Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Keynote presentation at Madison for 24th Annual Distance Teaching and Learning Conference

Published in: Business, Education
  • Dating for everyone is here: ❤❤❤ ❤❤❤
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating direct: ❤❤❤ ❤❤❤
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here


  1. 1. Connectivism: A vision for education George Siemens 24th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning Madison, Wisconsin August 7, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat for lucidity . </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Morin </li></ul>
  3. 3. But how do we find lucidity?
  4. 4. What has happened to information and our interactions with others?
  5. 6. An exabyte? How Big? <ul><li>Five exabytes of information is equivalent in size to the information contained in 37,000 new libraries the size of the Library of Congress book collections. </li></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>In 2007 the digital universe equalled 281bn gigabytes of data, or about 45gb for every person on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>International Data Corporation </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>It took two centuries to fill the shelves of the Library of Congress with more than 57 million manuscripts, 29 million books and periodicals, 12 million photographs, and more. Now, the world generates an equivalent amount of digital information nearly 100 times each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Innovation Alliance </li></ul>
  8. 9. Narrative of coherence
  9. 10. Meaning
  10. 11. <ul><li>The knowledge is in the connections </li></ul><ul><li>Rumelhart </li></ul>
  11. 12. Sensemaking
  12. 13. <ul><li>Existing tools and processes for managing information and complexity have hit their scale limit </li></ul>
  13. 14. Information growth <ul><li>We’re always missing something </li></ul><ul><li>Partial knowing (new reality) </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>“ Tectonic shift that will transform the map of higher education worldwide—the growth of universities in the developing world” </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel, Kanwar, Uvalic-Trumbic (2006) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Diversity/breadth
  16. 17. Complexity
  17. 18. Fragmentation
  18. 19. Obvious traditional response <ul><li>Need experts for validation </li></ul>
  19. 20. But…
  20. 21. Fragmentation requires re-creation
  21. 22. Fragmentation challenges coherence
  22. 23. Lack of coherence disrupts lucidity
  23. 24. Freedom of creation=abundance
  25. 26. … and complexification
  26. 27. Structural inefficiencies of schools ≠ “vital combat for lucidity”
  27. 28. <ul><li>It’s no longer about changing what our curriculum is . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about changing how we do curriculum in the first place </li></ul>
  28. 29. How can we foster coherence in a world of hyper-fragmentation?
  29. 30. <ul><li>Something is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>But is it sufficient to warrant a reconsideration of learning theory? </li></ul><ul><li>(Kerr, 2007) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Blogs Wikis OERs Ooh…shiny object Mobile Facebook Second Life Podcasts
  31. 33. <ul><li>Connectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Networked Learning </li></ul>
  32. 34. What? <ul><li>Application of network principles to learning… </li></ul><ul><li>where knowledge exists in connections and </li></ul><ul><li>learning is the act of building a network </li></ul><ul><li>(multiple levels) and navigating the network </li></ul>
  33. 35. How is this unique ??
  34. 36. A unity of learning and knowledge
  35. 37. Abundance
  36. 38. Technology
  37. 39. Coherence. Understanding. Sensemaking. Meaning
  38. 40. What do we mean when we say “networked learning”?
  39. 42. 1. Neural <ul><li>Connect ion ism & AI </li></ul><ul><li>Rumelhart & McClelland (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience – rapidly emerging research </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Study of cerebral cortex, reveals: </li></ul><ul><li>““ small-world” attributes, characterized by the presence of abundant clustering of connections combined with short average distances between neuronal elements” </li></ul><ul><li>Sporns & Zwi (2004) </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Network theory (such as small worlds) “new applications in the field of neuroscience” </li></ul><ul><li>Stam & Reijneveld (2007) </li></ul>
  42. 45. 2. Conceptual <ul><li>Physics research </li></ul><ul><li>Ausubel: meaningful learning </li></ul><ul><li>Novak & Cañas (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of understanding - Bereiter </li></ul>
  43. 46. Connections create meaning
  44. 50. Do network properties exist at conceptual level?
  45. 51. Visualization <ul><li>Highlighting relationships/connections </li></ul><ul><li>Of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Of content/information </li></ul>
  46. 53. How do we make sense, conceptually ? <ul><li>Connectively/collectively </li></ul><ul><li>Networks serve a filtering role </li></ul>
  47. 54. Pattern recognition <ul><li>Klein(1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Bereiter (2002) </li></ul>
  48. 55. 3. External and Social <ul><li>How we are connected to others and to information </li></ul><ul><li>Watts (2003), Wellman (2001), Barabási (2003), Haythornthwaite & Gruzd (2007), Tim Berners-Lee, Granovetter (1973) </li></ul>
  49. 56. But explain, how does learning occur?
  50. 57. <ul><li>Only connect </li></ul><ul><li>E.M. Forser, 1991 </li></ul>
  51. 58. <ul><li>Depth and diversity of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with existing ideas/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and Weak Ties </li></ul>Determining understanding
  52. 59. What becomes of authority ?
  53. 60. How is information disseminated? Faustian bargain, anyone?
  54. 61. Nomic
  55. 62. Self-regulation
  56. 63. Wayfinding <ul><li>(Darken 1996) </li></ul>
  57. 64. <ul><li>Bigger shift that that from a Ptolmeic to Copernican view of the solar system… </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization is the way the relevant sciences are heading. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Bereiter (2002) </li></ul>
  58. 65. Educator’s obligation <ul><li>Foster a system with greatest ease for connections to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of quality of connection </li></ul><ul><li>Foster learner skill and desire to pursue sensemaking </li></ul>
  59. 66. Urgent Skills for Educators <ul><li>Develop a framework (network) for managing information and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>And a method for critical reflection and integration </li></ul>
  60. 67. New roles for educators <ul><li>Curator </li></ul><ul><li>Concierge </li></ul><ul><li>Atelier </li></ul><ul><li>Network administrator </li></ul>
  61. 68. Who is modeling behaviour and values with technology for learners ?
  62. 69. <ul><li>Participatory Pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>(Collis & Moonen, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Askins, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Harvard Law School, 2008) </li></ul>
  63. 71. <ul><li>Education is the premise of progress , in every society, in every family… </li></ul><ul><li>On it’s foundations rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development </li></ul><ul><li>Kofi Annan </li></ul>
  64. 72. Threats to university <ul><li>Borderless education </li></ul><ul><li>Private for-profit </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate universities </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Scott, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Triple-helix </li></ul><ul><li>Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1999 </li></ul>
  65. 73. <ul><li>In any dispute the intensity of feeling is inversely proportional to the value of the stakes at issue —that is why academic politics are so bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Sayre’s Law </li></ul>
  66. 74. Inertia - systemic <ul><li>Slow adoption of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Murray 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Christensen 2008 </li></ul>
  67. 75. Inertia - systemic <ul><li>“ The call for a new pedagogy to accompany new instructional technologies, however, has largely remained unanswered ” </li></ul><ul><li>Davidovitch, 2007 </li></ul>
  68. 76. What could, should, school look like?
  69. 79. Finding a new value-basis
  70. 80. Historically
  71. 81. Content
  72. 82. Interaction
  73. 83. Accreditation
  74. 85. Future: framework of coherence
  75. 86. <ul><li>Slideshare: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Delicious: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Personalbrain: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  76. 87. MOOC: Massive Open Online Course <ul><li>Connectivism Online Course </li></ul><ul><li>with Stephen Downes </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  77. 88. Websites and Newsletters <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>gsiemens AT elearnspace DOT org </li></ul>