The Canadian Science and Applications Plan for SMAP Stéphane Bélair Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada 24-29 July 2011, IGARSS, Vancouver, Canada Canadian science team <ul><li>Berg, University of Guelph </li></ul><ul><li>M. Bernier, INRS-ETE </li></ul><ul><li>J. Chen, University of Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>R. Magagi, University of Sherbrooke </li></ul><ul><li>H. McNairn, AAFC </li></ul><ul><li>B. Toth, EC/MSC </li></ul><ul><li>A. Walker, EC/CRD </li></ul>SMAP SDT team D. Entekhabi, MIT T. Jackson, USDA E. Njoku, JPL P. O’Neill, NASA/GSFC K. McDonald, CCNY and JPL Canadian Space Agency M. Bergeron P. Briand T. Piekutowski
SOIL MOISTURE and NUMERICAL PREDICTIONS... THE FAMOUS “HOT DOME” of LAST WEEK... Near-surface soil moisture (MSC analysis) Near-surface air temperature (forecast) Valid Thursday 21 July 2011 at 1900 UTC
SOIL MOISTURE and CATASTROPHIC DROUGHTS THE TRAGEDY in EAST AFRICA Somalia and Ethiopia Near-surface soil moisture (MSC analysis) Valid Friday 22 July 2011
SMAP in CANADA Active participation in NASA’s Hydros mission from 2001 to 2005 It has been recognized that SMAP will benefit several sectors of Canada’s society and economy through improved services related to: air quality, agriculture, drought and flood monitoring, climate, health, hydrology, and weather. Environment Canada, in collaboraiton with the Canadian Space Agency, has been developing a Canadian Science and Applications Plan for SMAP. Two workshops were held (2009 and 2010) to complete and refine this plan with Canadian science team.
OBJECTIVES of the CANADIAN SMAP PROJECT Contribute to the calibration / validation of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw products by acquiring and processing experimental data over Canada . Improve the representation of the energy, water, and carbon cycles in Canadian environmental analysis and prediction systems, using SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw data. Validation sites Field campaigns Soil moisture and FT retrieval Land data assimilation Terrestrial ecosystem modeling Impacts, products, operations
VALIDATION SITES (soil moisture) Southern Ontario agricultural SM network Saskatchewan low and high-density SM networks Red River (Manitoba) SM network University of Guelph (A. Berg) 15 stations, 60km x 60km area Soil moisture at 5, 20, and 50cm University of Guelph (A. Berg) and EC (B. Toth) 16 stations, 60km x 60km area for low-res 24 stations, 10km x 10km area for high-res Soil moisture at 5, 20, and 50cm Incremental implementation by AAFC Brunkild sub-watershed selected (60km x 10km) One of GEO JECAM international super sites Installation of 9 stations in 2011 Each station with 12 Hydra Probes 3 replicates and 4 depths (5, 20, 50, and 100cm)
VALIDATION SITES (carbon and freeze/thaw) Boreal forest sites in Saskatchewan (BERMS) Cooperative venture between EC, CFS, and Parks Canada. Useful for SM, FT, and carbon fluxes (towers). Northern Quebec FT network Part of the ‘Centre d’Études Nordiques’ (CEN) Institut National de Recherche Scientifique (INRS-ETE): Monique Bernier 5 weather stations 10 soil temperature sites Number of sites will be increased (and will also include soil moisture measurements)
FIELD CAMPAIGNS: CanEx-SM10 PERIOD SITES EXPERIMENTAL STRATEGY PARTNERS / INVESTIGATORS May 31 st to June 17 th , 2010 Agricultural site at Kenaston Boreal forest site at BERMS Satellite : SMOS, RADARSAT2, ASAR-Envisat, ALOS-PALSAR Aircrafts : EC MW radiometers (including L-band) and NASA’s UAVSAR Ground networks at KEN and BERMS Field-phase ground measurements University of Sherbrooke, Guelph University, University of Michigan, EC (MRD / CRD / HAL), AAFC, USDA, NASA (GSFC), JPL, NRC, CSA
FIELD CAMPAIGNS: CanEx-SM10: SOME RESULTS (from Magagi et al. 2011, submitted) TbH, L-band, 40 o June 13 th , 2011 (courtesy of R. Magagi) (courtesy of I.E. Mladenova) L-band backscatter, UAVSAR June 2 nd , 2011 SMOS pixel SM TB Possibility of another soil moisture pre-launch and post-launch field campaigns.
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, and APPLICATIONS ATMOSPHERIC FORCING GEOPHYSICAL FIELDS / SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS NWP Anal / SR forecasts GEM-Surface Assimilation (EnKF) OBS SMAP First Guess LAND SURFACE STATE and DIAGNOSTICS for other clients -- 3D atmos. models -- hydrology -- climate Ecosystem model First Guess Assimilation (EnKF) OBS MODIS SOIL MOISTURE Surface temps Snow CO 2 fluxes NEE, NEP, g s LAI NWP Anal / SR forecasts Energy and water cycles diagnostics
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, and APPLICATIONS SOIL MOISTURE Surface temps Snow ATMOSPHERIC FORCING GEOPHYSICAL FIELDS / SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS NWP Anal / SR forecasts GEM-Surface Assimilation (EnKF) OBS SMAP First Guess LAND SURFACE STATE and DIAGNOSTICS for other clients -- 3D atmos. models -- hydrology -- climate Ecosystem model First Guess Assimilation (EnKF) OBS MODIS CO 2 fluxes NEE, NEP, g s LAI NWP Anal / SR forecasts Energy and water cycles diagnostics SM retrievals (Sherbrooke, AAFC) FT retrievals (INRS-ETE, EC/CRD) Ecosystem modeling (Toronto, EC/CRD, EC/MRD) CaLDAS (EC/MRD) (Guelph) Impacts, products, operations (EC/MRD, MSC)
ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT / EVALUATION A) Universities (Sherbrooke, Guelph) Synergistic approach including passive (SMOS, SMAP), active (ALOS, ASAR-Envisat, RADARSAT-2, SMAP). Account for strengths and weaknesses of each type of data to develop an optimal soil moisture retrieval method - model for passive L-band, with crop parameters (roughness, water content, height) from RADARSAT-2 and forest parameters from ALOS/PALSAR. During CanEx (Magagi et al. 2011) RSAT-2 B) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Focus on developing a robust method to estimate soil moisture based on active measurements (RADARSAT-2, SMAP), using the IEM model. Adapt method for estimating residue type and cover from SPOT / Landsat to wide swath AWIFS Develop method to identify when tillage occurs using active radar. (Magagi, Berg, McNairn)
CANADIAN LAND DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEM: SYNTHETIC L-BAND PASSIVE SYNTHETIC Tb L-band (H-pol) at 40 o (K) Synthetic L-band TBs from 1km nature/reality run Average at 40km and perturbed Assimilated in CaLDAS Comparison against “reality” Useful for setting up CaLDAS configurations
CANADIAN LAND DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEM: SYNTHETIC L-BAND PASSIVE SYNTHETIC Tb L-band (H-pol) at 40 o (K) The PLAN : High-res EnKF (possibly incremental) Surface stations (Tair, Td, snow) L-band passive and active for soil moisture (SMOS, SMAP) MW for snow depth (AMSR-E, GlobSnow products) Vegetation parameters from terrestrial ecosystem models (BIOME-BGC, BEPS) and remote sensing (MODIS)
CANADIAN PRODUCTS and OTHER ASPECTS a) Operational products (EC/MSC) b) Outreach effort... c) Northern Ground Station (NGS) in Canadian Arctic region (above 65 o N)