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Terra<br />Aqua<br />Aura<br />IGARSS 2010<br />July 28, 2010<br />TERRA, AQUA, AND AURA DIRECT BROADCAST-<br />PROVIDING ...
2<br />Purpose<br />Provide an overview of the Earth Observing Missions<br />Describe the EOS Direct Broadcast (DB) and DB...
3<br />Earth Observing Missions<br />NASA and other space agencies have invested in Earth observing missions, including NA...
4<br />Earth Observing Constellations<br />Landsat-5<br />Afternoon Constellation<br />Morning Constellation<br />OCO-2<br...
5<br />EOS Data<br />EOS science data are available two ways:<br />All science data are recorded onboard and downlinked ev...
EOS End-to-End System Overview<br />Flight Operations,<br />Data Capture,<br />Initial Processing,<br />Backup Archive<br ...
7<br />AIRS<br />OMI<br />MODIS<br />CERES<br />HSB<br />AMSU<br />AMSR-E<br />What is Direct Broadcast?<br /><ul><li>Dire...
The latest estimate is that there are ~3,000 individual DB users associated with over 200 ground stations worldwide.</li><...
8<br />Registered EOS Direct Broadcast Sites Worldwide<br />
9<br />Direct Readout Station<br /><ul><li>A Direct Readout (DR) station is a ground station that receives and processes D...
The ground station can be
Developed in-house using relatively inexpensive hardware, or
Purchased from a commercial provider (currently ~ $ 200K)
Hardware (see below) and software for receiving the data,
Access to science application algorithms, and
A decision-making infrastructure.</li></ul>Minimum Hardware<br /><ul><li> Antenna (at least 2.4 meter aperture)
 Antenna control unit
 Frequency downconverter
 Satellite receiver
 Input/output board</li></ul>Source: http://directreadout.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.cfm?section=portal%20info&page=faqs_subj...
10<br />Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL)<br /><ul><li>NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operates the Direct Readout L...
The DRL acts as an intermediary between the missions and the DB community members that can make use of the science algorithms
Provides the algorithms (software) for processing the EOS data free of charge.  See next slide.
Holds periodic meetings for the entire international DB community
Provides training (as requested) </li></li></ul><li>11<br />DB Processing Software<br />NASA provides the International Po...
IPOPP enables ground stations to create several products (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU) for near real-time applications such as enviro...
Several U.S. organizations (Oregon State University, University of South Florida, Univ. of Miami, Florida International Un...
Training is provided, as requested.</li></li></ul><li>12<br />DB Benefits<br /><ul><li>Provides users a way to receive Ear...
Provides easy and cost-effective access when broadband internet service is unavailable, restricted, or cost-prohibitive
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WE1.L10 - TERRA, AQUA, AND AURA DIRECT BROADCAST – PROVIDING EARTH SCIENCE DATA FOR REALTIME APPLICATIONS

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WE1.L10 - TERRA, AQUA, AND AURA DIRECT BROADCAST – PROVIDING EARTH SCIENCE DATA FOR REALTIME APPLICATIONS

  1. 1. Terra<br />Aqua<br />Aura<br />IGARSS 2010<br />July 28, 2010<br />TERRA, AQUA, AND AURA DIRECT BROADCAST-<br />PROVIDING EARTH SCIENCE DATA FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS<br />Angelita C. Kelly, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center<br />Patrick L. Coronado, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center<br />Warren F. Case, SGT Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center<br />Amelia Franklin, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Purpose<br />Provide an overview of the Earth Observing Missions<br />Describe the EOS Direct Broadcast (DB) and DB/Direct Readout (DR) ground stations<br />Discuss the benefits of DB and examples of how it is being used<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Earth Observing Missions<br />NASA and other space agencies have invested in Earth observing missions, including NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS), consisting of Terra, Aqua, andAura:<br />Sun-synchronous polar orbits<br />705 km altitude<br />98.2 degree inclination<br />Terra<br />Aqua<br />Aura<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Earth Observing Constellations<br />Landsat-5<br />Afternoon Constellation<br />Morning Constellation<br />OCO-2<br />(A-Train)<br />GCOM-W1<br />Terra<br />Aqua<br />SAC-C<br />CloudSat<br />CALIPSO<br />EO-1<br />Glory<br />Aura<br />PARASOL<br />Landsat-7<br />2010 07 27<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />EOS Data<br />EOS science data are available two ways:<br />All science data are recorded onboard and downlinked every orbit at 150 Mbps via:<br />TDRSS (Terra)<br />EOS Ground Stations at Norway, Alaska, and Wallops (Aqua and Aura)<br />The data are processed, archived, and distributed (free of charge) to users worldwide<br />Realtime science data are sent at 15 Mbps to DB stations<br />Terra also has a Direct Downlink (DDL) capability for the ASTER instrument, but this has not been used operationally<br />
  6. 6. EOS End-to-End System Overview<br />Flight Operations,<br />Data Capture,<br />Initial Processing,<br />Backup Archive<br />Data Transport<br />to Data Centers/<br />SIPSs<br />Mission Operations<br />Science Operations<br />Science Data Processing,<br />Data Mgmt, Interoperable Data Archive, & Distribution<br />Data Acquisition<br />Distribution and Data<br />Access<br />Spacecraft<br />Terra<br />Tracking & Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)<br />Research<br />Aqua<br />Education<br />Aura<br />Value-Added<br />Providers<br />Internet<br />EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) <br />Data Processing<br />White SandsComplex(WSC)<br />(Search, order,<br />distribution)<br />Interagency<br />Data Centers<br />EOSDIS Data<br />Centers<br />DB data<br />EOS Operations Center (EOC) Mission Control<br />Earth<br />System Models<br />DirectBroadcast(DB)<br />International<br />Partners<br />NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) Mission Services<br />EOS PolarGround Stations<br />Decision Support <br />Systems<br />Data backup<br />Schedules<br />Instrument Teamsand Science<br />Investigator-ledProcessing Systems<br />(SIPS)<br />Direct Broadcast/<br />Direct Readout Stations<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />AIRS<br />OMI<br />MODIS<br />CERES<br />HSB<br />AMSU<br />AMSR-E<br />What is Direct Broadcast?<br /><ul><li>Direct Broadcast (DB) is the satellite capability to transmit data in real-time to ground-based receivers. For EOS satellites, this is done almost continuously (24x7).
  8. 8. The latest estimate is that there are ~3,000 individual DB users associated with over 200 ground stations worldwide.</li></ul>Aura<br />Aqua<br />Terra<br />MODIS<br />
  9. 9. 8<br />Registered EOS Direct Broadcast Sites Worldwide<br />
  10. 10. 9<br />Direct Readout Station<br /><ul><li>A Direct Readout (DR) station is a ground station that receives and processes DB transmissions.
  11. 11. The ground station can be
  12. 12. Developed in-house using relatively inexpensive hardware, or
  13. 13. Purchased from a commercial provider (currently ~ $ 200K)
  14. 14. Hardware (see below) and software for receiving the data,
  15. 15. Access to science application algorithms, and
  16. 16. A decision-making infrastructure.</li></ul>Minimum Hardware<br /><ul><li> Antenna (at least 2.4 meter aperture)
  17. 17. Antenna control unit
  18. 18. Frequency downconverter
  19. 19. Satellite receiver
  20. 20. Input/output board</li></ul>Source: http://directreadout.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.cfm?section=portal%20info&page=faqs_subject& topic=Terra<br />
  21. 21. 10<br />Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL)<br /><ul><li>NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operates the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL)as a technology and information resource for the DB community
  22. 22. The DRL acts as an intermediary between the missions and the DB community members that can make use of the science algorithms
  23. 23. Provides the algorithms (software) for processing the EOS data free of charge. See next slide.
  24. 24. Holds periodic meetings for the entire international DB community
  25. 25. Provides training (as requested) </li></li></ul><li>11<br />DB Processing Software<br />NASA provides the International Polar OrbiterProcessingPackage (IPOPP)software free of charge to DB users for processing MODIS and AIRS/AMSU/HSB data<br /><ul><li>The operational EOS processing software algorithms developed at GSFC and JPL were modified to be compatible with DB data
  26. 26. IPOPP enables ground stations to create several products (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU) for near real-time applications such as environmental monitoring and forecasting, fire monitoring, etc.
