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State of Mobile Healthcare


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The Mobile Healthcare Industry
Growth, Opportunities, Innovation and Barriers

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State of Mobile Healthcare

  1. 1. The Mobile Health Industry Growth, Opportunities, Innovation and Barriers By: Glenn Roland
  2. 2. 2 1800 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 515 Reston, VA 20191 703-234-2360 Phone 703-234-1281 Fax I’m always interested in connecting with like-minded professionals on Linked IN. I’m not that big on tweeting, my life isn’t that interesting. I am a technology professional with expertise in international telecom, mobile solutions and healthcare market research. I’m passionate about digital and mobile health and the potential advances in technology have to dramatically change not only the healthcare system in the U.S. but the global system of care as well. Although I’m optimistic, I’m a realistic too. I believe some of the innovations taking place in these areas are still narrowly focused and lack the fundamentals that will contribute to broad adoption resulting in lower healthcare costs and improved treatment outcomes. Like any emerging technology, there’s too much emphasis on the technology itself instead of the problem being solved. As such, there is a functional and “brand persona” gap between the technologists building Mobile health solutions and the people who are responsible for improving health and treatment outcomes. Our current system of healthcare is complex, steeped in tradition and further complicated by misinformation that makes it difficult to separate fact from fiction. My goal is to offer some straightforward opinions on where I believe Mobile health stands today along with other factors that are hindering wide-scale adoption and limiting the potential of technology focused on improving the healthcare industry. About this Presentation: About me: Glenn Roland
  3. 3. 1 Mobile Health Market: What’s Driving Growth ? 2 Market Opportunities: What and Where are they? 3 Mobile/Digital Health Innovation 4 Barriers to Growth: What’s Hindering Market Adoption? 5 Summary: Slow Adoption but Huge Upside Potential Agenda Executive Summary – Mobile Health Definition Suggested Links and Additional Information
  4. 4. Executive Summary
  5. 5. Mobile technology has risen at an explosive rate worldwide over the past decade achieving 6.8 billion mobile subscriptions at the end of February 2013. Mobile penetration in developed nations is around 128 percent of the population while it is estimated to be 89 percent penetration in developing nations. China surpassed the U.S. as the top market for smartphone sales at the end of 2011. By the end of 2016, it is estimated that mobile subscriptions will reach 8.5 billion worldwide. Adoption of mobile technology among healthcare providers has risen dramatically as well during the same period. By the end of 2014, it is estimated that 9 out 10 healthcare professionals will use mobile routinely as part of their job. The growth in mobile, the emergence of digital health and the continuing trend toward patient empowerment are key factors behind the dramatic advances taking place in the mHealth market sector. As a result of these trends, investment in mobile and digital health technology has risen to record levels with global brands and private investors allocating significant financial resource to capitalize on innovations taking place in the space. At the end of 2013, $1.97 billion had been invested in digital health start-ups. Funding was up 39% from 2012 and 119% compared to 2011. The trend is continuing in to 2014 with $700 million being invested in Q1 alone. Advanced networks, improved device technology are creating new opportunities to deliver healthcare to remote regions around the world. In addition, the convergence of mobile and digital are creating new ways of detecting, preventing and managing some of the most complex and costly diseases facing the healthcare industry today. Despite the opportunities, significant challenges still remain toward wide-scale adoption across the healthcare industry. Poorly defined business models, target markets, brand persona, litigation concerns, privacy issues, vague regulations and interoperability have hindered wide-scale adoption of mobile technology across the industry. Not only have these challenges slowed market adoption, it has impeded progress toward healthcare cost reductions and improved treatment outcomes. Although there is an explosion of healthcare related apps on the market, patients have been slow to adopt because of they have not shown tangible benefits toward the goal of improved health. There is a clear functionality gap between the technologists that are building apps and the patient populations that need and will use them. Although there are challenges, it’s still early in the evolution of technologies that comprise the space. Each day significant advances are made and it is becoming increasingly difficult to predict what effect they will have on the field of medicine. Investors and technology professionals that approach this market like they have others in the past are underestimating the tradition and complexity that make the healthcare industry so uniquely challenging. Technology alone isn’t the answer. Healthcare is vast and fragmented characterized by diffuse decision making and competing interests. New technology entrants should work with payers and care providers to create relevant mHealth services and business models that work in order to create an ecosystem that achieves longevity and efficacy over time. The upside of the market is huge as the advancements taking place could potentially transform the healthcare system forever. Executive Summary
  6. 6. “Mobile Health or mHealth is defined as “medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and other wireless devices”. - World Health Organization Mobile Health Defined
  7. 7. “When I was in medical school, the term ‘digital’ applied only to rectal exams” - Eric Topol Mobile health also falls under the broader category of Digital Health…… Mobile Health Defined
  8. 8. Mobile Health Market What’s Driving Growth?
