PR4 IGARSS_2011_BEZY_final.ppt


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PR4 IGARSS_2011_BEZY_final.ppt

  1. 1. J.-L. Bézy , G. Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, P. Ingmann, J. Langen, B. Sierk, H. Stark, B. Veihelmann Earth Observation Directorate ESA’s GMES SENTINEL-4 and SENTINEL-5
  2. 2. Outline OMI NO2 over Europe 2004-2005 KNMI/IASB/ESA Image by Pepijn Veefkind, KNMI <ul><li>GMES Sentinels programme </li></ul><ul><li>S4/S5 Mission objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel-5 (p) </li></ul><ul><li>Programmatic status </li></ul>
  3. 3. GMES Components GMES is an EU led initiative Services Component – led by EC • Produces information services in response to European policy priorities in environment and security • Relies on data from in-situ and space component In-situ component – led by EEA • Observations mostly within national responsibility, with coordination at European level Space Component – led by ESA • Sentinels - EO missions developed specifically for GMES: • Contributing Missions - EO missions built for purposes other than GMES but offering part of their capacity to GMES (EU/ESA MSs, EUMETSAT, commercial, international) GMES is a perfect example of a system of systems
  4. 4. GMES dedicated missions: Sentinels 2013 A / 2015 B Sentinel 1 – SAR imaging All weather, day/night applications, interferometry 2013 A / 2017 B Sentinel 3 – Ocean and global land monitoring Wide-swath ocean color, vegetation, sea/land surface temperature, altimetry 2018+ Sentinel 4 – Geostationary atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring – flown on MTG 2013 A / 2016 B Sentinel 2 – Multi-spectral imaging Land applications: urban, forest, agriculture,.. Continuity of Landsat, SPOT 2018+ Sentinel 5 – Low-orbit atmospheric Atmospheric composition monitoring – flown on MetOp-SG (S5 Precursor launch in 2014)
  5. 5. Environmental issues of changing atmospheric composition Climate Change and the Greenhouse Effect Nutrification of coastal waters and freshwater lakes; eutrophication Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and enhanced surface UV Acid Rain Los Angeles Smog or &quot;summer&quot; smog London Smog Aerosols in and downwind of regions of high population Enhanced aerosol and photo-oxidant levels due to biomass burning Increase in background tropospheric ozone Intercontinental transport of pollutants and aerosols Stability of the Atmospheric Oxidation Efficiency Information services needed for - Monitoring - Forecasting - Assessment - Mitigation
  6. 6. Air pollution and its effect on human health Source: EU programme CAFE, CAFE Scenario Analysis Report Nr. 2. (Amann et al., 2004) Loss in life expectancy in months attributable to anthropogenic PM2.5 [months] “ Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to cause approximately 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year.”
  7. 7. The Current Capabilities Research missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) – OMI (Aura), Scisat, Mopitt (Terra), Gosat Operational missions GOME-2, IASI (MetOp), OMPS, CRIS (JPSS) <ul><ul><li>High temporal and spatial resolution (more cloud free-views) space-based measurements of tropospheric (PBL) composition for application to air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High spatial/high precision monitoring of climate gases (CO 2 , CH 4 and CO) and aerosol monitoring with sensitivity to the PBL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High vertical resolution measurements in the UT/LS region for ozone and climate applications </li></ul></ul>Main gaps in current / planned operational system GOME-2 SCIAMACHY OMI S4/S5 80 km 7 km
  8. 8. Mission Implementation <ul><li>Sentinel 4 will be a realised as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a UVN spectrometer embarked on the MTG-S platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilisation of TIR data from the IR sounder onboard the same platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilisation of imager data from the MTG-I platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentinel 5 will consist of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A UVNS spectrometer embarked on the post-EPS platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilisation of data from the post-EPS IR sounder (IASI NG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilisation of post-EPS imager data (METimage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilisation of multi-directional polarisation imager if implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mission concept for climate protocol monitoring (lower troposphere) and air quality applications </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of S-4 and S-5 on Eumetsat platforms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Level 2 Products Ozone vertical profile (O 3 ) Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Albedo Total ozone (O 3 ) Aerosol Formaldehyde (HCHO) Bromine monoxide (BrO) Rayleigh scat. (cloud), aerosol abs. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Glyoxal (CHOCHO) O2-O2 (cloud) Water vapour and cloud (eff. scatt. height) O-A (cloud, aerosol) Methane (CH4) Aerosol profile Carbone monoxide (CO) Wavelength (nm) SWIR VIS NIR UV Sentinel-4 1600 400 600 800 500 700 1800 2000 2200 300 200 2400 Sentinel-5 Priority A Priority B
  10. 10. Level 2 Products SCIAMACHY PARASOL OMI MOPPIT SCIAMACHY Source: ONTRAQ study. (P. Levelt 2009 ) Concentration maps for Asia Air quality and tropospheric composition on a global, regional and urban scale Courtesy: J.P. Veefkind (KNMI) Courtesy: H. Eskes, KNMI
