Conflicts in the middle east updated

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Conflicts in the middle east updated

  1. 1. The Iranian Revolution 1979
  2. 2. Iranian Revolution The Creation of the First Islamic Fundamentalist State
  3. 3. Long term Causes:Long term Causes:  Major _________ are discovered in Iran in the late 1800sMajor _________ are discovered in Iran in the late 1800s  Oil rights are sold to foreigners (Britain and Russia)Oil rights are sold to foreigners (Britain and Russia) Oil Fields
  4. 4. Long term Causes:Long term Causes:  Iranian nationalist resentIranian nationalist resent ____________________ influenceinfluence  __________________________________ and westernization fail to help peopleand westernization fail to help people  ________________ begins in the 1970s________________ begins in the 1970s Western Modernization Islamic Revival
  5. 5. Immediate CausesImmediate Causes 1. Leader of Iran, Shah1. Leader of Iran, Shah Mohammed Reza PahlaviMohammed Reza Pahlavi remained in power due toremained in power due to ______________________________US Support
  6. 6. Shah Reza Pahlavi (1941 – 1977)Shah Reza Pahlavi (1941 – 1977) Q5  Shah creates reform from above: Creating Industry, redistributing land to the peasants, granting rights to women, separated religion and government  Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West .  But, the majority of his people live in poverty.  Brutal suppression of dissidents
  7. 7. The Shah & His Wife,The Shah & His Wife, Iranian elite/upper- and intellectual classes: very pro-Western.
  8. 8. •The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware. • Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy. • Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” The Shah Reza PahlaviThe Shah Reza Pahlavi
  9. 9. As opposition to the Shah grows, he becomes more repressive. Iranians protest the Shah’s policies Corruption in Government
  10. 10. Opposition voices rallied round Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a shia cleric living in exile in Paris. Promising social and economic reform, the Ayatollah prescribed a return to traditional religious values, which struck a chord with many Iranians. Exiled Ruhollah Khomeini speaks out forcefully against the Shah and his American backers.
  11. 11. As the 1970s drew to a close, a series of large-scale, increasingly violent anti-Shah protests swept Iran. Instability, including a wave of general strikes, continued throughout the year, crippling the country's economy.
  12. 12. Anti-Shah ProtestsAnti-Shah Protests Film ClipFilm Clip
  13. 13. The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79. 1. Shah’s enemies rally around Shi’ite leaders. The Ayatollah Khomeini accuse the Shah of violating human rights and undermining Islamic values 2. The Shah flees Iran and Khomeini guides Iran’s new government Revolution OccursRevolution Occurs
  14. 14. Ayatollah KhomeiniAyatollah Khomeini Leads the RevolutionLeads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979. Q7
  15. 15. The day of Khomeini's return he went straight to honor the martyrs at Behesht e Zahra cemetery. Nobody would move out of the way so the helicopter could land because they were so euphoric about his return
  16. 16. In January 1979, the Shah left Tehran for an "extended vacation". He was never to return. All over Iran statues of the Shah were torn down by Khomeini supporters.
  17. 17. On February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini made a dramatic return from exile. Political and social instability increased. Street battles raged in towns and provinces between pro-Khomeini demonstrators and police and security
  18. 18. Triumphant Muslim Clerics & IranianTriumphant Muslim Clerics & Iranian SoldiersSoldiers Q8 A theocracy is created!A theocracy is created!
  19. 19. The Fate of the Shah’sThe Fate of the Shah’s GeneralsGenerals
  20. 20. Iran RevolutionaryIran Revolutionary PosterPoster When the devil leaves, the angel returns!
  21. 21. Revolution OccursRevolution Occurs 3. Revolutionaries take 53 American hostages from the US embassy 4. Government imposes a strict code of behavior according to the Shariah and Koran 5. Western books and music are banned and women’s rights laws are overturned
  22. 22. American Embassy inAmerican Embassy in Tehran Taken OverTehran Taken Over Q9
  23. 23. 52 Americans Held Hostage for 444 Days!52 Americans Held Hostage for 444 Days!
  24. 24. Failed Rescue AttemptFailed Rescue Attempt FilmFilm
  25. 25. 52 American Hostages Released in Jan., 198152 American Hostages Released in Jan., 1981
  26. 26. Impact of the RevolutionImpact of the Revolution  Iran encourages Islamic fundamentalists in otherIran encourages Islamic fundamentalists in other countriescountries to overthrow theirto overthrow their secular governmentssecular governments  Iran is isolated by theIran is isolated by the world communityworld community  Tensions between Sunni Iraq and Shi’ite Iran grewTensions between Sunni Iraq and Shi’ite Iran grew  Living conditionsLiving conditions do not improvedo not improve  IraqIraq declares war with Iran that lasts from 1980-1988declares war with Iran that lasts from 1980-1988  Lebanese IslamicLebanese Islamic FundamentalistsFundamentalists begin a civil war.begin a civil war.
  27. 27. Support for the Palestinian CauseSupport for the Palestinian CauseSupport for the Palestinian CauseSupport for the Palestinian Cause The Ayatollah with Yasir Arafat. Funds Hamas and Hezbollah.
  28. 28. The Iran-IraqThe Iran-Iraq WarWar (1980-1988)(1980-1988) Q10
  29. 29. Secretary RumsfeldSecretary Rumsfeld & Saddam Hussein:& Saddam Hussein: 19831983
  30. 30. Khomeini’s DeathKhomeini’s Death (June, 1989)(June, 1989)
  31. 31. Another NuclearAnother Nuclear Power?Power?US satellite photo of Iranian nuclear facility near Arak. • 2004: Iran announces its plan to create a nuclear power program to generate electricity • Many countries feel this would lead to the creation of nuclear weapons by Iran • World pressure is placed on Iran
  32. 32. Mahmoud AhmadinejadMahmoud Ahmadinejad •Ahmadinejad is the current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the first president in twenty-four years who was not a religious cleric. •He is not the most powerful official in Iran; that role belongs to the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, according to Article 113 of Constitution of Iran. •Ahmadinejad has been a critic of the US and Israel, and backs strengthening Iran's relations with Russia, Venezuela, Syria, and the Persian Gulf states. Ayatollah Ali KhameneiAyatollah Ali Khamenei
  33. 33. Film ClipFilm Clip Westernization?Westernization?
  34. 34. President Hassan RouhaniPresident Hassan Rouhani Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei “Problems of 35 years cannot be resolved in a short period of time.” “Problems of 35 years cannot be resolved in a short period of time.”
  35. 35. An American view ofAn American view of Iranian nuclearIranian nuclear powerpower PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
  36. 36. A view of Iran’s nuclearA view of Iran’s nuclear power frompower from Al-Al- JazeerahJazeerah Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush. -- Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03

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