  27. 27. Several U.S. organizations (Oregon State University, University of South Florida, Univ. of Miami, Florida International University, and University of Wisconsin) and many international organizations also provide DB processing software based on the software used by the EOS Science Teams
  28. 28. Training is provided, as requested.</li></li></ul><li>12<br />DB Benefits<br /><ul><li>Provides users a way to receive Earth observations in real-time
  29. 29. Provides easy and cost-effective access when broadband internet service is unavailable, restricted, or cost-prohibitive
  30. 30. Provides a secondary path for data to reach the ground with virtually no time delay
  31. 31. Serves as a back-up to the primary store and forward method and can be used to fill in data gaps for science processing
  32. 32. Real-time applications can be derived using NASA-provided software algorithms
  33. 33. Limitations:
  34. 34. DB users do not receive data from other parts of the world</li></li></ul><li>13<br />Examples of DB Uses<br /><ul><li>Various countries and organizations capture and utilize DB data. Some of the operational applications include:
  35. 35. Weather forecasting
  36. 36. Disaster prediction, monitoring, and management
  37. 37. Fire identification and monitoring
  38. 38. Fisheries
  39. 39. Air quality monitoring
  40. 40. Water management
  41. 41. etc.</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Examples of DB Users (1 of 5)<br />US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service <br />Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC)<br />Salt Lake City, Utah<br />RSAC<br /><ul><li>Collects TERRA and Aqua MODIS data
  42. 42. Detects and monitors forest fires
  43. 43. Provides data to Forest Service and other agencies for resource management and environmental monitoring
  44. 44. Provides assistance in applying the most advanced geospatial technology toward improved monitoring and mapping of natural resources</li></ul>MODIS image of Wolf and Copper fires near Los Angeles provided by RSAC<br />http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/rsac/<br />
  45. 45. Examples of DB Users (2 of 5)<br />Sri Lanka National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA) <br /><ul><li>Sri Lanka's fishery resources beyond the continental shelf waters are not fully exploited, while some coastal fishery resources are being over-exploited because of heavy expenses and lack of resources.
  46. 46. This Satellite-Based Fishery Forecasting System</li></ul>uses EOS DB data to provide accurate information<br />on large shoals of fish in the seas and inland waters to:<br /><ul><li>Reduce the amount of fishing occurring along the coast
  47. 47. Increase production
  48. 48. Increase the quality of fish for export
  49. 49. Reduce the operational costs (search time and fuel) of multi-day fishing fleets
  50. 50. The initial experiments have shown positive results with fisheries corporation vessels netting large catches. </li></ul> http://www.nara.ac.lk/<br />15<br />
  51. 51. 16<br />Examples of DB Users (3 of 5)<br />Russia and nearby Territories<br />ScanEx Network of Stations<br /><ul><li>ScanEx, a private Russian company implemented and operates several satellite stations. Their network includes 4 DB receiving stations utilizing 9 receiving antennas in Moscow, Megion, Irkutsk and Magadan
  52. 52. The stations collect data from more than a dozen satellites (including Aqua and Terra) covering all of Russia and the nearby territories
  53. 53. The MODIS DB data are used to observe the weather, map ice and vegetation, and monitor floods and fires</li></ul>http://www.scanex.com/en/stations/default.asp?submenu=uniscan&id=index <br />ScanEx Station<br />
  54. 54. 17<br />Examples of DB Users (4 of 5)<br />Sodankylä Station, Finland<br /><ul><li>The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) helped develop the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board Aura, in cooperation with the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI).
  55. 55. FMI DB station produces near realtime ozone and ultraviolet OMI data products
  56. 56. Available via the internet 15 minutes after a pass since the end of 2004
  57. 57. Covers central Europe from the North Pole to the Mediterranean area.
  58. 58. OMI data were recently used by various volcanology centers in the U.S. and Europe following the Iceland volcano eruption.
  59. 59. Also receives MODIS DB data from Terra and Aqua:
  60. 60. Re-broadcast by the Finnish Meteorological Institute since March 2003
  61. 61. Delivered to other Finnish governmental institutes for scientific purposes and to NOAA’sNational Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin-Madison. </li></ul>http://fmiarc.fmi.fi/fmiarc_new/ozone.html<br />
  62. 62. 18<br />Examples of DB Users (5 of 5)<br />Dundee Satellite Receiving Station<br />Dundee University, UK<br /><ul><li>Systematically records satellite images on a daily basis since 1978
  63. 63. Maintains an up-to-date archive of images from NOAA, SeaStar, Terra, and Aqua polar orbiting satellites.
