Hawaii 2010 IGARSS 30 th  Anniversary July 25-30 2010 Honolulu Hawaii USA Nimbus The Evolution of the US Satellite IR Soun...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: Might detect a bit of a WI perspective,  but what do you exp...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept :  Vertical dimension from  ...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   Vertical dimension from  ...
The 1 st  Sounders (1969)   were Spectrometers   IR Interferometer Spectrometer ( IRIS B , Rudolf Hanel) Satellite IR Spec...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   Vertical dimension from  ...
Temperature & Water Vapor IR Sounders  (Operational or Pre-op Demos) VAS   (1980-)  –1 st  Geo Sounder (Spin-Scan) GIFTS  ...
Temperature & Water Vapor IR Sounder  (Operational or Pre-op Demos) VAS   (1980-)  –1 st  Geo Sounder (Spin-Scan) GIFTS   ...
Key Enabling Technological Advances   <ul><li>Spacecraft Payload Capacity : </li></ul><ul><li>Detectors : Longwave Photovo...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   Vertical dimension from  ...
Aircraft & Ground-based Instruments :  Development of   1.  S/C Instruments   2.  RT Model  3.  Algorithms   4.  Validatio...
HIS Aircraft Instrument (1983-1998)  U2 Shadowed in background, 1985 Dynamically Aligned Interferometer, Henry Buijs, Bome...
HIS (1985) <ul><li>Demonstrated that state-of-the-art FTS is well suited to achieving accurate calibration   (even for a w...
UW Scanning HIS (1996-present) Ambient Blackbody Hot Blackbody Scene Mirror Motor Interferometer & Optics Electronics Data...
Scanning-HIS Radiometric Calibration 3-sigma Error Budget 21 November 2002 on ER2, T ABB  = 260K, T HBB  = 310K LW SW MW 0...
NIST TXR S-HIS AERI BB January 2007, testing at UW/SSEC S-HIS / TXR Side-by-side radiance intercomparison shows agreement ...
AERI Cavity Blackbody (   > 0.999) (Aero-glaze Z306) Cavity Shape from UW Pioneer Venus /  Sydnor, JPL, 1970 High emissiv...
AIRS  4 May 2002 Launch AIRS 14 June 2002 Calculated NASA Aqua
<ul><li>Excellent agreement Demonstrated! </li></ul>AIRS Calibration Validation with S-HIS 11/21/2002  Gulf of Mex 1 st  d...
High Accuracy IR Radiances-CLARREO IASI on Metop   19 October 2006 launch - full cross-track scan  - 2x2 12 km pixels  sam...
Spectral Coverage of GIFTS/IRS/HES*  Compared to  IASI ,  CrIS ,  AIRS ,  S-HIS  &  NAST-I Advanced GEO Sounders *HES opti...
Joint Airborne IASI Validation Expt (JAIVEx)  4/19/2007 SGP ARM  Tobin wavenumber Excellent agreement with Scanning HIS an...
Joint Airborne IASI Validation Expt (JAIVEx)  4/19/2007 SGP ARM  Tobin Excellent agreement with Scanning HIS and NAST-I on...
IASI / AIRS Direct Comparisons May 2007-Jan 2008 Dave Tobin Excellent agreement, but issues > 0.1K remain wavenumber NORTH...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   vertical dimension from  ...
   Cross-track Infrared Sounder  (CrIS) for NPP/JPSS Mass:  < 146 kg  Power (Avg): < 110 W Data Rate:  <1.5 Mbps from Wil...
Noise :   NEN Comparison with AIRS ( AIRS , CrIS random,  CrIS Spec )  AIRS for  250K scene, CrIS for 303 K ( SW NENs  sim...
CrIS  Expected On-orbit Accuracy Will be <0.2 K 3-sigma for all Scene T’s! 3-sigma Brightness Temperature Accuracy (color ...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   vertical dimension from  ...
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   vertical dimension from  ...
Technology Developments for the CLARREO Benchmark Climate Mission High Performance FTS Spectral line shape from laser sour...
f October 1959 - October 2009
-Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements  for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept:   vertical dimension from  ...
Hawaii 2010 IGARSS 30 th  Anniversary July 25-30 2010 Honolulu Hawaii USA Nimbus The Evolution of the US Satellite IR Soun...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability:  Physical Concept IRIS Spectrum  with  SIRS Channels Nimbus
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability:  Physical Concept
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability:  First Satellite Sounding Wark & Fleming SIRS data started being u...
