Thank you Mr. Chairman. I’m delighted to be here today and as the Canadian Space Agency representative, it is with great pleasure that I am presenting this paper on the Evolution of Earth Observation in Canada – A Perspective. I would like to extend the words from Mrs Monique Bernier and welcome you to Canada. Everyone was looking forward to attend IGARSS in Sendai this year but I hope that Vancouver will be a good foster venue / Terre d'accueil for this prestigious event. We all wish Japan a quick recovery. Gammmbatté koudassaï ! (Bon courage)
Today, I would like to give you an overview of how Canada utilizes the extraordinary potential that space offers to push back the borders of our knowledge in Earth Observation and to exploit this single medium in order to transform the dreams of today into technological realities of tomorrow. The main topics of my presentation are: Prevailing trends in EO across the world and in Canada What is the Canadian Space Agency doing in EO? What does the future hold for Canada?
Briefly, here are some of the dominant trends in EO today and for the near future. Satellite based Earth Observation has a long heritage going back many years. In the last 10 years alone, 135 EO satellites were launched. According to a Euroconsult study recently released, it is expected that twice as many will be launched in the next 10 years, close to 300 new satellites. The number of countries with EO capacity will grow from 26 to 41. This is significant. Although commercial data sales are growing, Governments remain the largest users of EO data and products. Government support for new EO programs will remain essential as the need for long-term funding commitments will continue. Space agencies are increasingly under budget pressures but government support remains crucial. EO will remain one of the largest spending satellite applications and will become the first area of investment for emerging space programs. An increasing number of governments will develop capabilities, mainly through technology transfer and in partnership with their industrial sectors. EO is being recognized more and more as an essential tool to address environmental/societal questions, but is also required for sovereignty and safety purposes. Environmental monitoring and climate change will remain key priorities. Also advanced data and information are required to address key public policy objectives related to sovereignty, security, safety and sustainable development. The need for timely, quality, long-term global information as a basis for sound decision-making will become the norm. Enhanced international cooperation to streamline the efforts and ensure comprehensive and sustained EO will become more dominant. The desire to develop long-term data sets and avoid duplication among nations will bring greater cost effectiveness. This will also force everyone to move toward a freer data sharing environment. Finally, we also see the development of cheaper, smaller missions, based on microsatellites and using new and improved technology to offset cost increases. Needless to say that these trends have a significant influence on the Canadian Space Agency vision and strategic planning in Earth Observation.
Established in 1989, the Canadian Space Agency is the steward of Canada's national Space Program, and strives to expand our knowledge of space science and technology for the benefit of Canadians. Our mandate, as indicated on this slide, is: “… to promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians.”
The Canadian Space Agency’s program activities fall under the following business lines: Space Utilization – this is where Earth Observation resides and it covers a number of small, medium and large missions related to Earth Observation, Space Weather, Space Surveillance and Satellite Communications. SPACE Exploration - focusing on Human Space Flight, International Space Station, Planetary Exploration and Space Astronomy. Space Science &Technology – with the primary objective of building Canada’ s Scientific, Technological and Engineering capacity required to deliver next generation Canadian Space Missions. This third business line plays a key role in preparing the Canadian space community for the next wave of breakthroughs and innovations in space science and technology for the future.
The strategic and effective use of space is critical for Canada. The country’s vast and sparsely populated territory, long coastlines and rigorous climate make it imperative to use the vantage point of space to observe, monitor and communicate. The advanced nature of the Canadian economy also makes it important to use space to develop knowledge and technology, and foster innovation. Over the last fifty years, the use of space by Canada has evolved from being a tool for scientific research to being part of the critical infrastructure of the country.
The Earth Observation as a tool generates social and economic benefits to Canadians by providing an on-going, reliable source of Earth remote sensing data to Canadian Government Departments in support of their operational mandates. It satisfies Canadian requirements for satellite data over both Canadian and non-Canadian regions for a variety of operational and scientific applications. Here is the main focus of CSA’s EO missions: Sovereignty – for monitoring the Arctic sea lines and territories Safety – for helping the navigation in ice-laden waters, disaster management Environment – for monitoring the health of the ozone layer and the transport of air pollutants Climate – for understanding the factors controlling the climate, monitoring changes resulting from climate variations, and Resources - for contributing to better management of our forests, agriculture, mineral and energy exploration.
