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  • FOR 15110323_093449
  • VIIRS has more 22 spectral bands vs 5 AVHRR bands and improved spatial resolution and improved precision. Edge of scan imagery from VIIRS does not degrade as compared to AVHRR. In the images, rivers, lakes, clouds and other features are retained in VIIRS and are blurred considerably with AVHRR. Think of HDTV vs analog TV. More channels (bands) provide new products such as ocean color, and more channels and improved sensitivity significantly improve the accuracy of AVHRR products including snow, ice, clouds, aerosols, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, fire detection, smoke.
  • Requirement: Improve climate observation & interpretation Create consistent climate records Enhance ability to warn, mitigate and protect.Science: Can Vegetation Health (VH) provides reliable climate services?Benefit: Predict drought, crop losses, fire risk, human healthVEGETATION HEALTH (VH): Theory & ApplicationsDefinition: Proxy estimating cumulative vegetation response to weather & climate Features: Characterizes Greenness (chlorophyll); Vigor (moisture); Thermal (skin temperature) Theory: Controlled by Law-of-Minimum (Leibigh law); Law-of-Tolerance; Principal of Carrying CapacityAdvantages: Has “memory”, Combines NDVI and BT, 30-year data Products: Drought, vegetation health, fire risk, soil saturationApplication: Agriculture, Forestry, Climate forcing & change, Human Health, Weather disasters, Land cover change
  • 1 IGARSS 2011 JPSS Monday Goldberg.pptx

    1. 1. NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Environmental Earth Observations<br />Mitch Goldberg, JPSS Program Scientist (JPSS NOAA)<br />James Gleason, JPSS Project Scientist (JPSS NASA)<br />Robert Murphy, Carl Hoffman (JPSS DPA) <br />John Furgerson, JPSS User Liaison (JPSS NOAA)<br />
    2. 2. PRESIDENTIAL DECISION 2 FEB 2010<br /><ul><li>NPOESS Program Terminated 30 Sep 2010</li></ul>NOAA assigned 1330 orbit – Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)<br />DoD assigned 0530 orbit – Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)<br />EUMETSAT MetOp will provide 0930 orbit<br />Common Ground System (GCS) using systems developed for NPOESS<br />Command, Communications & Control (C3S )<br />Data production system (IDPS)<br />Globally Distributed Receptor Network (DRN)<br />Process both JPSS and DWSS data<br />Advanced sensors developed for NPOESS will be continued<br />VIIRS (MODIS heritage)<br />CrIS (AIRS/IASI heritage)<br />OMPS (OMI/TOMS heritage)<br />ATMS (AMSU heritage)<br />CERES/ERBS<br />
    3. 3. JPSS Program Overview<br />Benefits<br /><ul><li>Maintains continuity of weather/climate observations and critical environmental data from the polar orbit
    4. 4. NOAA – JPSS provides improved continuity for POES
    5. 5. HIRS > CrIS (T & WV Atmos. Profiles)
    6. 6. AMSU/MHS > ATMS
    7. 7. AVHRR > VIIRS (Imagery, Cloud Mask, SST)
    8. 8. SBUV2 > OMPS (Total Ozone)
    9. 9. NASA – JPSS provides continuity for EOS
    10. 10. AIRS > CrIS
    11. 11. AMSU > ATMS
    12. 12. MODIS > VIIRS
    13. 13. OMI > OMPS
    14. 14. AMSR-E > AMSR2 (JAXA-GCOM-W)</li></ul>JPSS-1 Satellite<br />(NPP-clone)<br />
    15. 15. Continuity of Polar Operational Satellites<br />
    16. 16. JPSS PROGRAM PLANS<br /><ul><li>NASA will procure and integrate JPSS for NOAA</li></ul>POES / GOES model<br />Algorithm development and Cal/Val led by NOAA<br /><ul><li>NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be completed as planned</li></ul>Five Sensors (VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, OMPS, CERES)<br />NPP will use C3S and IDPS developed for NPOESS<br /><ul><li>NOAA/NASA will develop JPSS series for 1330 Orbit
    17. 17. JPSS-1 will be NPP Clone</li></ul>SARSAT and A/DCS will likely fly on separate satellite<br />JPSS-1 will use Distributed Receptor Network <br /><ul><li>JPSS-2 and beyond will be competed
    18. 18. DoD plans for DWSS being developed</li></ul>DoD will launch remaining inventory of DMSP in the interim<br />
    19. 19. 2 < 6 ><br />CLASS<br />SDS<br />Data Delivery<br /> Data Delivery<br />Data Delivery<br />Data Delivery<br />DataManagement<br />DataManagement<br />DataManagement<br />DataManagement<br />JPSS System Architecture<br />Weather / Climate Products<br />Supporting Space<br />GPS<br />TDRSS<br />TDRSS<br />Space<br />Segment<br />JPSS1330<br />DWSS1730<br />LaunchSupportSegment<br />NPOESSPreparatoryProject<br />Offline Support<br /><ul><li>Algorithm Support
