Protestant English majority has lived for centuries, remains British.  1968-1971: Catholic civil rights protests begin in Northern Ireland. The British army, fearful of violence, responds by jailing protesters without trial.  1922: Britain agrees to _______________________. The predominantly Catholic south eventually becomes a free nation, but Northern Ireland, where a Protestant English majority has lived for centuries, remains British.  1968-1971: Catholic civil rights protests begin in Northern Ireland. The British army, fearful of violence, responds by jailing protesters without trial. Northern Ireland Most Irish opposed the partition of Ireland. Divide Ireland into North and South Film Clip: Irish Republic VoteFilm Clip: Irish Republic Vote
    8. 8.  1972: 14 Catholic protesters are shot and killed by British troops during a march in Londonerry on January 30, which becomes known as _____________________.  1972: 14 Catholic protesters are shot and killed by British troops during a march in Londonerry on January 30, which becomes known as _____________________. Bloody Sunday  The newly rejuvenated IRA demands freedom from Britain and representation for Catholics in the Northern government. Protestants fear that Catholics in the government will force a break with Britain and turn them into a minority in a united Ireland. In July, 22 IRA bombs explode in Belfast, killing nine.  The newly rejuvenated IRA demands freedom from Britain and representation for Catholics in the Northern government. Protestants fear that Catholics in the government will force a break with Britain and turn them into a minority in a united Ireland. In July, 22 IRA bombs explode in Belfast, killing nine. Bloody Sunday
    9. 9. Sunday, Bloody Sunday Film Clip Song Clip
    10. 10.  1974-1979: Peace initiatives fail and 80 people die in IRA and Protestant bombings and attacks, including ______________________, uncle of Britain’s Prince Charles, when an IRA bomb explodes on his boat.  1974-1979: Peace initiatives fail and 80 people die in IRA and Protestant bombings and attacks, including ______________________, uncle of Britain’s Prince Charles, when an IRA bomb explodes on his boat. Northern Ireland  1981: Bobby Sands becomes the first of 10 IRA prisoners in Belfast to die from starvation during __________________  1981: Bobby Sands becomes the first of 10 IRA prisoners in Belfast to die from starvation during __________________ Lord Mountbatten Hunger Strikes
    11. 11.  1987-1993: Dozens die in bombings, including a British Parliament member, as the IRA begins attacks on English soil.  1987-1993: Dozens die in bombings, including a British Parliament member, as the IRA begins attacks on English soil. Northern Ireland  1995-1998: _______________ visits Ireland. Peace talks are punctuated with violence, culminating in the 1998 bombing of a crowded market in Omagh, Northern Ireland, that kills 29.  1995-1998: _______________ visits Ireland. Peace talks are punctuated with violence, culminating in the 1998 bombing of a crowded market in Omagh, Northern Ireland, that kills 29. President Clinton
    12. 12.  1998-1999: Former U.S. Senator George Mitchell negotiates with warring factions to produce an accord known as the ______________________. On December 2, Britain turns over power to a new Northern Ireland government with power divided between ________________________________.  1998-1999: Former U.S. Senator George Mitchell negotiates with warring factions to produce an accord known as the ______________________. On December 2, Britain turns over power to a new Northern Ireland government with power divided between ________________________________. Peace in Northern Ireland? Bertie Ahern with Tony Blair during the Good Friday Agreement in April 1998 Good Friday Agreement Protestants and Catholics
    13. 13.  1999: Power-sharing government put in place in Belfast, ending 27 years of direct rule from London.  2000: Self-rule is suspended over Unionists claims the IRA has not fully disarmed.  2003: IRA disarms as Britain sets election date to establish self- governance. Protestant leaders remain skeptical.  1999: Power-sharing government put in place in Belfast, ending 27 years of direct rule from London.  2000: Self-rule is suspended over Unionists claims the IRA has not fully disarmed.  2003: IRA disarms as Britain sets election date to establish self- governance. Protestant leaders remain skeptical. Peace in Northern Ireland? Gerry Adams, President of Sinn Fein – political wing of IRA and the Belfast “Peace Line” Film Clip Film Clip 2
    14. 14. Serbs: Slavic, Orthodox Christian Croats: Slavic, Italian, Austrian, Roman Catholic Kosovars: Albanian, Muslim Bosniacs: Slavic, Ottoman, Muslim The Breakup of Yugoslavia
    15. 15. A geopoliticalA geopolitical term originallyterm originally used to describeused to describe the process ofthe process of fragmentationfragmentation oror division of adivision of a region into smallerregion into smaller regions that areregions that are often hostile oroften hostile or non-cooperativenon-cooperative with each other.with each other.
