African Independence

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African Independence

  1. 1. Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building <ul><li>Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Three patterns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China, Algeria , Angola, Vietnam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Violent, negotiated independence (India, Ghana, Turkey ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both violent and non-violent methods ( Kenya, Congo, Egypt, South Africa) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Ghana <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Kwame Nkrumah </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Freedom Now” from British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-African Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>“ Positive Action” movement </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes and boycotts </li></ul><ul><li>Civil disobedience </li></ul>Non-Violent Movements
  3. 3. Ghana <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – Independence granted – 1 st sub-saharan nation to gain independence </li></ul><ul><li>Nkrumah becomes 1 st Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Organization of African Unity in 1963 (OAU) </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Nkrumah makes himself “President for life” in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic downturn – general unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrown by Military coup – led to suspension of constitution and banning of political parties </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – new constitution, multi-party politics, elections – continued poverty </li></ul>Non-Violent Movements
  4. 4. Ghana
  5. 5. Kenya <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Jomo Kenyatta </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Independence from Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to unite all Kenyans, Kikuyu and non-Kikuyu </li></ul><ul><li>Get back fertile highland farmland </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  6. 6. Kenya <ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Clash between white settlers and Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Harambee, “Pull Together” peaceful protest </li></ul><ul><li>Mau Mau Rebels – Violent campaign </li></ul><ul><li>British jailed many – Kenyatta for 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Kenya gets Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Kenyatta – First President </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups continued to work together </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of Ethnic diversity and Tribalism </li></ul><ul><li>One party/Kikuyu domination </li></ul><ul><li>Government corruption </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  7. 7. Kenya <ul><li>Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Jomo Kenyatta used non-violent protests </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. </li></ul><ul><li>1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta. </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  8. 8. Congo <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Patrice Lumumba and Mobutu Sese Seko </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Gain Independence from Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Create a National Party that represented and united the Congo, the non-tribal Movement National Congolais (MNC) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a constitution and have free elections </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  9. 9. Congo <ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-colonial strikes and riots led to Belgium granting Congo Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Patrice Lumumba became first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered under controversial circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – Mobutu Sese Seko takes over the nation and rules as Military dictator for 32 years </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>One party state </li></ul><ul><li>Government corruption – “Kleptocracy” </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  10. 10. Algeria <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed Ben Bella </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Independence from French Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Arab Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>FLN (National Liberation Front) </li></ul><ul><li>Used violence, guerilla warfare, Terrorism, Torture </li></ul><ul><li>8 year civil war 1954-1962 </li></ul>Violent Movements
  11. 11. Algeria <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1962- Algeria won its Independence </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 300,000 died </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and ethnic conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority Berbers – ongoing autonomy campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Social and infrastructure problems (unreliable electric and water supply </li></ul>Violent Movements
  12. 12. Angola <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), proclaimed the country's first president, Dr Agostinho Neto, </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Independence From Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – War of Independence began after Portugal refused to give Angola self-rule </li></ul><ul><li>UNITA disputed the MPLA's rule, and civil war broke out almost immediately. With the Soviet Union and Cuba supporting the Marxist MPLA, and the United States and South Africa supporting the anti-Communist UNITA, the country became a cold war battleground. </li></ul>Violent Movements
  13. 13. Angola <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – Shift to multiparty Democracy – Free elections </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Constant civil wars and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Famine due to corruption and mismanagement of oil revenue </li></ul>Violent Movements
  14. 14. Decolonization of Africa
  15. 15. Turkey <ul><li>Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal Ataturk </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Regain territory from France and Britain lost in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Build a state based on Turkish Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Events/Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Organized military offensive in 1920 and re-conquered Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Deposed of the Sultan in 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Created a Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a secular western type state </li></ul>Non-Violent Movements
  16. 16. Turkey <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1923 – Turkish Republic is created </li></ul><ul><li>Ataturk becomes first President </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Westernized and modernized </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed more women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>NATO membership </li></ul><ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Racial tensions – Armenians and Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal- became authoritarian, unfair elections </li></ul><ul><li>Military coups – 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment – rise of Islamic Fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Iraqi war – fear of Kurdish state </li></ul>Non-Violent Movements
  17. 18. Egypt <ul><li>1906 Dinshawai incident aroused nationalist passions. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions post- Indep (1936) not sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Coup d’etat in 1952 Gamal Abdel Nasser </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalization of Suez 1956 protested by Israelis, British and French but diplomacy won over eventually. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasser= symbol of pan-Arab nationalism. </li></ul>Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  18. 19. Lumumba in Congo What do all of these men have in common? Ataturk in Turkey Nkrumah in Ghana Nehru in India Kenyatta in Kenya Mao Zedong in China
  19. 22. Challenges of Independence <ul><li>Ethnic disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent economies </li></ul><ul><li>Growing debt </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural dependence on west-> religious revivalism as backlash </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Military responses to restore order </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Resource depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of middle class in some locales </li></ul><ul><li>Education deficit and later, brain drain. </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-colonialism through economic debt. </li></ul>Film Clip
  20. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Decolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant challenges faced independent nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Western economic dominance of the global trade system continued unabated. WHY? </li></ul>
  21. 24. De-colonization in Africa <ul><li>1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent. </li></ul>Non-Violent Movements
  22. 25. Africa for Africans <ul><li>Nationalists composed of ex-servicemen, urban unemployed and western educated elite. </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-Africanism and Negritude </li></ul><ul><li>Senghor (Senegal) </li></ul>

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