  9. 9. 6.8 billion Global Mobile Subscribers worldwide 96% Of the worlds population Of the World’s Population 128% penetration market penetration in developed countries Exponential growth in Developed Nations .. China and India lead in adoption ad in mobile adoption Market Growth – Mobile Adoption There are 14 countries in the world with over a 100 Million subscriptions ranging from China with 1.2 billion to Mexico with 102.7 million….. adoption
  10. 10. 5.2 billion subscribers in developing countries 76.6% of Global Subscriptions Of the World’s Population 89% penetration market penetration in developing countries Market Growth – Mobile Adoption Rapid growth in developing nations too…. Africa has lowest penetration at 63 percent has lowest Studies show developing nations more “receptive” to Mobile Health solutions…
  11. 11. “Maybe that’s because they have no choice…”
  12. 12. 23% 15% 9% 4%4% 46% % ADOPTION BY COUNTRY THRU 2016. China USA India Brazil United Kingdom Rest of World Mobile Technology Growth – Estimated thru 2016 26.2% 11.6% 57.5% 44% 11.5% 18.1% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% CHINA USA INDIA BRAZIL UNITED KINDOM REST OF WORLD % Growth by Country 2011 thru 2016 CHINA: % Growth – 26.2% % Adoption – 23% UNITED STATES: % Growth – 11.6% % Adoption – 14.5% UNITED KINGDOM: % Growth – 11.5% % Adoption – 3.6% INDIA: % Growth – 57.5% % Adoption – 8.5% BRAZIL: % Growth – 44% % Adoption – 4.4% The remaining countries of the world are estimated to grow approximately 18% to account for 46% of global mobile adoption.
  13. 13. “Technology was not robust enough, the physical characteristics of mobile devices were limiting…so past interactions relied heavily on text messaging……and, that wasn’t very compelling.” Mobile Health Market Growth – Other Factors Advanced Networks and Security Networks capable of delivering rich media and protecting patient privacy…… “Advances in Mobile device Characteristics” Exponential Growth in the number of global mobile subscribers….. 56% of doctors now use smartphones Healthcare Reform and the Need to Lower Costs The move toward digital content and improved access to healthcare data…. 6.8 billion at the end of 2012 (ITU) Active instead of “reactive” healthcare….and a continuing trend toward patient empowerment” 31% Or 1 in 3 of cell phone owners have used their phones to look for health information. 2 years ago that percentage was 17%. 52% of smartphone owners gather health information on their phones
  14. 14. 8.5 Billion Mobile Subscribers are estimated worldwide by 2016
  15. 15. %99 %78 34% 28% %100 %86 53% %47 %100 94% 85% %82 Computer Smartphone Tablet Digital Omnivore %0 ONCOLOGY CARDIOLOGY PRIMARY CARE (FP, GP, IM) PSYCHIATRY NURSE PRACTITIONER PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT %20 %40 %60 80% %100 59% 84% 54% 88% 48% 85% 44% 77% 40% 77% 30% 76% 2013 2014 EXPECTED BY JUNE 201420132012 9 out of 10 of healthcare providers by 2014 will use smartphones, and nearly as many will have adopted tablets.Physicians becoming “digital omnivores” defined as clinicians who use a tablet, smartphone and laptop/desktop routinely in a professional capacity GROWTH BY YEAR Source: GROWTH BY SPECIALTY Market Growth – Healthcare Provider Adoption
  16. 16. FITNESS Apps used for health and fitness FITNESS Inform patients and act as reference for physicians EDUCATION Appointment scheduling, medication alerts REMINDERS “In the moment” interactions with patients and physicians RESEARCH Used to enhance physician patient interactions and compliance COMMUNICATION Mobile extensions to enterprise applications ENTERPRISE 5 42 120 83 55 38 116 122 57 102 70 80 69 160 40 87 227 174 40 232 86 94 80 112 220 90 60 170 140 180 120 170 350 150 140 180 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 2011 2012 REFERRALS DIAGNOSTICS $890 Million $1.4 Billion $1.97 Billion Used by patients to find physicians Apps intended to aid in diagnosis 2013 Market Growth – Investment in Startups
