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Roots of Connectivism September 29, 2009 EC&I 831
<ul><li>“ What we have here is a  transition  from a  stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, t...
Roots of Connectivism
<ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </...
<ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </...
Behaviourism <ul><li>Concept:  Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Pavlov, Th...
Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is objective, but secondary to behavioural considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Teachi...
Cognitivism <ul><li>Concept:  information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized/organizable  ...
Cognitivism <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><...
Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is objective, acquired through cognition (objectivistic) </li></ul><ul><li>Informa...
Constructivism <ul><li>“ Knowledge constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences”  </li></ul>...
Piaget <ul><li>Piaget:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li...
Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language (symbols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cult...
Constructionism <ul><li>Concept:  people learn through making things – “creative experimentation” </li></ul><ul><li>Learni...
Situated Learning <ul><li>Concept:  “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in ...
Activity Theory <ul><li>Concept:  “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individu...
Epistemology/pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is personally constructed, socially generated, contextually held </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </...
Move from folk psychology <ul><li>To scientific psychology (neural net view of learning/knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Philo...
Connectionism <ul><li>Concept:  Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing </li></ul><ul><li>Figures:  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </...
Neuroscience as  parent science  for learning
Biological views of learning <ul><li>“ It appears that  complex and distributed systems of neurons  are implicated in lear...
<ul><li>“ To the neuroscientist, learning is a  whole-person/whole-brain activity  what confounds received organizations” ...
Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>? </li></ul>Connectionism/Neuroscience
Networked Learning
Learning in relationship to  knowledge and mind <ul><li>Distributed  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchins – Not “in skull” </li>...
<ul><li>“ The intelligences…are  distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments”  </li></u...
Connectivism
Knowledge & learning as networked and emergent Synchronicity Amplification Resonance
Undiscovered public knowledge <ul><li>When connections are weak…not more research, but  better connections </li></ul><ul><...
Participatory sense making <ul><li>Our world makes sense through  our interaction  with information and others  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Depth  and  diversity  of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency  of exposure </li></ul>...
The primacy of the connection Connections are to learning as atoms are to the physical world…
<ul><li>What connections are </li></ul><ul><li>How they form </li></ul><ul><li>What attributes/structure they exhibit at f...
How  attributes of connections  reflect learning
But what about technology?
<ul><li>New media  adds  new opportunities  for connections/relations, enacting latent ties </li></ul><ul><li>Haythornthwa...
Extension of mind
External mind
Epistemology/pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge as constellation of connections </li></ul><ul><li>Sensemaking/wayfinding </li></ul...
Thinking about tomorrow
<ul><li>Given the changes in  how we interact  with content and each other (make sense) and growing mediative role of tech...
CCK08 & CCK09, EC & I831, OSIWA mindsets of design
Learnometer? <ul><li>Physical device, network aware: </li></ul><ul><li>-Active search </li></ul><ul><li>-Semantic analysis...
<ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter:  </li></ul><ul><li>www.elearnspace.org </li></ul>
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Roots of Connectivism