    20. 20. Integrated Support Facility
    21. 21. Calibration/Validation</li></ul>EELV<br />Weather Centrals<br />NAVO<br />FNMOC<br />AFWA<br />NESDIS<br />AlternateMMC<br />Svalbard<br />Primary T&C<br />VAFB<br />FNMOC<br />Interface Data Processing Segment<br />AFWA<br />NESDIS<br />NAVO<br />DQM<br />White SandsComplex<br />HRD<br />LRD<br />MissionManagementCenter (MMC)<br />Processing<br />Processing<br />Processing<br />Processing<br />Processing<br />Field Terminal Segment<br />15 Globally Distributed Receptor sitesInterconnected by Commercial Fiber<br />Ingest<br />Ingest<br />Ingest<br />Ingest<br />Mission Data<br />Command, Control & Communication Segment<br />
    22. 22. Direct Readout Stations using Xband<br />
    23. 23. NPP Spacecraft(JPSS-1 Concept )<br />VIIRS<br />CrIS<br />ATMS<br />OMPS<br />CERES<br />
    24. 24. NPP/JPSS-1 SENSORS<br />Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) <br />Raytheon<br />Cross-track Infrared Sounder<br />(CrIS)<br />ITT Corporation<br />Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)<br />(FM5 for NPP)<br />Northrop Grumman<br />Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS)<br />Northrop Grumman<br />Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite <br />(OMPS)<br />Ball Aerospace<br />
    25. 25. JPSS L1RD Defined Environmental Data Records (EDRS)<br />MIS (17 - TBR)<br />VIIRS (22)<br />CLOUD LIQUID WATER<br />PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE<br />PRECIPITABLE WATER<br />SEA SURFACE WINDS (1)<br />CLOUD ICE WATER PATH<br />SEA SURFACE WIND STRESS<br />TOTAL WATER CONTENT<br />SOIL MOISTURE<br />IMAGERY<br />SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION<br />SNOW COVER/DEPTH<br />SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE<br />LAND SURFACE TEMP<br />SURFACE TYPE<br />ALBEDO (SURFACE)<br />CLOUD BASE HEIGHT<br />CLOUD COVER/LAYERS<br />CLOUD EFFECTIVE PART SIZE<br />CLOUD OPTICAL THICKNESS<br />CLOUD TOP HEIGHT<br />CLOUD TOP PRESSURE<br />CLOUD TOP TEMPERATURE<br />ICE SURFACE TEMPERATURE<br />NET HEAT FLUX <br />OCEAN COLOR/CHLOROPHYLL<br />SUSPENDED MATTER<br />VEGETATION INDEX<br />AEROSOL OPTICAL THICKNESS<br />AEROSOL PARTICLE SIZE<br />ACTIVE FIRES<br />IMAGERY<br />SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION<br />SNOW COVER<br />SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE<br />LAND SURFACE TEMP<br />SURFACE TYPE<br />ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE<br />ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE<br />PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)<br />CrIS/ATMS (3)<br />ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE<br />ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE<br />PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)<br />GCOM AMSR-2<br /> (11)<br />OMPS (2)<br />CLOUD LIQUID WATER<br />PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE<br />PRECIPITABLE WATER<br />SEA SURFACE WINDS SPEED<br />SOIL MOISTURE<br />SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT<br />IMAGERY<br />SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION<br />SNOW COVER/DEPTH<br />SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE<br />SURFACE TYPE<br />SEM-N (5)<br />O3 TOTAL COLUMN<br />O3 NADIR PROFILE<br />CERES (4)<br />VIIRS (22)<br />AURORAL BOUNDARY<br />AURORAL ENERGY DEPOSITION<br />ENERGETIC IONS<br />MED ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES<br />SUPRA-THERMAL THRU AE PARTICLES<br />DOWN LW RADIATION (SFC)<br />DOWN SW RADIATION (SFC)<br />NET SOLAR RADIATION (TOA)<br />OUTGOING LW RADIATION (TOA)<br />TSIS (1)<br />SARR &<br />SARP<br />SOLAR IRRADIANCE<br />A-DCS<br />EDRs with Key Performance Parameters<br />KEY<br />Notes:<br />(1) Delivered as two MIS products – Speed (Key EDR) and Direction<br />JPSS-1<br />GCOM<br />DWSS<br />JPSS Program<br />(Host TBD)<br />PSE v1 2/28/11<br />
    26. 26. CrIS Overview<br /><ul><li>The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a key sensor</li></ul>Fourier Transform Spectrometer providing high resolution IR spectra:<br />Fields of Regard each 3 x 3 FOVs<br />Photovoltaic Detectors in all 3 bands<br />4-Stage Passive Detector Cooler<br />14 km nadir spatial resolution<br />2200 km swath width<br />On-board internal calibration target<br /><ul><li>Science pioneer: AIRS on EOS Aqua, IASI on METOP-A