  17. 17. The top deals of 2013 comprised 20% of all funding…. 100Mil 70Mil 68Mil 65Mil 63Mil 50Mil 40Mil 43Mil 41Mil 40Mil Market Growth – Investment in Startups
  18. 18. Market Growth – Investment by Brands
  19. 19. $1.97 billion invested in Digital Health start-ups in 2013….. …and nearly $ 700M in funding poured into the space in Q1 2014, paving the way for the biggest year ever for the industry. – Rock Health
  20. 20. 62% Of personal bankruptcy filings each year are related to medical bills…. $2,080,779 Lowest paid CEO on the list of 10 largest “nonprofit” hospitals…. 8X more The cost we pay for one Nexium pill versus what the French pay… 50th U.S infant mortality rank, nine spots below China. Needless to say, we are not getting “bang for the buck” for what we spend on healthcare…… Source: “Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us” Most expensive country in the world to have a baby Market Growth – Need to Lower Costs What’s making America sick?
  21. 21. $210 Billion Unnecessary Services $130 Billion Inefficient delivery of care $190 Billion EXCESS ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS $55 Billion P r e v e n t i o n f a i l u r e s $75 Billion FRAUD $105 Billion Inflated Prices $750 Billion is wasted every year.. Source: The Institute of Medicine Market Growth – Need to Lower Costs The Real Culprits….
  22. 22. $3,800 $4,522 $4,448 $4,118 $4,495 $5,099 $3,182 $5,669 $3,925 $5,643 $3,405 $8,508 8.9% 11.2% 10.9% 11.6% 11.3% 11.9% 10.3% 9.3% 9.5% 11.0% 9.4% 17.7% Australia Canada Denmark France Germany Netherlands New Zealand Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States Of the countries that spend the most on healthcare, we spend by far the highest per person and yet our life expectancy is the lowest in the group… Highest cost per person and highest percentage of GDP
  23. 23. Will Healthcare Reform (a.k.a, Obamacare) fix the fundamental problems that are causing healthcare costs to skyrocket in the U.S? The answer is NO…. Source: The Brookings Institute Market Growth – Need for Real Healthcare Reform
  24. 24.  Young adults can stay on their parents health policies until the age of 26  Children cannot be denied coverage for pre-existing conditions  Over 5 years, $11 billion will be increased to community health centers to serve more low-income and insured people  Starting in 2014, insurance cannot restrict coverage or base premiums on health status or gender  Individuals will be required to carry health insurance or be subject to a penalty  Employers with 50 or more workers must offer health benefits or pay a fine Current Healthcare Reform – Key Provisions The ACA was intended to expand coverage NOT reduce healthcare costs…. - The Brookings Institute
  25. 25. Market Growth – Need to Lower Costs “Digital health may be the best and most efficient way to get us out of our healthcare mess with smart and cost- effective solutions” - Eric Topol …but the business model needs to lower costs for the patient not just increase profits for the insurance company and/or healthcare provider… Its just common sense!!
  26. 26. “With increasing personal responsibility for their own health, there is the real potential to move toward a society focused on overall wellness and preventive measures rather than reactive measures” Market Growth- Empowered Patients
  27. 27. Mobile Health Opportunities What and Where are they?