First Numerical Weather Prediction Validation Using Satellite Infrared Sounding Data (SIRS-A) Nimbus
Nimbus 3-day forecast errors over the western US reduced by 50% using Nimbus sounding  data over the mid-Pacific in the in...
The problem with Nimbus -3 and Nimbus-4 Temperature Profiles was that >95 % of SIRS and IRIS Sounding Fields of View ( 150...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1972-2014):  High Horizontal Resolution TIROS-N NOAA TIROS/NOAA HI...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1979 - ):  Improved Global NWP ITPR Percent Correlation of Forecas...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1979-2002):  Poor Vertical Resolution ITPR The Problem With the TO...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ):  Ultra-spectral Resolution ITPR •  Broad Spectral Covera...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ):  High Vertical Resolution ITPR High Vertical Resolution ...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ):  Profile Information Content ITPR Number of Pieces of In...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1986 - ):  High Vertical Resolution  Soundings Demonstrated With A...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2002 - ):  EOS Aqua AIRS Provides Large Positive Impact on Global ...
Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) N ATIONAL  P OLAR-ORBITING  O PERATIONAL  E NVIRONMENTAL  S ATELLITE  S YSTEM NPP/JPSS...
ITPR -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2006 - ):  JPSS IASI Validation (4/19/2007)
ITPR -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2012 - ):  JPSS Time Change Capability April 29 2007 IASI and...
<ul><li>Quasi-continuous NAST-I demonstrates that the major differences between IASI and AIRS water vapor soundings are du...
-Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability <ul><li>First Satellite Soundings:   SIRS and IRIS (1969-1971) succ...
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WE4.L10.3: THE EVOLUTION OF THE US SATELLITE IR SOUNDING PROGRAM – FROM THE NIMBUS SIRS AND IRIS TO THE NPOESS CRIS

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  • This is just a few pictures of AIRS. The one on the top left is of AIRS just prior to integration onto the Aqua sensor suite. AIRS is a grating spectrometer. The one on the right is the Aqua sensor suite at TRW undergoing a “shake” test. The one on the bottom left is a sample simulated spectrum. X-axis is in wavenumbers. The spectral resolving power (delta v over v) is 1200.
  • Although the agreement between AIRS and IASI observed radiances is very good on one level, the SNO comparisons reported here reveal some fundamental measurement differences which can potentially impact both weather and climate applications. Specific findings include: The comparisons show no significant long term (8 months) trends versus time. Significant differences, on the order of 500 mK, are observed between the longwave differences from the northern to southern latitude SNOs, particularly for AIRS detector array M-12 (649-681 cm -1 ). Further analyses and comparisons with L. Strow’s spectral shift analyses suggests that these differences are due primarily to orbital variations of the AIRS spectral centroids, which is not included in production of the AIRS L1B product. SNO comparisons with IASI should be performed again after production of the AIRS L1C climate products, which are expected to include knowledge of these spectral shift variations. AIRS A-B state related differences are observed within some detector arrays, most notably within array M-08 (851-903 cm -1 ) with differences of approximately 400 mK between A-side only and B-side only channels. For upper level water vapor channels, mean differences on the order of 200 mK are observed for AIRS detector arrays M-04a (1541-1623 cm -1 ) and M-04b (1460-1527 cm -1 ), while the mean differences for neighboring arrays are approximately zero, suggesting that these differences are due, at least partially, to AIRS. IASI shortwave channels are very noisy for the very cold southern latitude SNOs. Optimal random noise filtering and/or wavenumber averaging should be used to improve the comparisons for these cases.
  • IASI and AIRS temporal variation is verified with NAST-I. Subtle field evolution characteristics (IASI-&gt;AIRS) confirmed by NAST-I.
  • WE4.L10.3: THE EVOLUTION OF THE US SATELLITE IR SOUNDING PROGRAM – FROM THE NIMBUS SIRS AND IRIS TO THE NPOESS CRIS

    1. 1. Hawaii 2010 IGARSS 30 th Anniversary July 25-30 2010 Honolulu Hawaii USA Nimbus The Evolution of the US Satellite IR Sounding Program – From Nimbus to NPOESS William L. Smith 1,2 and Henry E. Revercomb 1 1 University of Wisconsin-Madison 2 Hampton University NPOESS
    2. 2. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: Might detect a bit of a WI perspective, but what do you expect?