  64. 64. Receives and archives MODIS data providing much-improved spatial and spectral resolution. The archive is kept on tape and CD- ROM, with a photographic archive kept for quick browsing
  65. 65. Can supply either enhanced photographic images produced from the data, or the data itself via the internet, tape, or disk. </li></ul>http://www.sat.dundee.ac.uk/<br />
  66. 66. 19<br />Examples of DB Data<br />MODIS true color image displayed using Google Earth offers a different perspective of the oil slick.*<br />*Courtesy of Liam Gumley, CIMSS<br />
  67. 67. 20<br />Examples of DB Data<br />MODIS Observation of the Jesusita Fire near Santa Barbara, California on May 8, 2009 <br />
  68. 68. 21<br />Examples of DB Data<br />Terra MODIS image of yellow rust infection of crop lands in the Middle East – April 2010<br />Aqua MODIS image of the Arctic region June 28, 2010<br />Aqua MODIS image of the Great Escarpment, South Africa, April 2010<br />Aqua MODIS image of a phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Iceland – June 2010<br />
  69. 69. 22<br />Examples of DB Data<br />Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano observed by MODIS on May 12, 2010<br />
  70. 70. 23<br />What is the Future for Direct Broadcast?<br /><ul><li>Some future missions that are planning to have DB capability include
  71. 71. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP)
  72. 72. Joint Polar Satellite System (part of the former NPOESS)
  73. 73. Global Change Observation Missions (follow-on to AMSR-E)
  74. 74. The DRL is enhancing the IPOPP software which will enable the DB community to process, visualize, and evaluate Sensor and Environmental Data Records from NPP</li></li></ul><li>24<br />Summary<br /><ul><li>EOS data are important and valuable not only for science but for everyday operational applications that benefit society
  75. 75. The DB community appreciates having the data and the software
  76. 76. The use of EOS DB data is increasing every year
  77. 77. The free software and data access from NASA makes DB an attractive and cost-effective option, particularly for developing countries
  78. 78. The continued availability of realtime EOS-type data for operational use is needed
  79. 79. NASA and other satellite agencies must consider this capability when planning future missions.</li></li></ul><li>25<br />Mahalo!<br />Thank you!<br />Questions?<br />
  80. 80. 26<br />Additional Information<br />
  81. 81. 27<br />International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) <br /><ul><li>Needed by the Direct Readout community during the transition from EOS data to NPP and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) data.
  82. 82. DRL technologies developed for the NPP In-Situ Ground System (NISGS) will provide the IPOPP framework:
  83. 83. Freely available
  84. 84. Portable to Linux x86 platforms
  85. 85. Can be run efficiently on modest hardware
  86. 86. Simple to install and easy to use
  87. 87. Able to ingest and process DB overpasses of arbitrary size
  88. 88. Able to produce core and regional value-added Environmental Data Record products</li></li></ul><li>28<br />
  89. 89. 29<br />Examples of DB Users (6 of 6)<br />Japanese Fishery Agency<br />Information Services For The Offshore Fisheries Around Japan<br /><ul><li>The Japanese Fishery Agency is responsible for the management of fisheries resources in Japan
  90. 90. Management is mainly based on the total allowable catch, calculated from the allowable biological catch.
  91. 91. Terra and Aqua DB data help determine the time period, location, and abundance of the target fish (taking onto account migration routes), which must be recorded in near-real time.</li></ul>Priority species <br />Several species have been selected for management because of their importance and popularity as a food resource, and also because of concerns about their abundance<br />Japanese common squid <br />(Todarodes pacificus)<br />Mackerel<br />(Trachurus japonicus)<br />Pacific saury<br />(Cololabis saira)<br />Pollack<br />(Theragra chalcogramma)<br />Queen crab<br />(Chionoecetes opilio)<br />Laboratory of Marine Bioresource and Environment Sensing , Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University , Japan<br />

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