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Grade9, L11-U3Habitat loss and fragmentation

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Habitat loss and fragmentation

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Grade9, L11-U3Habitat loss and fragmentation

  1. 1. habitat loss & frag mentation
  2. 2. Habitat Loss and FragmentationHabitat Loss and Fragmentation A simple glance out the window provides evidence of habitat loss…
  3. 3. Farmland, human settlements and highways have replaced much of southern Ontario’s once extensive temperate deciduous forest ecosystem.
  4. 4. A view from the top of the CN Tower reveals a human-dominated landscape. Little of the original natural forest remains.
  5. 5. Habitat Loss and FragmentationHabitat Loss and Fragmentation An extreme example of habitat loss is the conversion of large areas of natural ecosystems into farmland and urban development.
  6. 6. Habitat Loss and FragmentationHabitat Loss and Fragmentation
  7. 7. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. In Canada, most of the habitat loss occurred during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when land was cleared for farmland. Toronto, 1876
  8. 8. More recently, natural habitat has been lost to urban sprawl and transportation routes
  9. 9. Fragmentation of natural ecosystems reduces their sustainability. Fragmentation is the dividing up of a region into smaller parcels or fragments. Habitat Loss and FragmentationHabitat Loss and Fragmentation
  10. 10. When large ecosystems become fragmented, species with large ranges may not have enough area to survive. Habitat Loss and FragmentationHabitat Loss and Fragmentation
  11. 11. In a fragmented ecosystem, more of the habitat is exposed to damaging outside influences such as pollution.
  12. 12. There are several key factors that enhance ecosystem sustainability, which are considered when deciding which areas should be set aside for protection and conservation… Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability
  13. 13. 1. Size – Large blocks support larger and more stable populations and communities Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Poorer Option Better Option
  14. 14. 2. Number – One large area is better than an equal area composed of many smaller fragments because there is less outside influence Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Poorer Option Better Option
  15. 15. 3. Proximity – The closer the ecosystem fragments are to each other, the greater the chance populations will be able to use the entire area Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Poorer Option Better Option
  16. 16. 4. Connectedness – Interconnected areas provide wildlife corridors and permit migration between larger blocks Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Poorer Option Better Option
  17. 17. 5. Integrity – Access by roads and trails can increase pollution, hunting and fishing Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Poorer Option Better Option
  18. 18. On a global scale, habitat loss and fragmentation are second to climate change as the most serious threat to sustainability of natural terrestrial ecosystems. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability
  19. 19. Habitat loss is most pronounced in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability
  20. 20. Expanding human populations are placing pressure on the land base to supply more food and raw materials.
  21. 21. In the Amazon, which is the world’s largest remaining rainforest, clearing and burning are the greatest threats to the ecosystem’s sustainability.
  22. 22. This is most often done to create pasture for cattle sold to foreign markets
  23. 23. If we reduce the demand for agricultural products produced in tropical regions, we can reduce rainforest habitat loss. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability
  24. 24. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Causes of Deforestation in the Amazon, 2000-2005
  25. 25. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Ontario is no longer experiencing a rapid loss of native ecosystems, but there is still reason for concern. The remaining threatened areas require wise management.
  26. 26. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability The loggerhead shrike is threatened by habitat loss. The range of this small predatory bird once covered much of southern Ontario.
  27. 27. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Over the past 50 years, changes in agricultural practices have caused the loss of nesting habitat for the shrike.
  28. 28. Habitat SustainabilityHabitat Sustainability Once a common bird, the population reached a low of 17 breeding pairs in Ontario in 1997. The Loggerhead Recovery Team has developed a habitat conservation plan to promote habitat restoration
  29. 29. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human activities also threaten aquatic ecosystems. In many cases, human activities along shorelines damage neighbouring aquatic ecosystems
  30. 30. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activity: Replacing natural vegetation along coastlines and waterfronts Impact: – habitat destruction – shoreline erosion – loss of some species – loss in breeding areas such as fish spawning beds
  31. 31. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activity: Dredging to create deeper water for boats Impact: – disruption of bottom- living organisms and spawning beds – habitat destruction
  32. 32. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activity: Sediment runoff from land-clearing, agricultural and forestry operations Impact: – sediments may smother natural habitats
  33. 33. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activity: Commercial Fishing Impact: – bottom trawlers and drag lines injure and kill bottom-dwelling organisms – damage to abiotic features
  34. 34. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activity: Draining wetlands for urban expansion and agriculture Impact: – loss of wetland habitats and associated species
  35. 35. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems Natural wetlands are flat and often have deep, nutrient-rich soil with an abundant water supply. These conditions are ideal for agriculture.
  36. 36. The result is that most large wetlands in populated parts of Ontario have been drained and converted to farmland. The Holland Marsh
  37. 37. There is a push to reverse this trend and re-establish wetlands. Creating new wetlands makes valuable habitats for wildlife and waterfowl. Wetlands & Aquatic EcosystemsWetlands & Aquatic Ecosystems

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