  28. 28. 55% 18% “Apps developed to date do not fit well with the greatest areas of spend in healthcare – those patients facing multiple chronic diseases and typically over the age of 65.” “They are the top healthcare spenders but smartphone penetration is lowest among this group.” U.S Smartphone Adoption by Age Aged 45-54 years Over age 65 Market Opportunities – Older Sick People
  29. 29. Market Opportunities - Compliance…or, lack thereof…. “About half of all people don’t take medications like they are suppose to” - Eric Topol
  30. 30. “ On avoidable healthcare costs in the U.S., it was demonstrated that six disease areas (congestive heart failure, HIV, osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) accounted for $105 billion in annual avoidable costs from non-compliance to medication treatments” $105 Billion Market Opportunities - Cost of Non-Compliance Yet, very few apps on the market focus on the problem of Non-Compliance….. Source: IMS Institute of Health Informatics
  31. 31. “Obesity alone costs the United States more than $150 billion in lost productivity a year… - The Atlantic Market Opportunities – Obese People
  32. 32. TheUnitedStatesranksjustbelowatNo.2withanobesityrateof31.8%. The U.S. ranks No. 2 as the most overweight country with an obesity rate of 31.8%. “However, the majority of fitness and wellness apps are simply informational with limited functionality…” Market Opportunities – Obese People
  33. 33. $1 Million The average cost of a severe heart attack – CBS News “The ability to diagnose an imminent heart attack has long been considered the holy grail of cardiovascular medicine” – Eric Topol “We have sensors in our cars to detect oil pressure. What about sensors in our body to detect artery fractures prior to having a heart attacks? Market Opportunities – Heart/Chronic Disease
  34. 34. “It seems as though, if innovators are looking to build healthcare solutions, the target demographic is not the technophiles early- adopters of the Social Network, who are predominately middle-to upper-middle class whites and Asians living on the coasts…….. Source: CDC “Blacks have the highest rate of obesity, followed by Mexican Americans, other Hispanics, and finally whites” Non-Hispanic Blacks 49.5% All Hispanics 39.1% Mexican Americans 40.4% Non- Hispanic Whites 34.3% “Indeed, the early-adopter elite have more spending power and so many web products are aligned with the mentality of “innovating for the elite”…… but, when it comes to healthcare innovation, this wisdom fails.”
  35. 35. Target and build Apps for Sick People!!!
  36. 36. Mobile/Digital Health Innovation
  37. 37. Mobile/Digital Health Innovation “The Robot will see you now…..”
  38. 38. “30 million wearable health devices were shipped in 2012, a 37% increase over 2011” - Axial Exchange Innovation – Wearable Health Technology
  39. 39. The emerging market for “wearable technology” is not an extension of the smartphone “form factor”…it is an emerging market on its own…
  40. 40. “As a whole, the wearable technology market is estimated to be $19 billion by 2018….”
  41. 41. “With sensing technologies and monitoring in the palm of our hand, we can make a Google map of the human body “ - Eric Topol In 2012, the FDA approved the first digital smart pill….. Innovation – Sensing Technologies (a.k.a, smartpills)
  42. 42. “….highly individualized treatments based on a persons own unique genetic structure and physiology …..“ Innovation – Genome Sequencing “Affordable genome sequencing combined with “big data“ will create….. Side note: On November 13, 2013 the FDA ordered 23andMe (a startup genetic testing company) to stop marketing its products as the agency considered it to be in violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act).
  43. 43. “3D printing combined with stem cell advances and other forms of human engineering could end human disability”
  44. 44. …I love my fitbit….it even tells me how many calories I burn when I open the refrigerator door….. Anonymous Director at NIH But, right now the focus is fitness trackers and other cool stuff..
  45. 45. and, everybody is building glasses and watches…
  46. 46. “True” innovation will look something like this….. Artificial Pancreas The first insulin pump “The Artificial Pancreas represents the most revolutionary development in diabetes care since the discovery of insulin…”JDRF
  47. 47. Barriers to Growth What’s Hindering Adoption?
  48. 48. “Despite rapid adoption among healthcare providers to use mobile technology, their willingness to prescribe mobile health apps for their patients is lagging…. What’s hindering wide-scale market adoption…?? Barriers to Growth
  49. 49. “mHealth has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare industry yet organizations are still uncertain how to capitalize on the technology. - PWC Health Barriers to Growth – The Business Model
  50. 50. “How many businesses do you know that want to cut their revenue in half? That’s why the healthcare system won’t change the healthcare system.” - Rick Scott, Governor of Florida
  51. 51. Barriers to Growth – Brand Persona While digital health professes to be, in part, about disease management, the current “brand persona” seems to be more along the lines of fashion and the hip perspective of the ripped runner….”