So, what is the CSA doing in EO? Our Space Utilsation program is divided in three main streams covering the end-to-end aspects, from mission concept development, application development, design, implementation, launch, g round infrastructure, operations and disposal, as follows: Enabling research in EO Developing, Implementing and Operating EO missions Using EO Data for the benefit of Canadians Let me say a few words about each of them.
Preparing for the future, CSA’s Space Utilisation Branch: Provides leadership and support for the development of new concepts leading to CSA or international EO space instruments and missions and to develop and enhance the knowledge and technology base (For example: CSA ’s Polar Communications Weather (PCW) Mission); Fosters the participation of Canadian scientists and industry to international and Canadian EO missions (For example: NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission); and Serves as a catalyst to ensure Canadian participation in the European Space Agency EO Program (For example: ESA’s Sentinel Program)
Since the early 90’s, the CSA is committed to providing RADARSAT data continuity. For RADARSAT-1, one of the primary objectives was to provide SAR data to the Canadian Ice Service. The number of images used annually varied from and average of 4000 images per year in the early years to over 6000 images in 2007-08. Also mosaics were produced for Canada, the US, Africa, Australia and Antarctica. The CSA is member of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters since 2000. Launched in Dec 2007, RADARSAT-2 is the successful outcome of an innovative partnership between CSA and MDA. All RADARSAT-1 heritage beams are available in selective single or Dual polarization. It also has improved resolution of 3 meters. The picture in the middle is an example of Freeman decomposition highlighting single bounce (blue) double bounce (red) and volume scattering (green). Complete Polarimetry with R-2 Quad-Pol Data offers much more than 4 images. Using Decomposition algorithms, polarimetric signatures or other types of tools allow to retrieve information that would difficult to get otherwise. The Advanced Polarimetry Workshop on Thursday, by Ridha Touzi of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, will discuss tools and methods to get the most out of your polarimetric datasets. Finally with RCM, we will get better coverage and revisit period. In a few slides, I will give more details on similarities and differences between RCM and the two previous missions.
As part of our effort to support the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters‘, RADARSAT-2 was tasked to acquire images over Japan after the tsunami event. The CSA has made damage maps using Radarsat-2 data showing tsunami damage in Miyagi Prefecture. Similar maps were produced for the Iwati and the Miyagi Prefectures. Canada also provided original images upon which the Sendai map was based, before and after the earthquake and tsunami. Here you have RADARSAT-1 and 2 images of Sendai forming a before/after composite showing the devastated areas.
The RADARSAT Constellation mission development has begun in 2005, with satellite launches planned for 2015 and 2016. The three-satellite configuration will provide complete coverage of Canada's land and oceans offering an average daily revisit, as well as daily access to 95% of the world to Canadian and International users. The RADARSAT Constellation mission is being designed for: Maritime surveillance ( for ice, wind, oil pollution and ship monitoring along the Canadian east, west and northern coasts) Disaster management ( including mitigation, warning, response and recovery) Ecosystem monitoring ( for forestry, agriculture, wetlands and coastal change monitoring) Collaboration with International Partners missions is also a key objective.
The Radarsat Constellation Mission provides and excellent collaboration opportunity with the European Space Agency Sentinel program. Indeed, the first two Sentinel satellites will have capabilities somewhat similar to the RADARSAT Constellation; and an efficient coordination could result in a larger constellation with improved performances. Here are examples of interoperability items being explored: Joint / integrated pre-defined observation plans, including complementarities in observations, modes and increased revisits; Harmonisation of interfaces to catalogue; and Shared ground segment facilities for the acquisition, processing and distribution of EO imagery.
POLAR COMMUNICATION and WEATHER MISSION (PCW) This is a system of two satellites forming the Polar Communication and Weather Mission, also known as PolarSat mission. Currently in Concept Study Phase, the objective of the Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is to put two satellites in a highly elliptical orbit over the North Pole to provide reliable and Continuous 24/7 communication services and monitor weather and climate changes in the entire Arctic region. The two satellites will monitor Arctic weather and climate change, and will: significantly improve the accuracy of weather forecasting, including severe weather event warnings; improve the understanding of global climate change and the ability to model and predict phenomena associated with it; and provide unique high quality operational data acquired over the entire polar region, which is currently not available from any source.
