DESDynI: ACHIEVING MULTI-DISPLINE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES THROUGH a COMBINATION of SweepSAR TECHNOLOGY AND MISSION DESIGNis now...
DESDynI and SweepSAR<br />Large swath widths, particularly when operating in fully polarimetric modes,  is challenging due...
SweepSAR Airborne Demo<br />Now that the shuttle has finished flying…<br />Surprisingly, this concept was rejected.<br />
SweepSAR Airborne Demo Overview<br />NASA DC-8<br />Ka-band (35.6 GHz) airborne SweepSAR using array-fed reflector and dig...
SweepSAR Airborne Demo Hardware<br />Inertial Measurement Unit<br />(LN-251 EGI)<br />DC-8 Nadir-2 Port<br />Pressure Box<...
Hardware Photos<br />DC-8<br />Reflector<br />Transmit  Antenna<br />INU<br />Feed Array<br />
Measured Receive Antenna Patterns<br />Complex antenna patterns (amplitude and phase) measured for the 8 receive beams.<br...
Radar Parameters and Mapping Geometry<br />The eight beams map a swath extending from 33.3°-39.5° that gives a swath width...
SweepSAR Test Site an<br />Data Collection Flights<br />Data collected using corner reflectors deployed in radar dark area...
SweepSAR Demo Successful Test Flights <br />SweepSAR Flight History<br />Two flights flown on July 7 and July 9 <br />3.5 ...
Channel Spectra<br />Range spectra were generated for the 8 receive channels. <br />Power on channel 8 is low relative to ...
Individual Beam Imagery <br />Mainlobe<br />Sidelobes<br />Beam 7<br />Beam 6<br />Beam 5<br />Beam 8<br />Beam 1<br />Bea...
Power Profiles<br />Power profiles are in reasonable agreement with measured antenna patterns.<br />Note power in channel ...
Corner Reflector Image <br />Simple maximum power combining algorithm used to generate a simple mosaic of the individual b...
14 Freeway Imagery<br />Simple maximum power beam mosaic of over section of the 14 freeway.<br />
SweepSAR Digital Beam Forming Algorithm<br />Block diagram of a basic beam forming algorithm adopted for use for the Sweep...
Beam forming is done in the phase history domain similar to what is planned for DESDynI in order to minimize the downlink ...
     and<br />Letting <br />      be the vectors of received signals and weights at fast time tj and<br />Then the beam fo...
Beam Formed Imagery<br />Pass 11 imagery before and after beam forming.<br />Simple Mosaic<br />Beamformed Image<br />
Conclusions<br />First of a kind airborne demonstration of the SweepSAR concept at Ka-band.<br />Validated calibration and...
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IGARSS_DESDynI_2011.pptx

  1. 1. DESDynI: ACHIEVING MULTI-DISPLINE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES THROUGH a COMBINATION of SweepSAR TECHNOLOGY AND MISSION DESIGNis nowFirst Results from an Airborne SweepSAR Demonstration at Ka-band<br />by<br />Scott Hensley, Greg Sadowy, Roger Chao, Ernie Chuang, David Escoto, HiradGhaemi, MaurioGrando, Anthony Guarnera, Brian Hawkins, Brandon Heavey, Barron Latham, Eric Liao, Sean Lin, Jan Martin, Thierry Michel, Timothy Miller, Ron Muellerschoen, DraganaPerkovic, MominQuddus, Paul Rosen, <br />Mauricio Sanchez- Barbetty, Scott Shaffer, Joanne Shimada, Ian Tan, <br />Jordan Tanabe, Kean Tham, TusharThrivikraman & Louise Veilleux<br />Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology<br />July 28, 2011<br />Copyright 2011, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology<br />
  2. 2. DESDynI and SweepSAR<br />Large swath widths, particularly when operating in fully polarimetric modes, is challenging due to range ambiguity increases at the larger PRFs.<br />Scansar modes are the traditional way to overcome these limitations, however they come the price of reduced azimuth resolution.<br />SweepSAR, which tracks the received echo, can achieve wide swaths with fine azimuth resolution.<br />The cost to achieve this performance is having multiple receivers and a beam former.<br />As part of the DESDynI risk reduction studies we conducted an airborne demonstration of SweepSAR.<br />Radar flight path<br />Radar Swath<br />
  3. 3. SweepSAR Airborne Demo<br />Now that the shuttle has finished flying…<br />Surprisingly, this concept was rejected.<br />
  4. 4. SweepSAR Airborne Demo Overview<br />NASA DC-8<br />Ka-band (35.6 GHz) airborne SweepSAR using array-fed reflector and digital beamforming<br />8simultaneous receive beams generated by 40-cm offset-fed reflector an 8-element active array feed<br />8 digital receiver channels, all raw data recorded <br />Receive antenna system is approximately 1/28th scale of DESDynI<br />Supports radar instrument development and risk mitigation for DESDynI:<br />Demonstrates first-of-it’s-kind, real-world performance of SweepSAR with array-fed reflector <br />Reduces risk by shaking out engineering issues that are not predicted by simulation<br />Demonstrates performance of critical beamforming and calibration techniques<br />Identify, quantify and mitigate error sources<br />Trade algorithm performance vs. computational resource consumption <br />By manipulating the data can also<br />Demonstrates suppression of range ambiguities<br />Demonstrates “transmit-gap” mitigation <br />Nadir-2 experiment port<br />SweepSAR Demo Block Diagram<br />
