RECENT EXPERIENCES UTILIZING TERRASAR-X FOR THE MONITORING OF NATURAL DISASTERS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD July 29, 2011 Yuki Okajima Kazuo Yoshikawa Takashi Shibayama PASCO CORPORATION
Contents <ul><li>PASCO and Disaster Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of TerraSAR-X </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Response to Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study of 2011 The Great East Japan Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
1.1 Overview of PASCO <ul><li>< Profile > </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment : 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Head Office : Japan </li></ul><ul><li>International Network : Finland, Belgium, Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, China </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Employees : 2,413 </li></ul><ul><li>ALOS Operations since April 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>< Corporate Mission > </li></ul><ul><li>We establishes spatial information system to protect people’s life and safety </li></ul><ul><li>We promptly grasps the situation of affected areas and supports humanitarian and recovery efforts when disaster occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>< PASCO’s Platform and Sensors > </li></ul>
1.2 Concept of Disaster Monitoring Global Disaster Management <ul><li>Observing wide area information and 3D data creation </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy day/night observation of the nation and data creation </li></ul><ul><li>Data creation for observing narrow area with high accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Quick analysis of acquired data from various sensors, its visualization </li></ul><ul><li>and supply </li></ul>Constructing the integrated social system and aiming to provide information within three (3) hours Satellite data reception and processing Expansion of the Satellite Ground Station Network
2. Overview of TerraSAR-X ・ X-band SAR satellite launched by DLR in 2007 ・ Highest spatial resolution of 1m. ・ Repeat cycle and revisit time are 11 days and about 3 days respectively. ・ Suitable for emergency observations thanks to cloud free SAR sensor’s characteristic. Imaging mode SpotLight StripMap ScanSAR Specifications
3. Emergency Response to Natural Disasters ２００８ Jan Monitoring of GLOF (Glacial Lake Outburst Flood) in the Himalayas Feb Eruption of Sakurajima volcano(Showa crater), Kagoshima Prefecture May Damage interpretations around Kitagawa, the Great Sichuan Earthquake Jun Changes in Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake slip Aug Heavy rain flooded area estimation Aichi (town district Hishiike Kouda) Aug Overflow of Kosi River in Nepal ２００９ May Disaster in Northern Brazil (near the Parnaíba River) May Estimation of flood disasters due to cyclone “Aila” in Bangladesh ２０１０ Jan Estimation of earthquake victims in Haiti Mar ～ Apr Iceland volcano monitoring ２０１１ Jan M onitoring eruptions of Shinmoedake volcano in Kirishima Feb Earthquake monitoring in Christchurch, New Zealand Mar Providing information about the Great East Japan Earthquake Major Initiatives
4.1 2010 Haiti Earthquake <ul><li>- Inland earthquake occurred on January 12, 2010 in Haiti. </li></ul><ul><li>Many buildings were collapsed in and around the capital of Port-au-Prince </li></ul><ul><li>and it is reported that more than 200,000 people died in this earthquake. </li></ul>- Observation Specification Flight Direction Beam Direction 21:23:10(UTC) Jan 12, 2010 Magnitude 7.0 depth 13km by USGS Port-au-Prince TerraSAR-X Image 39.1° HH StripMap Descending 20 January 2010 39.1° HH StripMap Descending 13 October 2009 Inc. Angle Polarization Acq. Mode Orbit Direction Acq. Date (UTC)
4.2 Detection of Collapsed Buildings References 1) Masashi MATSUOKA and Fumio YAMAZAKI: APPLICATION OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTING BUILDING-DAMAGE AREA TO RECENT EARTHQUAKES USING SATELLITE SAR INTENSITY IMAGERIES AND ITS VALIDATION, J. Struct. Constr. Eng., AIJ, No. 558, 139-147, Aug., 2002 Diagram of Using Intensity Imagery - Before Earthquake Backscaterring of microwave radiated from a satellite is strong due to dual-bounce scattering between roads and buildings. - After Earthquake Backscattering becomes weak because microwave spreads toward various directions due to collapsed buildings. ⇒ Collapsed buildings are detectable by the difference of backscattering coefficient.
4.3 Detection of Collapsed Buildings (cont.) [ TerraSAR-X ] [Optical Image] Oct. 13, 2009 Oct. 11, 2009 Jan. 20, 2010 Jan. 13, 2010 (c) Infoterra GmbH, Distribution [PASCO] (c) Infoterra GmbH, Distribution [PASCO] (c) GeoEye (c) GeoEye Weak backscattering appear dark in the image. After After Before Before
5.2 Emergency Observations of TerraSAR-X ① ② ③
5.3 Data Acquisition and Analysis Okinawa Tokyo ④ Obser vation ⑤ downlink ⑥ transfer ⑦ Analysis Sendai City Tokyo
5.4 PASCO’s Immediate Actions 15:30 Observation plan and order 20 ： 00 Preparation for analysis and pre-Disaster images Available Geospatial Information Change Detection (Coastline of Miyagi) <ul><li>Areas less than 10m elevation </li></ul><ul><li>above sea level </li></ul>- Est. seismic intensity -20km radius from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 14:00- 22:00- Est. flood area 18:00- Pre-Disaster Image Oct.21,2010 Mar.13,2011 Satellite Observation (Hokkaido – Kanagawa) 6:00 Observation 12:00 Start of data provision Est. Flood Areas (Coastline of Miyagi) Acquisition of Optical Image (Fukushima Nuclear power plant) Detection of Floating Objects (Sanriku – Ishinomaki) Satellite Observation (Hokkaido – Chiba) Est. Flood Areas [ Prompt Report ] Northern part of Fukushima <ul><li>-Satellite images </li></ul><ul><li>- Aerial photos </li></ul><ul><li>Census Map </li></ul><ul><li>DEM etc. </li></ul>Cited from Google PASCO Mar. 14 (Mon) Second Observation Mar. 13 (Sun) First Observation Mar. 12 (Sat) 14:46JST Mar. 11 72 hours 48 hours 24 hours Disaster
5.5 Change Detection of Inundation Areas with Pre- and Post-Disaster Images Pre-disaster image: R Post-disaster image: G , B RGB color composition shows estimated inundation areas in red . <ul><li>These are made in 48 hours after the earthquake and color composition images with pre- and post-disaster. </li></ul>
5.6 Estimated Inundation Areas with a Post-Disaster Image Conversion of DN value into backscattering coefficient Areas more than a certain elevation to be masked to reduce commission errors caused by radar shadow. Define a threshold to determine the possible water areas (underlying conditions, such as incidence angles, taken into account) Inundation areas where the value is lower than the threshold are extracted and change maps are created. - TerraSAR-X Observations - Inundation Area Detection Method 37.3° HH StripMap Descending 4 April 2011 37.3° HH StripMap Descending 24 March 2011 37.3° HH StripMap Descending 13 March 2011 Inc. Angle Polarization Acq. Mode Orbit Direction Acq. Date (JST)
5.7 Estimated Inundation Areas with a Post-Disaster Image March 13 March 24 April 4
5.8 Estimated Inundation Areas with a Post-Disaster Image Water-pumping effort Field survey for ground truth Our analyses were used by River Bureau of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation Ministry to plan drain pump installation and confirm the outcome of their pumping efforts.
6. Summary ・ We have 22 emergency responses for major natural disasters, including Haiti Earthquake and The Great East Japan Earthquake in 4 years since the launch of TerraSAR-X. ・ Our analyses and maps of the disasters were provided to the national and local government and utilized for the damage assessment and recovery efforts. ・ We keep our disaster monitoring system strengthened and distribute information and analyses of major disasters in order to further contribute to protect people’s life and safety .