    27. 27. Supplier: ITT Industries
    28. 28. Key subcontractors:</li></ul>ABB Bomem, Interferometer, ICT<br />DRS, detectors<br />AER, EDR algorithm<br />
    29. 29. NEdN During NPP Spacecraft Self Compatibility Test<br />The reaction wheels were being exercised during this period<br />12<br />
    30. 30. Advanced Technology Microwave SounderNorthrop Grumman Electronic Systems<br />Description<br />Purpose: In conjunction with CrIS, global observations of temperature and moisture profiles at high temporal resolution (~ daily).<br />Predecessor Instruments: AMSU A1 / A2, MHS<br />Approach: Scanning passive microwave radiometer <br /> 22 channels (23GHz - 183GHz)<br />Swath width: 2300 km<br />Co-registration: with CrIS<br />
    31. 31. Microwave and Infrared Earth Spectra<br />The NPOESS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) as a Companion to the New Generation AIRS/AMSU and IASI/AMSU Sounder Suites<br />Gail A. Bingham, Utah State Univ./SDL, Logan, UT; and N. S. Pougatchev, M. P. Esplin, W. J. Blackwell, and C. D. Barnet<br />http://ams.confex.com/ams/90annual/techprogram/paper_163196.htm<br />
    32. 32. Sounding Strategy in Cloudy Scenes<br />Co-locate infrared and microwave instruments<br />.<br /><ul><li>Sounding is performed on 50 km a field of regard (FOR)
    33. 33. FOR is currently defined by the size of the microwave sounder footprint
    34. 34. IASI/AMSU has 4 IR FOV’s per FOR
    35. 35. AIRS/AMSU & CrIS/ATMS have 9 IR FOV’s per FOR
    36. 36. ATMS is spatially over-sampled can emulate an AMSU FOV</li></ul>Le Marshallet al., 2006<br />AIRS, IASI, and CrIS all acquire 324,000 FOR’s per day!<br />
    37. 37. Improved Soundings<br />AIRS provides significant improvements in temperature and moisture soundings over older generation instruments.<br />Vertical resolution has improved from 3 – 6 km to 1 – 2 km.<br />NOAA/NESDIS<br />
    38. 38. CriS and ATMS provide continuity of essential atmospheric sounding information for weather forecasting<br />Hyperspectral Infrared Sounders (CrIS) and Advanced Microwave Sounders (ATMS) are the top two contributors for reducing forecast errors<br />Forecast error reduction contribution (%)<br />
    39. 39. Afternoon orbit has large impact on forecasting <br />major weather events<br />Forecast Period: 5 Feb (am) – 6 Feb (am)<br />6 Feb: Models without PM data under-forecasted snow totals:<br />Operational forecast shows paralyzing event<br />Data Denial <br />Did not forecast paralyzing event in DC— at least 10” too low at Day 5<br />Low confidence in extreme snowfall at this point<br />Future errors of this scale could result in:<br />Aircraft and airline passengers stranded<br />Ground commerce halted with no mitigation plans<br />Population unprepared for paralyzing snow-depth<br />15-22”<br />Actual<br />15-18”<br />Forecast<br />Observed<br />27 Km Operational NWP <br />Wash DC 5-day Forecast:<br />- With Data: Historical, paralyzing event<br />- Data Denial: Significant; but not<br /> paralyzing <br />Data Denial NWP<br />7-10”<br />Forecast<br />
    40. 40. Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer SuiteRaytheon SAS El Segundo, Ca<br />Description<br /><ul><li>Purpose: Global observations of land, ocean, & atmosphere parameters at high temporal resolution (~ daily)
    41. 41. Predecessor Instruments: AVHRR, OLS, MODIS, SeaWiFS
    42. 42. Approach: Multi-spectral scanning radiometer (22 bands between 0.4 µm and 12 µm) 12-bit quantization
    43. 43. Swath width: 3000 km</li></ul>Spatial Resolution<br /><ul><li>16 bands at 750m
    44. 44. 5 bands at 325m
    45. 45. DNB</li></ul>VIIRS on NPP<br />
    46. 46. VIIRS Data Products<br />Land<br /><ul><li>Active Fire
    47. 47. Land Surface Albedo
    48. 48. Land Surface Temperature Ice Surface Temperature
    49. 49. Sea Ice Characterization
    50. 50. Snow Cover/Depth
    51. 51. Vegetation Index
    52. 52. Surface Type </li></ul>Ocean<br /><ul><li>Sea Surface Temperature
    53. 53. Ocean Color/Chlorophyll</li></ul>Imagery & Cloud<br /><ul><li>Imagery
    54. 54. Cloud Mask [IP]
    55. 55. Cloud Optical Thickness
    56. 56. Cloud Effective Particle Size Parameter