    3. 3. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept : Vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul>
    4. 4. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: Vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1st Space Demonstrations : IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul>
    5. 5. The 1 st Sounders (1969) were Spectrometers IR Interferometer Spectrometer ( IRIS B , Rudolf Hanel) Satellite IR Spectrometer ( SIRS A , David Wark) on Nimbus 3 & 4 IRIS Spectrum with SIRS Channels
    6. 6. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: Vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges : Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength (z), and time (GEO) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Temperature & Water Vapor IR Sounders (Operational or Pre-op Demos) VAS (1980-) –1 st Geo Sounder (Spin-Scan) GIFTS (2015?) (30) (1200) IRT-MTG (2017)… ITPR,VTPR (1972) / HIRS (1978-) IASI / CrIS (2006- / 2011) AIRS (2002-) IRIS / SIRS (1969-70) –1 st Sounders (1200) (2800/1200) GOES Sounder (1994-) – (3-Axis) (1200) (150-300) (30) (30) Spectral Resolving Power (  /   )  Resolving Power @ 14  m Purple = Leo Blue = Geo
    8. 8. Temperature & Water Vapor IR Sounder (Operational or Pre-op Demos) VAS (1980-) –1 st Geo Sounder (Spin-Scan) GIFTS (2015?) (7-14) (<10) IRT-MTG (2017)… ITPR,VTPR (1972) / HIRS (1978-) IASI / CrIS (2006- / 2011) AIRS (2002-) IRIS / SIRS (1969-70) –1 st Sounders (14) (12/14) GOES Sounder (1994-) – (3-Axis)  (4) (160-100/230) nadir only (15/30/20-10) (8)  Spatial Footprint (km) Purple = Leo Blue = Geo
    9. 9. Key Enabling Technological Advances <ul><li>Spacecraft Payload Capacity : </li></ul><ul><li>Detectors : Longwave Photovoltaic ( AIRS, CrIS, GIFTS, IRS ) & Detector Arrays ( AIRS, GIFTS, IRS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Coolers ( AIRS, GIFTS, IRS ) </li></ul><ul><li>FTS Advances : Dynamic alignment ( CrIS ), Laser sample control ( CrIS, GIFTS, IRS ), Techniques for radiometrically accurate imaging FTS ( GIFTS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Processing Electronics : ADC & DSP speeds CrIS, GIFTS, IRS ) </li></ul>
    10. 10. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: Vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength, and time (GEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of high spectral resolution and broad coverage: -Proven by HIS aircraft instrument, 1986 -Incorporated in AIRS (2002-), IASI(2006-), CrIS (2011-) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Aircraft & Ground-based Instruments : Development of 1. S/C Instruments 2. RT Model 3. Algorithms 4. Validation VAS (1980-) ARM AERI (1993-) GIFTS (2015?) (30) (1400) (1200) IRS-MTG (2017) ITPR/VTPR (1972) , HIRS (1978-) IASI/CrIS (2006- / 2011) AIRS (2002-) HIS (1986-1998) IRIS, SIRS (1969-70) (1200) (2800/1200) GOES Sounder (1994-) S-HIS/NAST-I (1998-) (1200) (150 -300) (2000) (30) (1400/2800) (30) (  /   )  Resolving Power @ 14  m 20 yrs 20 yrs
    12. 12. HIS Aircraft Instrument (1983-1998) U2 Shadowed in background, 1985 Dynamically Aligned Interferometer, Henry Buijs, Bomem
    13. 13. HIS (1985) <ul><li>Demonstrated that state-of-the-art FTS is well suited to achieving accurate calibration (even for a warm instrument without active thermal control) </li></ul>While traditional phase correction or magnitude analysis yielded large errors Good 280.2 K result from complex calibration (using 300K, 77K blackbodies) 16 K Revercomb, et al., Applied Optics, 1988
    14. 14. UW Scanning HIS (1996-present) Ambient Blackbody Hot Blackbody Scene Mirror Motor Interferometer & Optics Electronics Data Storage Computer Longwave Midwave Shortwave CO N 2 O H 2 O N 2 O CH 4 CO 2 O 3 CO 2
    15. 15. Scanning-HIS Radiometric Calibration 3-sigma Error Budget 21 November 2002 on ER2, T ABB = 260K, T HBB = 310K LW SW MW 0.2 K 200K Scene T b 300K Wavenumber (cm -1 ) Tb Error, 3-sigma (K) 0 1
