Thermal and Mechanical Energy Harvesting Materials Krzysztof Grzybowski
Smart Energy Management–Global Level of energy utilization was increasing in European countries during the last few years. New and efficient technologies allowed for significant reduction of our dependence on energy. Development of new energy harvesting technology is a key solution in this regard.
are the potential energy sources ? to harvest wasted energy ? is necessary for energy harvester design? materials should be used for energy harvesting? How Where What Which
Energy sources used for harvesting <ul><li>Presence of the s treams of wasted energy that could be recovered and re - utilized ( such as heat or vibrations) . </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of the s treams of energies in systems that are stand alone and cannot be powered by conventional sources, or the powering is too expensive . </li></ul><ul><li>Self - powered solutions operating on batteries that could be more conveniently supplied by energy harvesters. </li></ul>Energy harvesters are usually applied in case of
Piezoelectric S olutions Frequent vibrations are capable of power ing any kind of energy - dependent wireless sensors . (Microstrain, Cedrat)
Thermoelectric M iniaturized H arvester Nextreme Thermal Solutions, Micropelt
Energy S treams in a C ar BSST with BMW, Visteon, Marlow, Virginia Tech, Purdue, UC-Santa Cruz · GM with GE, U of Michigan, U of South Florida, ORNL, RTI · Michigan State with Cummins, Tellurex, NASA-JPL, Iowa State · United Technologies with Pratt & Whitney, Hi-Z, Pacific Northwest National Lab., and Caterpillar Research groups
Waste H eat R ecovery S ystems BMW Series 5 , Model Year 2010, 3.0 Liter Gasoline Engine with Thermoelectric Generator US D O E planned decrease of fuel consumption by 10 %
Unused I ndustrial H eat S ources Many heat energy sources are currenlty well re - used via traditional heat exchangers and accumulators. This is one of the main quidelines of process engineering. However, some of the heat sources could be utilized even more deeper. Industrial P rocessing H eat Unused and E mitted H eat S treams
Self powered sensors/actuators The application of self- powering wireless network systems takes place in various scales. Due to their elastic architecture, they can easily incorporate various energy harvesters. IMEC Morgan ElectroCeramics Ferrotec, EnOcean Human Machine Complex systems
Self powered systems. Comparison of battery and piezoelectric energy harvester Energy harvesters provide various useful features that make them more attractive than batteries for self-powered solutions. Battery replacement: Advanced Cerametrics, Advanced Linear Devices
is necessary for the energy harvester design? What
Strategic guidelines for thermoelectric harvesters <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Value of ZT (figure of merit). Commercial modules offers ZT~1 now. In future ZT ? </li></ul><ul><li>Proper heat source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of high-thermal gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient design matching the heat source characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of the electricity receiver or storage systems at close proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>Key parameters for deciding about solution acceptance
Strategic guidelines for piezoelectric harvesters <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Value of piezoelectricity coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of mechanical stress (vibrations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver energy requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of the electricity receiver or storage systems at close proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>Key parameters deciding about solution acceptance
materials should be used for energy harvesting? Which
Applicability in harsh environments Energy harvesting materials – Drivers Small size Note: Size of the ball indicates importance or weight of the factor Small dimensions of most of the energy harvesters allow for their easy and noninvasive application in varioussolutions. Popular batteries cannot operate at high temperatures. Thus energy harvesters are good candidate to be used instead of them. Applied energy harvesters providing easy to use and maintain solutions. Energy harvesters can operate for long times. Despite of their high inital costs they exclude the need of frequent system maintanace or replacement. Demand for reliable powering devices with long lifetimes Market need for quiet solutions with no moving parts.
Energy Harvesting T hermoelectric S ystems Key Challenges TE systems Low conversion efficiency Necessity of accurate module design Need of power management systems Relatively high price Parasitic thermal conduction Size of the bubble describes the strength of the factor
Energy Harvesting Piezoelectric S ystems Key Challenges Piezoelectric systems Brittleness Relatively High Cost Unidirectional operation Difficult deposition Low energy transfer Size of the bubble describes the strength of the factor
Influence of the BixSb2–xTe3 constituent elements on total alloy price(*) Absolute Numbers Percentage Share Trend 100% 100% (*) note that the price of the whole alloy is not directly the sum of constituent elements Bismuth Antimony Tellurium The price of the tellurium is mostly impacting bismuth telluride alloys’ price. The influence of antimony is neglectable.
Energy H arvesting S ystems Piezoelectrics Human source Piezoelectrics Environment Photovoltaic Outdoor RF - GSM 1E-3 microWatts/cm 2 1E4 1 Photovoltaic Indoor RF - WiFi Thermoelectric Environment Thermoelectric Human Energy Harvested Development stage Early Advanced
Top Market Impact of Top 10 Developed Piezoelectrics Projected Impact on the Industry High Impact Low Impact Certainty Low High Bi4Ti3O12 KxNa1-xNbO3 modified KNN PbTiO3 PZT BaTiO3 Quartz High Growth Impact Low Growth Impact Medium Growth Impact Source Frost & Sullivan. KNN stands forKxNa1-xNbO3