    16. 16. 1389: Christian Serbs lost battle to Ottoman Turks resulting in 500 years of rule The1389: Christian Serbs lost battle to Ottoman Turks resulting in 500 years of rule The Serbs struggled to retain their religion and culture.Serbs struggled to retain their religion and culture. 1912: Balkan War gives Serbs decisive victory over Turkey. The Serbs regain control1912: Balkan War gives Serbs decisive victory over Turkey. The Serbs regain control and killed 20,000 ethnic Albanians.and killed 20,000 ethnic Albanians. 1919: the Multi-national state of1919: the Multi-national state of Yugoslavia is established after World War I. Amongis established after World War I. Among frequent Albanian revolts, the Serbs forced out 100,000 Albanians and took their land.frequent Albanian revolts, the Serbs forced out 100,000 Albanians and took their land. History of Brutality Turks surrender to Greek Army in Balkan War of 1912
    17. 17. History of Brutality 1941: During1941: During World War II,, Germany and Italy armed theGermany and Italy armed the Albanians, encouraging them toAlbanians, encouraging them to fight against the Serbs. Theyfight against the Serbs. They brutally forced out 40,000 Serbsbrutally forced out 40,000 Serbs fromfrom Kosovo. 1945: After the defeat of1945: After the defeat of Germany and Italy, YugoslaviaGermany and Italy, Yugoslavia violently put down the Albanianviolently put down the Albanian revolt killing about 10,000 people.revolt killing about 10,000 people.
    18. 18. 1945 – Marshall Tito became the communist dictator of1945 – Marshall Tito became the communist dictator of Yugoslavia. He quickly established aYugoslavia. He quickly established a Non-alignmentNon-alignment policy throughout the Cold War to avoid beingpolicy throughout the Cold War to avoid being controlled bycontrolled by StalinStalin.. His harsh rule created a stableHis harsh rule created a stable unified Yugoslavia.unified Yugoslavia. Marshal Josip Tito 1974 – Tito gave Kosovo autonomous status1974 – Tito gave Kosovo autonomous status within Yugoslavia, allowing the ethnicwithin Yugoslavia, allowing the ethnic KosovarKosovar majority to manage their ownmajority to manage their own affairs. He limited Serbian power and overaffairs. He limited Serbian power and over 50,000 Serbs left Kosovo due to Albanian50,000 Serbs left Kosovo due to Albanian harassment.harassment. 19801980 –– TitoTito Dies, opening the door forDies, opening the door for ethnic conflict and ending unity inethnic conflict and ending unity in Yugoslavia.Yugoslavia. Painting of Tito in Kosovo
    19. 19. 1991: After the fall of communism, various ethnic groups created their own1991: After the fall of communism, various ethnic groups created their own nations splitting Yugoslavia:nations splitting Yugoslavia: Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fragmentation of Yugoslavia
    20. 20. 1991-1995: The Balkan War •Serbian Nationalists, led by President Slobodan Milošević, wanted to expand Serbian borders and remove or kill all non-Serbs. •Serbian Army attacked Croatia and Bosnia - Many Bosnians became refugees, others were put into concentration camps and killed. This policy of removing or killing people of a certain ethnic group is known as ethnic cleansing. A still image from video footage showing emaciated Muslim Bosnians at the Trnopolje concentration camp in Bosnia in the summer of 1992.
    21. 21. Massacre at Srebrenica In July, 1995 the Serbian army killed an estimated 8,000 Bosnian men and boys, as well as the ethnic cleansing of 25,000-30,000 refugees in the area of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    22. 22. 1998-2000: Kosovo Kosovo is a province of Yugoslavia. There was a 90% majority of Ethnic Albanians living there which threatened Serbian power. As a result, Milosevic sent troops and mounted a brutal campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Muslim Albanians.
    23. 23. The United Nations intervened in an attempt to end the fighting. After Milosevic refused a peace plan, NATO began a military campaign against Yugoslavia and stopped the genocide. Civilian killed by NATO bomb in 1999. A total of 73 people died and 43 were wounded. NATO carried out its threat to bomb Serbia over Kosovo on 24 March 1999, attacking a sovereign European country for the first time in the alliance's history.
    24. 24. Milosevic was forcedMilosevic was forced to resign following ato resign following a popular uprisingpopular uprising against his rule. Aagainst his rule. A year later Miloševićyear later Milošević was extradited towas extradited to stand trial in Thestand trial in The Hague forHague for Crimes against humanity butbut died after five years indied after five years in prison with just fiftyprison with just fifty hours of testimony lefthours of testimony left before the conclusionbefore the conclusion of the trial.of the trial.
