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Behavioral Big Data: Why Quality Engineers Should Care


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Keynote at 10th Galilee Quality Conference at Ort Braude College, Israel (May 24, 2018)

Published in: Data & Analytics
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Behavioral Big Data: Why Quality Engineers Should Care

  1. 1. Behavioral Big Data: Why Quality Engineers Should Care Galit Shmueli
  2. 2. PhD in Statistics, Technion IE&M CMU Statistics Dept U of Maryland Business School Indian School of Business National Tsing (“Ching”) Hua U, Service Science
  4. 4. ‫שסביבנו‬ ‫העולם‬ ‫את‬ ‫לשנות‬ ‫איך‬ ‫ידענו‬ ‫היום‬ ‫עד‬, ‫שבתוכנו‬ ‫העולם‬ ‫את‬ ‫לא‬ ‫אבל‬. ‫הקרובים‬ ‫בעשורים‬ ‫אבל‬,‫והביוטכנולוגיה‬ ‫המלאכותית‬ ‫הבינה‬ ‫לשנות‬ ‫להתחיל‬ ‫בהיסטוריה‬ ‫הראשונה‬ ‫בפעם‬ ‫לנו‬ ‫יאפשרו‬ ‫שבתוכנו‬ ‫העולם‬ ‫את‬ ‫משמעותי‬ ‫באופן‬.‫איך‬ ‫נלמד‬ ‫אנחנו‬ ‫שלנו‬ ‫והמוח‬ ‫הגוף‬ ‫את‬ ‫מחדש‬ ‫להנדס‬,‫הקוד‬ ‫את‬ ‫לשכתב‬ ‫איך‬ ‫שלנו‬ ‫הגנטי‬,‫למחשבים‬ ‫מוחות‬ ‫ישירות‬ ‫לחבר‬ ‫ואיך‬.‫כתוצאה‬ ‫מכך‬,‫ה־‬ ‫במאה‬ ‫הכלכלה‬ ‫של‬ ‫העיקריים‬ ‫המוצרים‬21‫יהיו‬ ‫רכב‬ ‫כלי‬ ‫רק‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫ומוחות‬ ‫גופים‬ ‫הנראה‬ ‫ככל‬,‫ומזון‬ ‫בגדים‬. HUMAN PRODUCT Are bodies & brains just another product?
  5. 5. What we’ve learned… is that we need to take a more proactive role in a broader view of our responsibility. It’s not enough to just build tools, we need to make sure that they’re used for good
  6. 6. What is Behavioral Big Data (BBD) Special type of Big Data Behavioral: people’s actions, reactions, interactions, self-reported opinions, thoughts, feelings Human and social connectivity: Intention, deception, emotion, reciprocation, herding,… Awareness of data collection -> modify behavior (legal risks, embarrassment, unwanted solicitation)
  7. 7. BBD vs. Medical Big Data • Individual bodies • Physical measurements • Medical systems set data collection timing • Clinical trials: awareness & vested interest • Collection of connected people • Measurable behaviors: actions, interactions, self-reported feelings, opinions, thoughts • User chooses data generation timing • Experiments: users unaware; not always in user’s best interest
  8. 8. Getting Closer
  9. 9. More and more human and social activities are measured Most companies that have BBD were not created for the purpose of generating BBD 3 important points Data regulation & ethical standards lagging behind
  10. 10. Who has BBD? On whom? For what purpose?
  11. 11. The “Old Guard” Governments law enforcement, security, traffic, taxation Financial Institutions fraud, loans Telecoms fraud, infrastructure, marketing Retail Chains marketing, operations, merchandising Insurance set premiums Technologies Cameras Sensors IT systems (POS, calls,…) New Technologies GPS Internet Mobile Social Things
  12. 12. BBD on Customers (you!) Retail & insurance adopt military technologies
  13. 13.
  14. 14. BBD on Employees (you!) Workplaces track BBD (beyond security reasons)
  15. 15. “Surveillance at work is nothing new... But AI makes ubiquitous surveillance worthwhile, because every bit of data is potentially valuable. Few laws govern how data are collected at work, and many employees unguardedly consent to surveillance when they sign their employment contract. Where does all this lead?”
  16. 16. New players in the BBD field On-ground SMEs Academic researchersOnline/mobile platforms Data brokers Individuals IoT companies Hackers
  17. 17. Online/mobile Platforms gaming & movies, search, social media, retail, messaging, shared economy, dating, news, MOOCs, collaboration software Use BBD to personalize improve product/service detect fraud advertising marketing logistics & operations
  18. 18. IoT companies Use BBD to personalize, improve product/service, advertising, marketing, logistics & operations
  19. 19. Small & Medium (On-Ground) Organizations schools, cafes, restaurants, parking lots, cinemas, gyms, hospitals, museums, libraries Use BBD to personalize improve product/service detect fraud advertising marketing logistics & operations
