Vineet GargAsst. Professor, MCAgrvineet@gmail.com
Green ComputingIntroduction:Green computing, green IT or ICT Sustainability, refers to environmentally sustainablecomputing or IT. In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan definesthe field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing,using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such asmonitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems —efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use ofHazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the products lifetime, andpromote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-relatedComputer technologies.
Cloud ComputingIntroduction:Cloud computing is a metaphor used by Technology or ITServices companies for the delivery of computing requirements asa service to a heterogeneous community of end-recipients.The term cloud theoretically signifies abstraction of technology,resources and its location that are very vital in building integratedcomputing infrastructure (including networks, systems andapplications). All Cloud Computing models rely heavily on sharingof resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar toa utility over a network (typically the Internet).
Green Cloud ComputingSome studies show that Cloud computing can actually make traditional datacentersmore energy efficient by using technologies such as resource virtualization andworkload consolidation. The traditional data centres running Web applications areoften provisioned to handle sporadic peak loads, which can result in low resourceutilization and wastage of energy.Cloud datacenter, on the other hand, can reduce the energy consumed through serverconsolidation, whereby different workloads can share the same physical host usingvirtualization and unused servers can be switched off.A recent research by Accenture shows that moving business applications to Cloud canreduce carbon footprint of organizations. According to the report, small businessessaw the most dramatic reduction in emissions – up to 90 percent while using Cloudresources. Large corporations can save at least 30-60 percent in carbon emissionsusing Cloud applications, and mid-size businesses can save 60-90 percent
Clouds are essentially virtualized datacenters and applications offeredas services on a subscription basis as shown in above Figure. They requirehigh energy usage for its operation. Today, a typical datacenter with 1000racks need 10 Megawatt of power to operate, which results in higheroperational cost. Thus, for a datacenter, the energy cost is a significantcomponent of its operating and up-front costs. In addition, in April 2007,Gartner estimated that the Information and Communication Technologies(ICT) industry generates about 2% of the total global CO2 emissions, which isequal to the aviation industry.According to a report published by the European Union, a decrease inemission volume of 15%–30% is required before year 2020 to keep theglobal temperature increase below 2 C. Thus, energy consumption andcarbon emission by Cloud infrastructures has become a key environmentalconcern.
Microsoft Study about Green Cloud ComputingMicrosoft claims that for large deployments, Microsoft’s cloudsolutions can reduce energy use and carbon emissions by more than30 percent when compared to their corresponding Microsoft businessapplications installed on-premise.Microsoft together with Accenture and WSP has conducted a study tothe saving of energy and carbon emission by cloud computing. Theydeveloped a quantitative model to calculate the energy use andcarbon footprint of an organization’s IT applications MicrosoftExchange, Sharepoint and Dynamics CRM) for both cloud and on-premise deployment. This approach aligns with the assessmentmethodology developed by the Global e-Sustainability Initiative. Contd….
The study compared the environmental impact of cloud- based versus on-premise IT delivery on a per-User basis and considered three differentdeployment sizes—small (100 users), medium (1,000 users) and large(10,000 users). The analysis suggests that, on average across the differentApplications , typical carbon emission reductions by deployment size are:• More than 90 percent for small deployments of about 100 users• 60 to 90 percent for medium-sized deployments of about 1,000 users• 30 to 60 percent for large deployments of about 10,000 usersAccording to the report the key factors that enable cloud computing to lower energy useand carbon emissions from IT:Dynamic Provisioning: Reducing wasted computing resources through better matching ofServer capacity with actual demand.Multi-Tenancy: Flattening relative peak loads by serving large numbers of organizationsand users on shared infrastructure.Server Utilization: Operating servers at higher utilization rates.Data Center Efficiency: Utilizing advanced data center infrastructure designs that reducepower loss through improved cooling, power conditioning, etc.
Greenpeace Contrary study aboutGreen Cloud ComputingContrary to the above opinion, Greenpeace, observe that the Cloudphenomenon may aggravate the problem of carbon emissions andglobal warming. The reason given is that the collective demand forcomputing resources is expected to further increase dramatically inthe next few years. Even the most efficiently built datacenter withThe highest utilization rates will only mitigate, rather thaneliminate, harmful CO2 emissions. The reason given is that Cloudproviders are more interested in electricity cost reduction ratherthan carbon emission. Contd….
Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change in March of2010, highlighting the scale of IT’s estimated energy consumption, and providing newanalysis on the projected growth in energy consumption of the internet and cloudcomputing for the coming decade, particularly as driven by data centres.Key findings and outstanding questions from the Make IT Green report include: The electricity consumption of data centres may be as much as 70% higher than previously predicted. The combined electricity demand of the internet/cloud (data centres and telecommunications network) globally is 623bn kWh (and would rank 5th among countries). Based on current projections, the demand for electricity will more than triple to 1,973bn kWh, an amount greater than the combined total demands of France, Germany, Canada and Brazil.
SummaryCloud computing, being an emerging technology also raises significantquestions about its environmental sustainability. While financial benefits ofCloud computing have been analyzed widely, the energy efficiency of Cloudcomputing as a whole has not been analyzed. Through the use of large sharedvirtualized datacenters Cloud computing can offer large energy savings.However, Cloud services can also further increase the internet traffic and itsgrowing information database which could decrease such energy savings.Thus, this power point presentation explores the environmental sustainabilityof Cloud computing by analyzing various technologies and mechanism thatSupport this goal. Our analysis is important for users and organization that areLooking at Cloud computing as a solution for their administrative,infrastructural and management problems.
References For Microsoft study visit: http://www.microsoft.com/Environment/products- and-solutions/cloud-computing.aspx GreenPeace Study: Dirty Data Report Wikipedia Green Cloud computing and Environmental Sustainability (Saurabh Kumar Garg, Rajkumar Buyya)