    16. 16. NIST TXR S-HIS AERI BB January 2007, testing at UW/SSEC S-HIS / TXR Side-by-side radiance intercomparison shows agreement within 60 mK (3  ) at 10µ. Mean = -22 mK Mean = -60 mK ±90 mK TXR 10 µ Channel NIST TXR Validates S-HIS Radiances TXR is the NIST Thermal-infrared Transfer Radiometer chamber AERI blackbody TXR Ch1 TXR Ch2 Scanning-HIS spectra
    17. 17. AERI Cavity Blackbody (  > 0.999) (Aero-glaze Z306) Cavity Shape from UW Pioneer Venus / Sydnor, JPL, 1970 High emissivity coupled with T accuracy & stability from ultra stable thermistors and careful calibration are key to high accuracy of AERI Best et al., Calcon, 2003; Knuteson et al., J. Atm, & Oceanic Tech., 2004 [YSI 46041]
    18. 18. AIRS 4 May 2002 Launch AIRS 14 June 2002 Calculated NASA Aqua
    19. 19. <ul><li>Excellent agreement Demonstrated! </li></ul>AIRS Calibration Validation with S-HIS 11/21/2002 Gulf of Mex 1 st demo of direct airborne validation of satellite radiance Tobin et al., JGR, 2006
    20. 20. High Accuracy IR Radiances-CLARREO IASI on Metop 19 October 2006 launch - full cross-track scan - 2x2 12 km pixels sample 50x50 km
    21. 21. Spectral Coverage of GIFTS/IRS/HES* Compared to IASI , CrIS , AIRS , S-HIS & NAST-I Advanced GEO Sounders *HES option wavenumber IASI L1C Deapodized 1cm MaxOPD AIRS CrIS S-HIS NAST-I Gaussian Apodization AIRS CrIS
    22. 22. Joint Airborne IASI Validation Expt (JAIVEx) 4/19/2007 SGP ARM Tobin wavenumber Excellent agreement with Scanning HIS and NAST-I on NASA WB57 IASI, NAST-I , S-HIS Mean spectra BT (K) Diff (K) IASI minus NAST-I , IASI minus SHIS 0.09 K 0.16 K 0.07 K 0.12 K
    23. 23. Joint Airborne IASI Validation Expt (JAIVEx) 4/19/2007 SGP ARM Tobin Excellent agreement with Scanning HIS and NAST-I on NASA WB57 wavenumber IASI, NAST-I , S-HIS Mean spectra BT (K) Diff (K) IASI minus NAST-I , IASI minus SHIS 0.12 K 0.20 K 0.04 K 0.03 K -0.19 K -0.08 K
    24. 24. IASI / AIRS Direct Comparisons May 2007-Jan 2008 Dave Tobin Excellent agreement, but issues > 0.1K remain wavenumber NORTHERN SNOs (73.8N) SOUTHERN SNOs (73.8S) Sample SNO Spectra }  0.1K }  0.1K’’
    25. 25. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength, and time (GEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of high spectral resolution and broad coverage: -Proven by HIS aircraft instrument, 1986 -Incorporated in AIRS (2002-), IASI(2006-), CrIS (2011-) </li></ul><ul><li>NPP/JPSS Operational Sounder Ready : CrIS delivered to S/C contractor- Superior performance in a small package! </li></ul>
    26. 26.  Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) for NPP/JPSS Mass: < 146 kg Power (Avg): < 110 W Data Rate: <1.5 Mbps from Williams, Glumb and Predina, ITT, August 2005 SPIE Current Generation HIRS (20 ch) Next Generation CrIS (1307 ch)
    27. 27. Noise : NEN Comparison with AIRS ( AIRS , CrIS random, CrIS Spec ) AIRS for 250K scene, CrIS for 303 K ( SW NENs similar for 300K scene ) CrIS NEN 4x smaller in 15  m CO 2
    28. 28. CrIS Expected On-orbit Accuracy Will be <0.2 K 3-sigma for all Scene T’s! 3-sigma Brightness Temperature Accuracy (color coded for each of 9 FOVs)
    29. 29. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength, and time (GEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of high spectral resolution and broad coverage: -Proven by HIS aircraft instrument, 1986 -Incorporated in AIRS (2002-), IASI(2006-), CrIS (2011-) </li></ul><ul><li>NPP/JPSS Operational Sounder Ready: CrIS delivered to S/C contractor </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trace Gas Capability Proven by AIRS and IASI: More species with higher spectral resolution (IMG, 1996/7; TES, 2004- : Gosat, 2009- ) </li></ul>
    30. 30. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength, and time (GEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of high spectral resolution and broad coverage: -Proven by HIS aircraft instrument, 1986 -Incorporated in AIRS (2002-), IASI(2006-), CrIS (2011-) </li></ul><ul><li>NPP/JPSS Operational Sounder Ready: CrIS delivered to S/C contractor </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trace Gas Capability Proven by AIRS and IASI: More species with higher spectral resolution (IMG, 1996/7; TES, 2004- : Gosat, 2009- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Quality Calibration : High resolution FTS will enable new climate benchmark for CLARREO </li></ul>