    25. 25. A Story of Genocide, 1994
    26. 26.  Small African nation  Two ethnic groups: Hutus and Tutsis  There have been always been disagreements between the majority Hutus and minority Tutsis, but the animosity between them has grown substantially since the colonial period.  Small African nation  Two ethnic groups: Hutus and Tutsis  There have been always been disagreements between the majority Hutus and minority Tutsis, but the animosity between them has grown substantially since the colonial period.
    27. 27. Hutus  Majority - 80%  Migrated from southern Africa  The Hutus were farmers and laborers. Hutus  Majority - 80%  Migrated from southern Africa  The Hutus were farmers and laborers. Tutsis  Minority - 20%  Migrated from Northern Africa (Egypt)  Before colonial rule the Tutsis were a privileged class with control of cattle and arms.  Most of the land was ruled by a Tutsi king, though some Hutu areas were independent. Tutsis  Minority - 20%  Migrated from Northern Africa (Egypt)  Before colonial rule the Tutsis were a privileged class with control of cattle and arms.  Most of the land was ruled by a Tutsi king, though some Hutu areas were independent.  The two ethnic groups are actually very similar - they speak the same language, inhabit the same areas and follow the same traditions  However, Tutsis are often taller and thinner than Hutus, with some saying their origins lie in Ethiopia.
    28. 28.  German colony until 1918 (end of WWI)  When the Belgian colonists arrived in 1916, they produced identity cards classifying people according to their ethnicity.  The Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior to the Hutus.  Tutsis welcomed this idea and for the next 20 years they enjoyed better jobs and opportunities.  German colony until 1918 (end of WWI)  When the Belgian colonists arrived in 1916, they produced identity cards classifying people according to their ethnicity.  The Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior to the Hutus.  Tutsis welcomed this idea and for the next 20 years they enjoyed better jobs and opportunities. "The government should endeavor to maintain and consolidate traditional cadres composed of the Tutsi ruling class, because of its important qualities, its undeniable intellectual superiority and its ruling potential."
    29. 29.  A rebellion of Hutu farm workers broke out the late 1950s. More than 20,000 Tutsis were killed, and many more fled to the neighboring countries of Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda.  Belgium granted Rwanda independence in 1961 and allowed free elections.  At the same time, with staggering hypocrisy, they encouraged a violently anti-Tutsi atmosphere to divert the fury of the Hutus from themselves.  The elections were won by the Hutus  Over subsequent decades, the Tutsis were portrayed as the scapegoats for every crisis.  A rebellion of Hutu farm workers broke out the late 1950s. More than 20,000 Tutsis were killed, and many more fled to the neighboring countries of Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda.  Belgium granted Rwanda independence in 1961 and allowed free elections.  At the same time, with staggering hypocrisy, they encouraged a violently anti-Tutsi atmosphere to divert the fury of the Hutus from themselves.  The elections were won by the Hutus  Over subsequent decades, the Tutsis were portrayed as the scapegoats for every crisis. "The most horrible and systematic human massacre we have had occasion to witness since the extermination of the Jews by the Nazis." British Philosopher Bertrand Russell in 1964 "Seldom in history has a once-dominant group suffered so terrible a reversal of fortune as the Tutsi of Rwanda."
    30. 30.  Tutsis rebel group (RPF) formed in neighboring countries and invaded Rwanda.  Hutu president compromises with Tutsis and agrees to share power.  2500 United Nations troops sent to Rwanda to help keep peace.  On August 1993, after several attacks and months of negotiation, a peace accord was signed between Juvénal Habyarimana and the RPF, but it did little to stop the continued unrest.  Tutsis rebel group (RPF) formed in neighboring countries and invaded Rwanda.  Hutu president compromises with Tutsis and agrees to share power.  2500 United Nations troops sent to Rwanda to help keep peace.  On August 1993, after several attacks and months of negotiation, a peace accord was signed between Juvénal Habyarimana and the RPF, but it did little to stop the continued unrest.  When Habyarimana's plane was shot down at the beginning of April 1994, it was the final nail in the coffin. Exactly who killed the president has not been established.  The death of this Hutu leader sparked instantaneous and catastrophic violence against the Tutsis.  When Habyarimana's plane was shot down at the beginning of April 1994, it was the final nail in the coffin. Exactly who killed the president has not been established.  The death of this Hutu leader sparked instantaneous and catastrophic violence against the Tutsis. Juvénal Habyarimana assassinated in plane crash
    31. 31.  In Kigali, the presidential guard immediately initiated a campaign of retribution against the Tutsis.  Leaders of the political opposition were murdered, and almost immediately, the slaughter of Tutsis and moderate Hutus began.  Within hours, recruits were dispatched all over the country to carry out a wave of slaughter.  In Kigali, the presidential guard immediately initiated a campaign of retribution against the Tutsis.  Leaders of the political opposition were murdered, and almost immediately, the slaughter of Tutsis and moderate Hutus began.  Within hours, recruits were dispatched all over the country to carry out a wave of slaughter.