    57. 57. Cloud Top Parameters
    58. 58. Cloud Base Height
    59. 59. Cloud Cover/Layers</li></ul>Aerosol<br /><ul><li>Aerosol Optical Thickness
    60. 60. Aerosol Particle Size Parameter
    61. 61. Suspended Matter</li></li></ul><li>VIIRS Edge of Scan Spatial Resolution is significantly improved over AVHRR<br />AVHRR<br />VIIRS<br />
    62. 62. VIIRS Prelaunch Performance(NPP F1 Bands and SNR/NEDT)<br />Courtesy of H. Oudrari<br />
    63. 63. In addition to clouds and SST, VIIRS provides continuity of essential environmental monitoring from AVHRR and MODIS<br />Biosphere monitoring:<br /> Vegetation and Ocean Color<br />Fire monitoring and mapping<br /> Aerosols for air quality and aviation safety<br />Oil slick monitoring and mapping<br />Volcanic Ash<br />
    64. 64. DNB for night time clouds using lunar illumination<br />
    65. 65. NOAA’s Vegetation Health System<br />Central USAHealthy vegetationImpact: Good crops<br />KazakhstanVegetation stressImpact: Bad crops<br />Western USA Vegetation stressImpact: Fire<br />ArgentinaVegetation StressImpact: Drought<br />Southern AfricaHealthy VegetationImpact: Malaria<br />30 Years of AVHRR<br />Healthy Vegetation<br />Impact: Malaria<br />Felix Kogan, NESDIS<br />
    66. 66. Coral Bleaching<br />50km Nighttime Sea Surface Temperature (SST)<br />SST Anomaly<br />Coral – <br />specific<br />HotSpot<br />Degree Heating Week<br />Bleaching Alert Areas<br />http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov<br />26<br />
    67. 67. Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.<br />Description<br /><ul><li>Purpose: Monitors the total column and vertical profile of ozone
    68. 68. Predecessor Instruments: TOMS, SBUV, GOME, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY
    69. 69. Approach: Nadir and limb push broom CCD spectrometers
    70. 70. Swath width: 2600 km</li></li></ul><li>OMPS provides continuity of essential ozone products and applications<br />Monitoring ozone hole and recovering of ozone due to the Montreal Protocol for eliminating Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) <br />Used in NWS UV Index forecast to allow public to avoid overexposure to UV radiation<br />
    71. 71. CERES Instrument Overview<br />CERES scanning radiometer measuring three spectral bands at TOA<br /><ul><li>Total (0.3 to >50 m)
    72. 72. Shortwave (0.3 to 5.0m)
    73. 73. Longwave (5 to 50m)</li></ul>Operations, Data Processing, Products, and Science are a continuation of experience developed on <br /><ul><li>TRMM (1), EOS Terra (2), EOS Aqua (2), in I&T on NPP</li></ul>21 in.<br />18 in.<br />22 in.<br />Critical Resource Margins<br />Primary CERES Climate Data Records<br />Reflected<br />Solar<br />Energy<br />Emitted<br />Thermal<br />Energy<br />
    74. 74. Earth Radiation Budget<br />CERES Shortwave<br />TSIS<br />CERES Longwave<br />From IPCC AR4 FAQ<br />
    75. 75. JPSS Continues Data Time Series <br />Year<br />Measurement System<br />Conventional OperationsEOS Technology JumpResearch Quality Operations<br />
    76. 76. MSU Tropospheric Temperature Trends<br />Zou et al., JGR-Atm, 111 (D19): D19114 OCT 14 2006<br />ATMS is better calibrated<br />and satellite does not drift <br />
    77. 77. Overview of AMSR2 instrument on GCOM<br />Deployable main reflector system with 2.0m diameter.<br />Frequency channel set is identical to that of AMSR-E except 7.3GHz channel for RFI mitigation.<br />2-point external calibration with the improved HTS (hot-load).<br />Stowed<br />Deployed<br />33<br />
    78. 78. Overview of AMSR2EDRs<br />Cloud liquid<br />water<br />Water vapor<br />Snow water<br />equivalent<br />Soil moisture<br />Precipitation<br />Sea surface<br />temperature<br />Sea surface<br />Wind vector<br />Sea ice concentration<br />34<br />
    79. 79. Conclusions<br />JPSS Mission will provide:<br />Input Observations for Weather Forecast Models<br />CrIS, ATMS, VIIRS, OMPS & GCOM <br />Short term Environmental Observations <br /> (Events)<br /> VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM<br />Long term Environmental Observations <br /> (Climate Change Detection)<br /> CERES, TSIS, VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM<br />User Engagement is critical for ultimate mission success<br />

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