    31. 31. Technology Developments for the CLARREO Benchmark Climate Mission High Performance FTS Spectral line shape from laser source A New Class of Advanced Accuracy Satellite Instrumentation (AASI) for the CLARREO Mission NASA IIP TEMPERATURE referenced to multiple phase change signatures Pulse-tube detector cooler OARS: Standard for On-orbit Calibration Traceability
    32. 32. f October 1959 - October 2009
    33. 33. -Part 1- Evolution of Radiance Measurements for IR Sounding: <ul><li>Nadir Sounding Concept: vertical dimension from  using 15 micron CO 2 , Louis Kaplan, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Space Demonstrations: IRIS & SIRS, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Trade coverage and resolution of space (x, y), wavelength, and time (GEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of high spectral resolution and broad coverage: -Proven by HIS aircraft instrument, 1986 -Incorporated in AIRS (2002-), IASI(2006-), CrIS (2011-) </li></ul><ul><li>NPP/JPSS Operational Sounder Ready: CrIS delivered to S/C contractor </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trace Gas Capability Proven by AIRS and IASI: More species with higher spectral resolution (IMG, 1996/7; TES, 2004- : Gosat, 2009- ) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Quality Calibration: High resolution FTS will enable new climate benchmark for CLARREO </li></ul>
    34. 34. Hawaii 2010 IGARSS 30 th Anniversary July 25-30 2010 Honolulu Hawaii USA Nimbus The Evolution of the US Satellite IR Sounding Program – Part 2 Evolution of Sounding Retrieval Capability William L. Smith 1,2 and Henry E. Revercomb 1 1 University of Wisconsin-Madison 2 Hampton University NPOESS
    35. 35. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability: Physical Concept IRIS Spectrum with SIRS Channels Nimbus
    36. 36. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability: Physical Concept
    37. 37. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability: First Satellite Sounding Wark & Fleming SIRS data started being used by the US Weather Bureau (NMC) in the final analysis used to initialize extended range Numerical Weather Forecasts on May 22,1969, less than 6 weeks after the launch of Nimbus 3. First Satellite Sounding Kingston, Jamaica April 14, 1969 Nimbus
    38. 38. First Numerical Weather Prediction Validation Using Satellite Infrared Sounding Data (SIRS-A) Nimbus
    39. 39. Nimbus 3-day forecast errors over the western US reduced by 50% using Nimbus sounding data over the mid-Pacific in the initial analysis Shortwave ridge predicted with the use of Nimbus soundings in the initial analysis
    40. 40. The problem with Nimbus -3 and Nimbus-4 Temperature Profiles was that >95 % of SIRS and IRIS Sounding Fields of View ( 150 km IFOV) contained cloud which greatly compromised the accuracy of the derived soundings -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1969-1971): Clear Vs Cloudy
    41. 41. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1972-2014): High Horizontal Resolution TIROS-N NOAA TIROS/NOAA HIRS (TOVS) Temperature Profile Errors TOVS (HIRS/MSU) Weighting Functions and RMS Differences with Raobs (+/- 3 Hrs and 200 km) during the GWE ITPR/HIRS HIRS The high horizontal resolution (~ 20 km) filter radiometer sounders (ITPR, VTPR, and HIRS) provided soundings for partially clouded FOV with almost the same accuracy as obtained for clear sky FOVs Nimbus
    42. 42. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1979 - ): Improved Global NWP ITPR Percent Correlation of Forecast Vs Observed Year By 2001 A SH forecast was as good as a NH forecast and a 6-day SH forecast was as good as a 3-day forecast made at the beginning of the GWE (1979) HIRS TIROS-N NOAA