  52. 52. “And there lies the rub–a disconnect from real patients like the prototypical 60 year-old man with diabetes and hypertension. He’s still wearing a Timex…” TECHNOLOGY GURU TARGET AUDIENCE
  53. 53. “Homogenous teams of innovators make products for people just like them. And that’s a problem” - The Atlantic Trust me, I’m a Doctor….
  54. 54. LEGAL: Any implications that make me legally liable? REIMBURSEMENT: Does patient pay or will insurance? SECURITY: Is the app secure and HIPAA compliant? CHOICE/RATINGS: Most relevant/trustworthy apps for patients. INFRASTRUCTURE: How do I recommend/prescribe an app? REGULATIONS: Do I need FDA approval to prescribe? Source: IMS Health Barriers to Growth – Physician Adoption The main hurdles to wide-scale physician adoption:
  55. 55. “Patients currently face a dizzying array of healthcare apps to choose from, with little guidance on quality or support from their doctors” - IMS Health
  56. 56. “Its very easy from the technology point of view to say that this is the future but [ those saying so] don’t take in to account the traditions and complexity of the healthcare system…..”
  57. 57. So, I have all of this incredible information literally 24/7 – not just from my prescription medical devices – but also from my fitbit, from a Bluetooth blood pressure monitor, from a digital scale and from a variety of different Iphone apps that are used for nutrition tracking etc…. None of them connect……. -Anna McCollister-Slipp A type 1 diabetes sufferer Barriers to Adoption - Data Interoperability
  58. 58. Everybody seems to think that its OK to wait another two to three years for this process to play itself out… But, for those of us who live with data dysfunction two or three years may be the difference between going blind or dying in our sleep….. -Anna McCollister-Slipp A type 1 diabetes sufferer Barriers to Growth - Data Interoperability
  59. 59. In 2012, the FDA approved the first digital smart pill….. “There are an estimated 90,000+ health-related mobile apps on the market today…… Barriers to Growth – Federal Regulations …..since 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 103 of them…. - Mobihealthnews
  60. 60. FDA definition:…an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, or in vitro that is intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man, or intended to affect the structure or any other function of the body…… July 2011 Draft guidance released 2012 2013 Source: 2011 2013 First Mobile App approved Workgroup formed to identify regulatory framework FDA tells congress final guidance by Oct 2013 FDA launches first inquiry for an App Final Guidelines released Sept 2013 Coalition asks for a delay Health IT Committee asks to expedite Feb2011 July2011 July2012 Mar2013 May 2013 June 2013 June 2013 FDA Scope: Mobile Medical Apps Enforcement Discretion Non- Regulated
  61. 61. Barriers to Growth - Mobile Security “Porn makes up 1% of mobile viewing activity but accounts for 16% of malicious attacks….. “Mobile directed to web-based ads accounts for 12% of requested content and 20% of attacks….. “Despite a dramatic rise in malware focused on mobile devices, only a fraction of smartphones and tablets are protected by security software” - Juniper Research Source: Blue Coat
  62. 62. “Dumbass patents are crushing small business” - Mark Cuban …patent assertion entities (also called patent trolls) do not manufacture goods themselves but profit from licensing agreements that they often enforce via the threat of litigation…… - PatentFreedom. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 655 1,133 1,079 2,140 2,125 2,440 4,048 5,379 4,229 4,400 Patient-assertion Entity involvement in Patent Litigation over time… Although legislation (Leahy- Smith America Invents Act (AIA)) was enacted in 2011 to curb the activities of these entities, they still pose a significant risk to the emerging market for innovation in the Digital Health/MHealth space. American invents act passed by Congress Number of patent lawsuits
  63. 63. About 66% of all handsets sold globally in 2013 were NOT smartphones; they were junk phones selling for about $200 At the end of 2013, 81% of phones sold worldwide were NOT Apple Source: IDC Barriers to Growth - Hype If you plan to go Global, build your app with the lowest common denominator in mind…. Smartphones and Apple are Overhyped
  64. 64. Lots of apps, lots of hype, but slow adoption…… Apps will generate $25 Billion in revenue in 2013 $25, 000,000,000 More than 1.5 Million apps available in the Apple app store and Google play….. …of the apps that are downloaded 1 in 4 are abandoned after the initial use….