  5. 5. SweepSAR Airborne Demo Hardware<br />Inertial Measurement Unit<br />(LN-251 EGI)<br />DC-8 Nadir-2 Port<br />Pressure Box<br />16-channel Digital Receiver Array<br /> (Mounts on top plate, not shown in solid model)<br />High-stabilityfeed arm<br />40 cm Reflector<br />16-channel Active Receiver Feed<br />Radome<br />Transmit Array<br />
  6. 6. Hardware Photos<br />DC-8<br />Reflector<br />Transmit Antenna<br />INU<br />Feed Array<br />
  7. 7. Measured Receive Antenna Patterns<br />Complex antenna patterns (amplitude and phase) measured for the 8 receive beams.<br />Beamwidth is approximately 1° and the peak sidelobe level is around -10 dB.<br />SweepSAR Antenna System on near-field scanner <br />Pressure Box<br />Radome<br />
  8. 8. Radar Parameters and Mapping Geometry<br />The eight beams map a swath extending from 33.3°-39.5° that gives a swath width of 1.4 km.<br />Radar Parameters<br />8750 m<br />or<br />10500 m<br />33.3°<br />39.5°<br />8<br />4<br />7<br />1<br />5<br />2<br />3<br />6<br />660 m<br />5.3 km<br />1.4 km<br />Not drawn to scale<br />
  9. 9. SweepSAR Test Site an<br />Data Collection Flights<br />Data collected using corner reflectors deployed in radar dark areas at Edwards AFB<br />Two sites identified:<br />Rosamond Lake – UAVSAR calibration array with large 2.4 m reflectors<br />Rogers Lake – Smaller 1 m reflectors deployed to <br />Reflector spacing designed to effectively measure beamformed pattern performance <br />R9<br />R1<br />1.5 km<br />Flight Direction 80° Heading<br />Experiment Locations at Edwards AFB<br />Rosamond Lake <br />Rogers Lake<br />
  10. 10. SweepSAR Demo Successful Test Flights <br />SweepSAR Flight History<br />Two flights flown on July 7 and July 9 <br />3.5 hours per flight<br />12 data collection lines<br />>200 GB of for flight 2<br />Flight 1 used a PRF of 100 Hz so was not critically sampled in azimuth – showed had functioning radar!<br />Data quality for Flight 2 is good except for gain anomaly on receiver #4 (is being investigated in lab).<br />Flight Track and Swaths for Flight #2<br />Raw Radar Data (Rogers Lake, Beam #5)<br />TerrainEchoes<br />SweepSAR Demo Flight Team<br />Cal Tone<br />ReflectorEchoes<br />Antenna Beam<br />Flight 1 on July 7, 2011<br />
  11. 11. Channel Spectra<br />Range spectra were generated for the 8 receive channels. <br />Power on channel 8 is low relative to the other channels by 3-5 dB.<br />Channel 4 is lower in power and shows a distorted spectrum. <br />Still able to form imagery on Channel 4, however it presents a problem to beam forming. <br />Distorted Spectra<br />
  12. 12. Individual Beam Imagery <br />Mainlobe<br />Sidelobes<br />Beam 7<br />Beam 6<br />Beam 5<br />Beam 8<br />Beam 1<br />Beam 2<br />Beam 3<br />Beam 4<br />
  13. 13. Power Profiles<br />Power profiles are in reasonable agreement with measured antenna patterns.<br />Note power in channel 4 and 8 are low as expected from the spectral plots.<br />
  14. 14. Corner Reflector Image <br />Simple maximum power combining algorithm used to generate a simple mosaic of the individual beam images.<br />Beam Mosaic Image<br />Beam Number Image<br />Google Earth Image<br />1<br />7<br />3<br />5<br />6<br />8<br />4<br />2<br />
  15. 15. 14 Freeway Imagery<br />Simple maximum power beam mosaic of over section of the 14 freeway.<br />
  16. 16. SweepSAR Digital Beam Forming Algorithm<br />Block diagram of a basic beam forming algorithm adopted for use for the SweepSAR demonstration.<br />
  17. 17. Beam forming is done in the phase history domain similar to what is planned for DESDynI in order to minimize the downlink data bandwidth.<br />The complex weights for the beamformer at time sample tj are given by <br /> where<br />Beam Forming Coefficients <br />
  18. 18. and<br />Letting <br /> be the vectors of received signals and weights at fast time tj and<br />Then the beam formed signal for time tj is given by<br /> where <br />Beamforming II<br />
  19. 19. Beam Formed Imagery<br />Pass 11 imagery before and after beam forming.<br />Simple Mosaic<br />Beamformed Image<br />
  20. 20. Conclusions<br />First of a kind airborne demonstration of the SweepSAR concept at Ka-band.<br />Validated calibration and antenna pattern data sufficient for beam forming in the fast time domain. <br />Provides validation evidence that the DESDynI basic system architecture is sound.<br />Additional testing will include the injection of synthetic targets to validate the range ambiguity predictions of SweepSAR. <br />Future plans include using prototype DESDynI digital flight hardware to do the beam forming in real-time onboard the aircraft. <br />

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