  20. 20. Researchers Researchers with social science + technical backgrounds Information Systems Marketing Computational Social Science Use BBD to answer old and new scientific questions
  21. 21. Emotional Contagion in Social Networks Kramer et al. Proc of the National Academies of Sciences, 2014 • Can emotional states be transferred to others via emotional contagion? • Age-old question, now testable • Large-scale experiment run by FB, manipulating users’ exposure level to emotional expressions in their Facebook News Feed
  22. 22. Anonymous Browsing in Dating Websites Bapna, Ramaprasad, Shmueli, Umyarov Management Science, 2016 • How does anonymous browsing affect outcomes on dating sites? • Questions about human behavior due to new technologies • Large-scale experiment on US dating website Profile Visit Recent visitor: NONE
  23. 23. Forecasting Elections with Non-Representative Polls Wang et al., 2014, Intl. Journal on Forecasting • Can elections be forecast using a non-representative sample? • Survey BBD from Xbox with built-in daily poll
  24. 24. Individuals
  25. 25. Despite intentionally turning off my phone Bluetooth right after synching the band's data every day (which means the device should not be able to connect to my phone, or the cloud), the device and my phone did continue having secret "conversations". I discovered this when my band vibrated on incoming phone calls when Bluetooth was turned off. This happened on multiple occasions. I am not sure what part of the technology chain to blame - my Samsung phone? the Android operating system? the Mi Band?
  26. 26. Data Brokers The FTC’s Jon Leibowitz described data brokers as the “unseen cyberazzi who collect information on all of us” Use of BBD: sell to others
  27. 27. Hackers Hackers
  28. 28. More and more human and social activities are measured Most companies that have BBD were not created for the purpose of generating BBD 3 important points Data regulation & ethical standards lagging behind
  29. 29. Recent data privacy regulations might reshape the collection & use of BBD
  30. 30. Why regulation? Attorney- Client Privilege
  31. 31. "‫את‬ ‫שינחה‬ ‫אתי‬ ‫בקוד‬ ‫צורך‬ ‫יש‬ ‫המלאכותית‬ ‫הבינה‬ ‫פיתוח‬. ‫שאינו‬ ‫בתחום‬ ‫פיתוח‬ ‫כמעט‬ ‫אין‬ ‫מוסריות‬ ‫שאלות‬ ‫איזשהן‬ ‫מעלה‬". “There’s a need for an ethical code to guides AI development”
  32. 32. the most crucial choices about the future of ordinary voters and their children are probably made not by Brussels bureaucrats or Washington lobbyists but by engineers, entrepreneurs, and scientists who are hardly aware of the implications of their decisions, and who certainly don’t represent anyone.
  33. 33. Why should quality engineers care about BBD? Advances in Technology generate/use BBD Fully automated (AI) solutions Micro-level recording of human and social behavior Because you are (and should be) involved in all of these! Data Privacy Regulation Standards
  34. 34. Users voluntarily provide BBD (UGC) personal details, photos, comments, messages, search terms, bids in auctions, likes, payment info, connections with “friends”
  35. 35. Install AppConnect smart device Users agree to provide their BBD Send crash data
  36. 36. But don’t anticipate some of its uses
  37. 37. Users provide BBD unknowingly
  38. 38. Microsoft Xbox 360 comes with a microphone, a camera and technology that recognizes a user's voice and face • sign in and sign off • games you played • game-score statistics • Xbox console hardware & operating performance data • manufacturing codes from game discs • network performance data • data that indicates the quality of the Xbox service to prevent cheating • IP address • operating system • Xbox Live software version to improve your experience • Bing search terms • samples of voice commands to perform search • what you watched on Xbox One’s TV service • music & videos you watched or listened to using Xbox Live
  41. 41. Galit Shmueli 徐茉莉 Institute of Service Science