    32. 32.  Genocide was encouraged by the presidential guard and radio propaganda  An unofficial militia group was mobilized. At its peak, this group was 30,000-strong.  Soldiers and police officers encouraged ordinary citizens to take part. Some Hutu civilians were forced to murder their Tutsi neighbors.  Participants were often given money or food, and some were even told they could take the land of the Tutsis they killed.  Genocide was encouraged by the presidential guard and radio propaganda  An unofficial militia group was mobilized. At its peak, this group was 30,000-strong.  Soldiers and police officers encouraged ordinary citizens to take part. Some Hutu civilians were forced to murder their Tutsi neighbors.  Participants were often given money or food, and some were even told they could take the land of the Tutsis they killed. Cover of the December 1993 issue of Kangura. The heading to the right of "special" reads, "Tutsi: Race of God!" The inscription to the right of the machete asks, "What weapons will we use to win over the inyenzi (cockroaches) for good?”
    33. 33.  The Rwandans were largely left alone by the international community. UN troops withdrew after the murder of 10 soldiers.  The United Nations failed to label the killings a Genocide.  The United States did not do anything to stop the Genocide and pulled their troops from Rwanda.  The Rwandans were largely left alone by the international community. UN troops withdrew after the murder of 10 soldiers.  The United Nations failed to label the killings a Genocide.  The United States did not do anything to stop the Genocide and pulled their troops from Rwanda. On the 21st of April 1994 the United Nations Security Council unanimously decided to withdraw the peacekeeping forces from Rwanda “With a few thousand troops and help from our allies… we could have saved lives. The failure to try to stop Rwanda's tragedies became one of the greatest regrets of my presidency."
    34. 34.  Finally, in July, the RPF, led by Paul Kagame, captured Kigali, overthrew the Hutu government and declared a ceasefire.  As soon as it became apparent that the RPF was victorious, an estimated two million Hutus fled to Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo).  These refugees include many who have since been implicated in the massacres. Some are still wanted.  Finally, in July, the RPF, led by Paul Kagame, captured Kigali, overthrew the Hutu government and declared a ceasefire.  As soon as it became apparent that the RPF was victorious, an estimated two million Hutus fled to Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo).  These refugees include many who have since been implicated in the massacres. Some are still wanted. Over the course of approximately 100 days, from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on 6 April through mid-July, at least 500,000 people were killed. Most estimates indicate a death toll between 800,000 and 1,000,000, which could be as high as 20% of the total population. Song
    35. 35. Rwanda, Rwanda, Yeah Rwanda, Rwanda. They said: "Many are called and few are chosen," But I wish some wasn’t chosen for the blood spilling of Rwanda. They said: "Meshach, Shadrack and Abednego, Thrown in the fire but you never get burned," but I wish that I didn't get burned in Rwanda. They said: "The man is judged according to his works," so tell me Africa, what’s your worth? There’s no money, no diamonds, no fortunes on this planet that can replace Rwanda… Rwanda Rwanda Yeah, Rwanda Rwanda These are the cry of the children Rwanda Rwanda Anybody hear my cry? If America, is the United States of America, Then why can’t Africa, be the United States of Africa? And if England, is the United Kingdom, Then why can’t Africa unite all the kingdoms and become United Kingdom of Africa? Rwanda Rwanda, Rwanda Rwanda Yeah, yeah. These are the cries of the children, yeah. Can anybody out there hear our cries? Yeah, heavens cry ... Jesus cry. Lord, did you hear us calling you? Yeah, Rwanda Rwanda, Lord, did you hear us calling? Can you do something in Rwanda? Rwanda Rwanda, Rwanda Rwanda I’m talkin' 'bout Jesus; talkin' 'bout Rwanda Rwanda Rwanda Talkin' 'bout … talk'n 'bout ... Talkin' 'bout … talk'n 'bout ... talk'n 'bout ... I wanna play my guitar for Rwanda....

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