Launched in 2003. Scisat is an all-Canadian small science satellite. Its most important instrument is an optical Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the ACE-FTS Instrument . This device records the spectrum of the Sun, as sunlight passes through the Earth's atmosphere, and makes an analysis of the chemical elements of the atmosphere possible. SciSat helps a team of Canadian and international scientists improve their understanding of the depletion of the ozone layer, with a special emphasis on the changes occurring over Canada and in the Arctic. Focusing its attention in the stratosphere, where the ozone layer is located. SCISAT is providing the most accurate measurements to date of chemicals that affect ozone , which blocks the sun's biologically damaging ultraviolet radiation and prevents most of it from reaching the Earth's surface. SCISAT observations are also helping scientists better understand the effects of atmospheric chemistry, clouds and small particles (such as aerosols ) on Earth's climate.
Canada chose to participate in the ENVISAT environmental satellite program. Canada’s co-operation with ESA provides an ideal platform for the sharing of knowledge and expertise and the promotion of the use of advanced specialized technologies developed by Canadian space companies. From CLOUDSAT observations, we are able to: Improve on the ability to predict where and why clouds and precipitation form; Learn how much water condenses in clouds; Gain a better understanding of how the water cycle works , where and how much it will rain, and if our freshwater supplies might change in the future MOPITT is one of five instruments, aboard TERRA, a NASA satellite. This Canadian instrument MOPITT (measurements of pollution in the troposphere) has been continuously scanning the Earth's atmosphere to make long-term measurements of carbon monoxide concentrations . This instrument is a Canadian contribution to NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), an international environmental study project. AQUARIUS: Argentina’s Space Agency (CONAE) and CSA selected Canada’s Institut National d’optique to design and produce microbolometric sensors and radiometers. It was launched this summer into orbit as part of the international partnership space mission SAC-D/Aquarius. SMAP Launch is planned for 2014. In collaboration with Environment Canada, the CSA is developing a plan to participate in the first of the NASA Earth Science Decadal missions . The mission SMAP (Soil Moisture Active/Passive) will measure soil moisture and freeze/thaw for weather and water cycle processes. These measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles , and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models SWARM Launch is planned for mid-2012. The ESA Swarm mission is a constellation of three satellites that will provide high-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength and direction of the Earth magnetic field . Canada is providing an Electric Field Instrument (EFI). It will measure Earth’s magnetic field and, as such, is considered an Earth Observation science mission (it measures an important “solid Earth” property). These measurements are also of interest to the Solar-Terrestrial science community
As part of the end-to-end EO value chain, it is important to have programs that promote the use of EO data and allow for the development of new applications. This is done by providing funding and/or imagery and working closely with our partners. We want to ensure Canadians will benefit for the use of satellite data. At the CSA, we have: Earth Observation Applications Development Program (EOADP) to stimulate Industry, Government Related Initiatives Program (GRIP) to work more closely and in collaboration with Canadian Government User departments and bring new applications to operational status, and Scientific and Operational Applications Research (SOAR) to support Academia and collaborations with International partners. Over the past few years, we have seen a significant increase in the use of EO data, and particularly RADARSAT imagery, by user departments because of these initiatives.
In Conclusion, what does the future hold for Canada? First and foremost, Earth Observation will have to serve the evolving priorities of the Government of Canada and the needs of Canadians. Advanced data and information are required to address key public policy objectives related to sovereignty, security, safety and sustainable development of our vast landmass, especially in the North. We will also ensure the competitiveness of our research and business communities in world markets by expanding along the EO value chain. Our space industry not only generates wealth in our economy, but also provides competitive products and services. To be a world leader in science and technology and a key source of entrepreneurial innovation and creativity, Canada will strive at strengthening the Canadian space sector’s knowledge base and be a magnet for talent. The increasing concern about the environment and climate change will promote international cooperation among nations with common goals where Canada is committed to remain a reliable partner. Increased volume of space data and information will be key in supporting our understanding and management of interconnected and vulnerable eco-systems, safe navigation in ice-infested waters, socio-economic development of the North, disaster management and climate observations. Finally, the Canadian Space Agency will do its utmost to provide timely access to relevant, reliable and high-quality data and information from a variety of space assets, both domestic and foreign, to its National and International partners in governments, academia and businesses.