  65. 65. 40,000+ healthcare apps available for download from the U.S. Apple iTunes store…. Most in the overall wellness category, with diet and exercise apps accounting for the majority…. 50% achieve fewer than 500 downloads. Conversely, 5 apps account for 15% of all downloads in the healthcare category….. Lots of apps, lots of hype, but slow adoption……
  66. 66. “Just because I have a fitness app on my phone doesn’t make me an athlete” – Dr. Harry Greenspun
  67. 67. “People use Apps that enhance their lives” “Health Apps need to evolve from “party trick” to real solutions that actually improve health….
  68. 68. Summary Slow Wide-scale Adoption but Huge Upside Potential
  69. 69. Summary • Explosive growth in mobile and digital health is being driven by rapid growth of mobile technology worldwide: − As of February 2013, there are an estimated 6.8 billion mobile subscribers worldwide. − 6.8 billion mobile subscribers is equivalent to 96% of the world population. − Mobile subscribers in developed nations is rapidly reaching saturation. − Penetration in developed nations is 128% and 89% in developing nations. • The rapid growth of mobile worldwide is a key factor behind the rapid adoption of mobile and digital health among healthcare providers. − By 2014, 9 out 10 healthcare providers will use smartphones. − Nearly as many will have adopted tablets as growth among physicians is rising rapidly − Physicians becoming “digital omnivores” defined as those who use a tablet, smartphone and a laptop/desktop routinely in a professional capacity.
  70. 70. Summary • Explosive growth in mobile adoption and digital technology across the industry is driving exponential investment in the healthcare space. − At the end of 2013, $1.97 billion had been invested in digital startups. − Funding was up 39% from 2011 and a 119% compared to 2011. − In Q1 2014, investment topped $1.35 billion according to a report by Startup Health. − Since 2010, funding in digital health is $7.4 billion with 1,393 deals. • According to Startup Health, the top growth markets for investment in 2013 were the following: − Patient Engagement – 410% − Sensors and Vital Signs Monitoring – 243% − Personal Health – 135% − Navigating the Health System – 82% − Big Data Analytics – 102%
  71. 71. Summary • Other factors effecting the adoption of mobile and digital health solutions include: −A continuing trend toward patient empowerment. −An increased focus on healthcare reform and the need to lower costs. −The acceleration of an aging population and increased incidence of chronic disease. −Rapid advances in the underlying technology that supports innovation in these areas. −An increased focus on entrepreneurship across the health technology sector. • The growth in adoption and investment have created a wide-range of opportunities across healthcare for innovations that improve health and treatment outcomes. − Increased focus on providing healthcare to remote regions globally have created opportunities with large carriers, solution providers and philanthropic organizations. − Opportunities exist in technical innovation, investment, legal, security and entrepreneurship around new solutions focused on the healthcare market. − Geographically, the most active regions for digital health funding were in Northern California and the Northeast corridor of the United States.
  72. 72. Summary • Although tremendous opportunities exist for mobile and digital health over the next decade, there are still significant barriers hindering adoption including: − The complexity and tradition of the current medical system in the U.S. − Poorly defined business models that don’t provide adequate incentive to innovators. − Too much emphasis on consumer markets instead solutions for sick people. − An economic model that does not pass on cost savings to the patient. − Vague federal regulations that do not promote rapid “go to market” innovation. − A legal system that discourages providers from implementing new treatments. − Poorly defined guidelines for prescribing and paying for innovative treatments. − A “brand persona” that promotes health and wellness devices as a “party trick” instead of technology that will actually improve health. − As the market grows, the threat of “patent assertion entities” that will stifle innovation.
  73. 73. There has literally never been a better time in history to be an innovator or entrepreneur in the healthcare space – Todd Park, Startup Health
  74. 74. Suggested Links and Additional Information
  75. 75. 75 1800 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 515 Reston, VA 20191 703-234-2360 Phone 703-234-1281 Fax I’m always interested in connecting with like-minded professionals on Linked IN. I’m not that big on tweeting, my life isn’t that interesting. 5 USEFUL LINKS FOR MORE INFORMATION: In December at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center.