  11. 11. The Instrument Challenge DOAS analysis of satellite spectra Irradiance and Radiance Measurement Derived Reflectance Note how small the NO2 features are, about 0.5% signal strength of the total signal Contributors to these Spectral Features are: polarisation scrambler, coatings, gratings, sun diffuser, straylight, gain change, … < 0.05 %! 3 nm
  12. 12. Sentinel-4: GEO atmospheric mission Europe coverage in 1 hr
  13. 13. S4 Images Acquisition Only illuminated areas are acquired (SZA max = 92 °) 24 daily acquisitions
  14. 14. S4 Requirements <ul><li>Spatial resolution: 8 km at 45°N </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: Europe + Sahara </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Cycle: 1 hr </li></ul><ul><li>Low sensitivity to polarisation (1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of spectral features (0.05%) </li></ul><ul><li>High radiometric accuracy: < 3% </li></ul><ul><li>Spectral bands </li></ul>Band ID Wavelength range [nm] Spectral resolution [nm] Spectral sampling ratio UV-VIS 305 - 500 0.5 3 NIR 750 - 775 0.12 3 VIS NIR UV 400 600 800 500 700 300 Wavelength (nm)
  15. 15. S4 Instrument Overview <ul><li>Imaging Spectrometer </li></ul><ul><li>Pushbroom in E/W direction </li></ul><ul><li>N/S FOV: 3.85° </li></ul><ul><li>E/W FOR: 11.2° </li></ul><ul><li>2 grating spectrometers </li></ul><ul><li>UV-VIS: 305 – 500 nm </li></ul><ul><li>NIR: 750 – 775 nm </li></ul><ul><li>CCD detectors cooled at 210 K </li></ul><ul><li>Scan mirror: E/W scan </li></ul><ul><li>N/S: - compensation of MTG yaw flip manoeuvre around equinox </li></ul><ul><ul><li> - seasonal shift in latitude (up to 10 deg) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High performance on board calibration sources (diffusers, lamp, LED) </li></ul><ul><li>Geostationary orbit, at about 0° longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Embarked on MTG-Sounder Satellite and operated by EUMETSAT </li></ul>Ground swath Satellite motion Telescope Slit Collimator Dispersing element Re-imaging lens 2D array detector x  Spectral radiance 
  16. 16. S4 Instrument Overview Earth On axis refractive telescope (Ø 80 mm) 2-axis-gimbal mirror Calibration assembly UV-VIS Spectrograph NIR Spectrograph
  17. 17. Sentinel-5 Requirements <ul><li>Spectral bands </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial resolution: 15 km in UV1 – 7 km in other bands </li></ul><ul><li>Daily global coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Low sensitivity to polarisation (0.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of spectral features (0.05%) </li></ul><ul><li>High radiometric accuracy: < 2% </li></ul>Band ID Spectral range (nm) Spectral resolution (nm) Spectral sampling Ratio UV-1 270-300 1 ≈ 3 UV-2 300-350 0.5 ≈ 3 UV-VIS 350-500 0.5 ≈ 3 NIR-1 710-750 0.4 ≈ 3 NIR-2 750-775 0.4 (T) – 0.06 (G) ≈ 3 SWIR-1 1590-1675 0.25 ≈ 2.5 SWIR-3 2305-2385 0.25 ≈ 2.5 SWIR VIS NIR UV 400 600 800 500 700 300 200 1600 1800 2000 2400 Wavelength (nm)
  18. 18. S5 instrument overview <ul><li>Imaging grating Spectrometer </li></ul><ul><li>Pushbroom in along track direction </li></ul><ul><li>Wide swath: 2,650 km (FOV: 108.4°) </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 6 grating spectrometers (4 UVN – 2 SWIR) </li></ul><ul><li>Immersed gratings used for SWIR-1/3 </li></ul><ul><li>High performance on board calibration sources </li></ul><ul><li>sun-synchronous Low Earth Orbit platform at 832 km mean altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel-5 embarked on post-EPS, operated by EUMETSAT </li></ul>Swath ~ 2650 km FOV 108 deg Courtesy of SRON
  19. 19. The need for a Sentinel-5 Precursor The need for a Sentinel-5 Precursor <ul><li>1. Continuity of data </li></ul><ul><li>Research missions (here Sciamachy, OMI, TES, Mopitt) stop ≤ 2014. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel-5 on post-EPS not before ~ 2018. </li></ul><ul><li>MetOp data do not satisfy S5 requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>CO and CH 4 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No measurement by GOME-2; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IASI data have little PBL sensitivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coarse spatial resolution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transition to operational scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Afternoon orbit required for AQ forecast (MetOp: 9:30h). </li></ul><ul><li>Use synergy S5 precursor – MetOp to start into observation of diurnal variation, as needed for AQ monitoring. (Will be picked up by S4 later). </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel 5p will be a realised as a single-satellite atmospheric chemistry mission carrying a UVNS spectrometer , aiming at providing a gap-filler, within the 2014-2020 timeframe </li></ul>
  20. 20. Programmatics Sentinel 4 Contract awarded to Astrium GmbH for €150 million to develop and build two instruments Sentinel 5 precursor Feasibility studies of the platform on-going; development phase planned for end 2011 Payload is developed by NSO (TROPOMI) with ESA contributions (SWIR, …) Sentinel 5 Feasibility studies on-going; development phase planned for 2013 30 25 20 15 10 05 35 40 MetOp A, B, C (09:30 LTDN) MetOp-SG (09:30 LTDN) , incl . S5/UVNS ENVISAT (10:00 LTDN) S5p (13:35 LTAN) MTG-I 1 MTG-I 2 MTG-I 3 MTG-I 4 MTG-S 2 , incl . S4/UVN MTG-S 1 , incl. S4/UVN G E O L E O
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>Air pollution is a significant cause of health problems and environment damages worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Sentinel-4 and -5 will monitor the Earth's atmosphere as part of the Europe Union's Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme </li></ul><ul><li>Mission will be embarked on MTG-S and MetOp-SG satellites for a launch in 2018+ and will be operated by EUMETSAT </li></ul>
  22. 22. KNMI/IASB/ESA Thank you