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  1. 1. Emergency Response For further information please visit: ESA GMES website EC GMES website We care for a safer world
  2. 2. The Sentinel-1 Mission and its Application Capabilities Ramón TorresGMES Sentinel-1 Project Manager ESA - ESTEC 24 July 2012 We care for a safer world
  3. 3. Presentation Outline • Mission Objectives and Requirements • Key Mission and System Facts • Acquisition modes and performance • Observation Strategy • Observation Scenario • Applications • Conclusions 3
  4. 4. Mission Objectives and Requirements • Provide routinely and systematically SAR data to GMES Services and National services  Marine Monitoring (e.g. oil spill, sea ice)  Land Monitoring (e.g. land cover, surface deformation)  Emergency Response  Climate Change (e.g. Polar caps incl. ice shelves and glaciers)  Security (e.g. marine surveillance and ship detection) • Provide C-band SAR data continuity of ERS/ENVISAT type of missions at medium resolution (10 m and lower) • Greatly improved coverage and revisit (i.e. as compared to ENVISAT) • Conflict-free operations (wide swath and dual-pol modes) • High system availability (SAR duty cycle and data latency) • Data quality similar or better than ERS/ENVISAT (e.g. equalized performance across the swath) We care for a safer world
  5. 5. Key Mission Facts• Constellation of two satellites (A & B units)• Near-Polar sun-synchronous (dawn-dusk) orbit at 693 km mean altitude• Both S-1 satellites are in the same orbit (180 deg. phased in orbit)• 12 days repeat cycle (1 satellite), 6 days for the constellation• 7 years design life time with consumables for 12 years• Launch of Sentinel-1A October Prime contractor: Thales Alenia Space, 2013. Sentinel-1B will be ready for Italy launch in the first half of 2015 Instrument responsible: EADS Astrium, subject to EC funding Germany We care for a safer world
  6. 6. Key System Facts • C-Band SAR instrument operates at centre frequency of 5.405 GHz • On-board data storage capacity (mass memory) of 1400 Gbit • Two X-band RF channels for data downlink with 2 X 260 Mbps • On-board data compression using Flexible Dynamic Block Adaptive Quantization • Optical Communication Payload for data transfer via laser link with the GEO European Data Relay Satellite (ERDS) system We care for a safer world
  7. 7. SAR Acquisition Modes 46o Sentinel-1 SAR can be operated in 19o 4 exclusive measurement modes with different resolution and coverage Polarisation schemes for IW, EW & SM: 45o • single polarisation: HH or VV 30o • dual polarisation: HH+HV or VV+VH Polarisation scheme for WM: HH or VV 46o 19o SAR duty cycle per orbit: • up to 25 min in any of the imaging modes 23o • up to 74 min in WM 36o IW: main mode of operation satisfying most of user and services WV: continuously operated over open ocean We care for a safer world
  8. 8. SAR Mode PerformanceMode Access Single Look Swath Width Polarisation Angle ResolutionInterferometric > 25 Range 5 m > 250 km HH+HV orWide Swath deg. Azimuth 20 m VV+VH MainWave mode 23 deg. Range 5 m > 20 x 20 km HH or VV modes for and Azimuth 5 m Vignettes at operations 36.5 deg. 100 km intervalsStrip Map 20-45 Range 5 m > 80 km HH+HV or deg. Azimuth 5 m VV+VHExtra Wide Swath > 20 deg. Range 20 m > 400 km HH+HV or Azimuth 40 m VV+VH Image Quality Parameters for all Modes (worst case)Radiometric accuracy (3 σ) 1 dBNoise Equivalent Sigma Zero -22 dBPoint Target Ambiguity Ratio -25 dB We care for a safer worldDistributed Target Ambiguity Ratio -22 dB
  9. 9. Sentinel-1 Observation StrategyBased on optimum use of SAR duty cycle (25 min/orbit) satisfies the GMES user/service requirements (i.e. resolution, swath width, polarisation) increases revisit time and coverage enables build-up of long-term data time series provides high level of automation for mission planning allows pre-defined operations minimizes potential conflicts during operations, considering various constraints (e.g. mode transition times, X-band switches) • Over land and maritime shipping routes: IW is pre-defined mode • Over Polar areas (i.e. sea ice): IW mode is pre-defined mode (EW could be used if decrease in radiometric resolution is acceptable) • Emergency observation requests may alter the pre-defined observation scenario: use of e.g. SM mode • Over open ocean: WV mode is continuously operated We care for a safer world