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Roots of Connectivism

  1. 1. Roots of Connectivism September 29, 2009 EC&I 831
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ What we have here is a transition from a stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, to a world of instability , flux, of knowledge produced by the individual...” </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Education, London, 2007 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Roots of Connectivism
  4. 4. <ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brought together/unified (corrected) in neuroscience </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brought together/unified (corrected) in neuroscience </li></ul>
  6. 6. Behaviourism <ul><li>Concept: Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner </li></ul>B.F. Skinner
  7. 7. Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is objective, but secondary to behavioural considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is stimulus/response-based (conditioning) </li></ul>Behaviourism
  8. 8. Cognitivism <ul><li>Concept: information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized/organizable </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Ausubel, Gagne, Bandura, Bruner (both socially-focused) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitivism <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is objective, acquired through cognition (objectivistic) </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing: attention to STM, LTM, and interaction between systems (encoding, retrieval, cognitive load) </li></ul>Cognitivism
  11. 11. Constructivism <ul><li>“ Knowledge constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences” </li></ul><ul><li>Driscoll </li></ul>
  12. 12. Piaget <ul><li>Piaget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li></ul></ul>“ I think that all structures are constructed and that the fundamental feature is the course of this construction: Nothing is given at the start, except some limiting points on which all the rest is based. The structures are neither given in advance in the human mind nor in the external world, as we perceive or organize it.”
  13. 13. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language (symbols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural context </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Constructionism <ul><li>Concept: people learn through making things – “creative experimentation” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning vs. Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>“ find ways in which the technology enables children to use knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert </li></ul>
  15. 15. Situated Learning <ul><li>Concept: “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs” </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, Lave, Wenger </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activity Theory <ul><li>Concept: “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individual and the social structure” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transcending Context” </li></ul><ul><li>Leont’ev (based on Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Engeström (in current iteration – expansive learning) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Epistemology/pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge is personally constructed, socially generated, contextually held </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is indirect, supportive, learner-driven, experiential </li></ul>Constructivism
  18. 18. <ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brought together/unified (corrected) in neuroscience </li></ul>
  19. 19. Move from folk psychology <ul><li>To scientific psychology (neural net view of learning/knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of mind (Churchland, Clark, Damásio) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Connectionism <ul><li>Concept: Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early: Thorndike (behaviourist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More recently modular models of learning (Minsky), and AI focus: Bechtel, Abrahamsen, Pinker, Churchland, Hebb </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Psychological/social/learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Mind/Connectionist/Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brought together/unified (corrected) in neuroscience </li></ul>
  22. 22. Neuroscience as parent science for learning
  23. 23. Biological views of learning <ul><li>“ It appears that complex and distributed systems of neurons are implicated in learning, with some systems centrally involved with the development and representation of a memory trace, and others peripherally involved in the expression of learned behaviour” </li></ul><ul><li>Donegan & Thompson </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>“ To the neuroscientist, learning is a whole-person/whole-brain activity what confounds received organizations” </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Marchese </li></ul>
  25. 25. Epistemology/Pedagogy <ul><li>? </li></ul>Connectionism/Neuroscience
  26. 26. Networked Learning
  27. 27. Learning in relationship to knowledge and mind <ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchins – Not “in skull” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spivey et. al. – “not always inside brain” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bereiter – “knowing outside the mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Externalization – Wittgenstein, Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization & negotiation – Papert, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>“ The intelligences…are distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments” </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Pea </li></ul>
  29. 29. Connectivism
  30. 30. Knowledge & learning as networked and emergent Synchronicity Amplification Resonance
  31. 31. Undiscovered public knowledge <ul><li>When connections are weak…not more research, but better connections </li></ul><ul><li>Undiscovered public knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>systems of information that are similar but distinct or not normally connected </li></ul><ul><li>Don Swanson </li></ul>
  32. 32. Participatory sense making <ul><li>Our world makes sense through our interaction with information and others </li></ul><ul><li>....(and in turn, their interactions with information and others) </li></ul>De Jaegher, Di Paolo, 2007
  33. 33. <ul><li>Depth and diversity of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with existing ideas/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and Weak Ties </li></ul>Determining understanding
  34. 34. The primacy of the connection Connections are to learning as atoms are to the physical world…
  35. 35. <ul><li>What connections are </li></ul><ul><li>How they form </li></ul><ul><li>What attributes/structure they exhibit at formation </li></ul><ul><li>What various formations mean </li></ul>
  36. 36. How attributes of connections reflect learning
  37. 37. But what about technology?
  38. 38. <ul><li>New media adds new opportunities for connections/relations, enacting latent ties </li></ul><ul><li>Haythornthwaite, 2002 </li></ul>
  39. 39. Extension of mind
  40. 40. External mind
  41. 41. Epistemology/pedagogy <ul><li>Knowledge as constellation of connections </li></ul><ul><li>Sensemaking/wayfinding </li></ul><ul><li>Network (social/technological) as assistive cognitive agent </li></ul><ul><li>Technology as externalization/extension </li></ul>Connectivism
  42. 42. Thinking about tomorrow
  43. 43. <ul><li>Given the changes in how we interact with content and each other (make sense) and growing mediative role of technology, how should we change the educational process? </li></ul>
  44. 44. CCK08 & CCK09, EC & I831, OSIWA mindsets of design
  45. 45. Learnometer? <ul><li>Physical device, network aware: </li></ul><ul><li>-Active search </li></ul><ul><li>-Semantic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>-Location-aware </li></ul><ul><li>-Tracks connections </li></ul><ul><li>-Links conceptual development </li></ul><ul><li>- Meaningful metrics </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter: </li></ul><ul><li>www.elearnspace.org </li></ul>

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