どうも ありがとう (Doomo arigatou / merci en japonais) A prononcer: Dooooooooomo arigatooooooooo
IGARSS 11 Plenary Luc Brule_final.ppt
The Evolution of Earth Observation in Canada - A Perspective Luc Brûlé Director General, Space Utilization Canadian Space Agency [email_address] IGARSS 2011 Vancouver, Canada ● July 24-29, 2011
<ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing trends in EO across the world and in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Canadian Space Agency doing in EO? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the future hold for Canada? </li></ul>
Prevailing trends <ul><li>Increasing number of EO missions and countries with EO capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Governments remain the largest users of EO data and products; their financial support for new EO programs remains essential. </li></ul><ul><li>An essential tool to address environmental –societal questions, but also required for sovereignty and safety purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced international cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Full and open data sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper, smaller missions with improved technologies </li></ul>
“… to promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians.” Canadian Space Agency Mandate
<ul><li>Large landmass (2 nd in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Low population density </li></ul><ul><li>Large remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive coastlines </li></ul><ul><li>20 ecozones (Arctic, prairies, costal areas, wetland, foothills, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Varied geography </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-based economy (forests, mining, energy, agriculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Northern latitudes sensitive to climate change </li></ul>Why is EO Important for Canada ?
Canada’s Main Areas of involvement - Focus on the Priorities of Canadians <ul><li>Sovereignty - monitoring the Arctic sea lines and territories </li></ul><ul><li>Safety - navigation in ice-laden waters, disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>Environment - monitoring the health of the ozone layer and the transport of air pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - understanding the factors controlling the climate, monitoring changes resulting from climate variations </li></ul><ul><li>Resources - contributing to better management of our forests, agriculture, mineral and energy exploration. </li></ul>
What is the CSA doing in EO ? <ul><li>Enabling research in EO </li></ul><ul><li>Developing, Implementing and Operating EO Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Using EO Data for the benefit of Canadians </li></ul>
Enabling EO: Preparing the Future <ul><ul><li>Leadership and support for the development of new concepts leading to CSA or international EO space instruments and missions, to develop and enhance the knowledge and technology base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering the participation of Canadian scientists and industry to international and Canadian EO missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in the European Space Agency EO Program </li></ul></ul>
Committed to Providing RADARSAT Data Continuity 1995: RADARSAT-1 2007: RADARSAT-2 2015: 2016: 2016: RCM
International Charter 2011 Earthquake in Japan Flood detection with RADARSAT-2 crisis image (March 12, 2011) and RADARSAT-1 pre-crisis image (March 26, 2006)
RADARSAT Constellation (RCM) <ul><li>The three-satellite configuration will provide complete coverage of Canada's land and oceans offering an average daily revisit, as well as daily access to 95% of the world to Canadian and International users </li></ul><ul><li>The RADARSAT Constellation mission is being designed for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with International Partners’ missions </li></ul>
<ul><li>CSA-ESA cooperation is on-going to explore synergies between Sentinel-1 </li></ul><ul><li>RCM – Sentinel-1 collaboration will bring strong benefits to users </li></ul><ul><li>Here are examples of interoperability items being explored: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint / integrated pre-defined observation plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonisation of catalogue interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared ground segment facilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Synergy Sentinel-1 / RCM
PolarSat <ul><li>Status: Currently in Concept Study Phase </li></ul><ul><li>The Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is to put two satellites in a highly elliptical orbit over the North Pole to provide reliable and Continuous 24/7 communication services and monitor weather and climate changes in the entire Arctic region </li></ul>
Other Earth-observation satellites <ul><li>International satellites with Canadian instruments/ collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENVISAT (ESA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLOUDSAT (NASA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOPITT on TERRA (NASA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquarius SAC-D (Argentina) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upcoming satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMAP (NASA) – 2014 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swarm (ESA) - 2012 </li></ul></ul>
EO Applications Programs: Promoting the Use of EO Data <ul><li>“… to ensure Canadians will benefit from the use of satellite data " </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Observation Applications Development Program (EOADP) to stimulate Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Related Initiatives Program (GRIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific and Operational Applications Research (SOAR) to support Academia and collaborations </li></ul></ul>
What does the future hold for Canada? <ul><li>EO will be instrumental in addressing national priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Canada committed to be a world leader in key EO niche technologies and a source of entrepreneurial innovation and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada will remain a reliable partner and promote increased cooperation among nations </li></ul>