  10. 10. Sentinel-1 Observation Scenario Sea-ice monitoring services in the North Hemisphere We care for a safer world
  11. 11. Sentinel-1 Observation Scenario Sentinel-1 Real-Time (10min) requirements from EMSA (CleanSeaNet Oil Spill Monitoring Service) We care for a safer world
  12. 12. Sentinel-1 Observation Scenario We care for a safer world
  13. 13. Sentinel-1A Observation Scenario Average Revisit Time S-1A Satellite Average Revisit Time with S-1A + S-1B Satellites S-1A Satellite S-1A + S-1B Satellites Complete global After 12 days After 6 days coverage Ice MTZ Europe Canada Rest of Ice MTZ Europe Canada Rest of Land Land Number of 1-9 1-6 1-5 1-4 1-6 2-18 2-12 2-10 2-8 2-12 acquisitions (range from - to) Average Revisit 8,0 3,7 5,5 8,2 9,9 5,0 1,9 2,7 4,1 4,9 Time [day] We care for a safer world
  14. 14. Sentinel-1 Applications: Ship Detection 100m Smaller ships 30m We care for a safer world
  15. 15. Sentinel-1 Applications: Dyke Monitoring (INSAR) – Estimated sea-level rise impacts in the Netherlands and Germany. – 0.65 m (dark blue) and 1.3 m (light blue) Courtesy Hansje Brinker BV We care for a safer world
  16. 16. Sentinel-1 Applications: Land cover classification Based on multi-temporal scene acquisitions We care for a safer world
  17. 17. Sentinel-1 Applications: Ice Classification – ENVISAR ASAR image separating thinner, more navigable first year ice from the hazardous, stronger and much thicker multi-year ice. Courtesy of the Canadian Ice Service. We care for a safer world
  18. 18. Applications Performance PredictionS1 Level-2 Product Resolution Performance UnitsSubsidence Rate 5 x 20 m2 1.3/1.3 mm/yearLand Cover 30 x 30 m2 90/75 % correctClassification (2 dB classificationcontrast )Forest Non-Forest 30 x 30 m2 98.6/75 % correctClassification classificationSoil Moisture 100 x 100 m2 0.8/1.2 volume %Flood Mapping 30 x 30 m2 93/79 % correct classificationSnow Cover 30 x 30 m2 80/75 % correctClassification classificationShip Detection 5 x 20 m2 20/40 ship length (m)Sea Surface Wind Speed 100 x 100 m2 0.4/0.8 m/sSea Surface Currents 5 Hz 30/30 cm/s We care for a safer world
  19. 19. Conclusions • Sentinel-1 is the GMES European Radar Observatory that will ensure the continuation and improvement of SAR operational services of medium- to high-resolution applications • Sentinel-1 will become one of the main data sources for the six GMES service themes identified by the European Commission for which it will support the provision of operational services based on Earth observation data: Emergency Response, Marine Monitoring, Land Monitoring, Atmospheric Monitoring, Security, and Climate • The System is optimised to a main mode of operation that features both a wide swath (250 km), high geometric resolution (5 × 20 m) and high radiometric accuracy (1dB 3σ), allowing imaging of global landmasses, coastal zones, sea ice, polar areas, and shipping routes at high resolution, in a repeat cycle of 12 days We care for a safer world
  20. 20. Conclusions • Sentinel-1 is designed to respond to emergency requests to support disaster management in crisis situations but otherwise works in a pre- programmed conflict-free operation mode that will ensure the reliability required by operational services and will create a consistent long-term data archive for applications based on long time series • The Spacecraft are being built by an industrial consortium led by Thales Alenia Space (Italy) as the Prime Contractor, while Astrium GmbH (Germany) is responsible for the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR) payload, which incorporates the central radar electronics subsystem developed by Astrium Ltd. (UK) • The Sentinel-1A Spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in October 2013 with Soyuz from Kourou We care for a safer world