    43. 43. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1979-2002): Poor Vertical Resolution ITPR The Problem With the TOVS was Lack of Vertical Resolution
    44. 44. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ): Ultra-spectral Resolution ITPR • Broad Spectral Coverage • High Spectral Resolution • Thousands of Spectral Channels • High Information Content A/C HIS, NAST-I & S-HIS (1985, 1998 -, 1999- ) IASI (2006)
    45. 45. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ): High Vertical Resolution ITPR High Vertical Resolution a result of sharper weighting functions and much higher S/N from very large number of radiance observations (1000’s Vs 10’s)
    46. 46. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1985 - ): Profile Information Content ITPR Number of Pieces of Information Radiosondes AIRS/IASI/CrIS HIRS/TOVS
    47. 47. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (1986 - ): High Vertical Resolution Soundings Demonstrated With Aircraft HIS & NAST-I ITPR Ultra-spectral resolution sounder provides 1 K / 15% temperature and moisture accuracy for 1-2 km layers 300 Distance (75 km) Altitude (km) Radiosonde NASA ER-2 A/C Ultraspectral Sounder
    48. 48. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2002 - ): EOS Aqua AIRS Provides Large Positive Impact on Global Weather Forecasts Impact is amazingly considering only 1% of the radiance measurements were used in the assimilation process (clear-only, spatially and spectrally thinned) (J. LeMarshall, 2004) 1-27 January, 2004 Northern Hemisphere ) Southern Hemisphere )
    49. 49. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) N ATIONAL P OLAR-ORBITING O PERATIONAL E NVIRONMENTAL S ATELLITE S YSTEM NPP/JPSS LTAN 1330 “ Early-Afternoon” METOP LTDN 0930 “ Mid-Morning” Launches Lifetime Atmospheric Sounders METOP [2130] ~2006, 2012, 2018 7 yr IASI/AMSU/MHS NPP/JPSS [1330] ~ 2011, 2014 7 yr CrIS/ATMS
    50. 50. ITPR -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2006 - ): JPSS IASI Validation (4/19/2007)
    51. 51. ITPR -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability (2012 - ): JPSS Time Change Capability April 29 2007 IASI and AIRS data used to demonstrate IASI/CrIS Diurnal Change Measurement Capability
    52. 52. <ul><li>Quasi-continuous NAST-I demonstrates that the major differences between IASI and AIRS water vapor soundings are due to the time variation of mesoscale features of the atmosphere. </li></ul>NAST-I Shows the Continuity between IASI and AIRS
    53. 53. -Part 2- Evolution of IR Sounding Retrieval Capability <ul><li>First Satellite Soundings: SIRS and IRIS (1969-1971) successfully demonstrated the sounding retrieval concept but poor horizontal resolution restricted their utility under cloudy sky conditions </li></ul><ul><li>High Horizontal Resolution Sounders: ITPR, VTPR, and HIRS (1972-) provided dense global coverage and great improvements in Numerical Weather Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Vertical Resolution: Poor vertical resolution provided by poor spectral resolution filter sounders led to the development of the ultra-spectral resolution sounding concept first demonstrated from aircraft (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>High Vertical Resolution: -Proven from aircraft: HIS( 1986), NAST-I (1998), and S-HIS (1999) -Demonstrated by AIRS (2002-) and IASI (2006-); soon by CrIS (2011-) </li></ul><ul><li>NPP/JPSS : IASI and CrIS will provide global high vertical (1-2-km) and temporal resolution (4-8 hourly) sounding observations which will lead to improved weather and air quality forecasts and climate change observations </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Combined MetOp-A/MetOp-B and NPP/JPSS may enable 30-minute atmospheric sounding tendencies and water vapor motion wind profiles to be derived </li></ul>

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