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ISU SSP07 TP Report On Orbit Servicing Doctor

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International Space University - Developing On-Orbit Servicing Concepts Technology Options and Roadmap (DOCTOR)

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ISU SSP07 TP Report On Orbit Servicing Doctor

  1. 1. DOCTOR:Developing On-Orbit Servicing Concepts, Technology Options, and Roadmap Final Report International Space University Summer Session Program 2007 
  2. 2.                          i
  3. 3. ____________________________ Acknowledgements                                                              ii 
  4. 4. ________________________________________ Authors                                                                                                                                        iii
  5. 5. _______________________________________ Abstract                                                                                                                                                                    iv 
  6. 6. ________________________________ Faculty Preface                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    v
  7. 7. ________________________________ Student Preface                                             vi 
  8. 8. ______________________________Table of Contents1. INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................1 1.1 DEFINING ON-ORBIT SERVICING ...............................................................................1 1.2 MISSION STATEMENT.................................................................................................1 1.3 MOTIVATION FOR OOS..............................................................................................2 1.4 PURPOSE AND SCOPE .................................................................................................2 1.5 METHODOLOGY .........................................................................................................2 1.6 SUPPORTING MATERIAL .............................................................................................32. BACKGROUND OF OOS ..................................................................................................4 2.1 WHAT MAKES A SPACECRAFT FAIL?.........................................................................4 2.2 HISTORICAL OOS MISSIONS ......................................................................................5 2.3 MISSION CATEGORIES................................................................................................63. CHALLENGES....................................................................................................................9 3.1 ECONOMIC CHALLENGES ...........................................................................................9 3.2 ENGINEERING RISKS ..................................................................................................9 3.3 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND EXPORT CONTROLS ................................................10 3.4 LIABILITY, INSURANCE, AND LICENSING.................................................................10 3.5 SPACE DEBRIS ..........................................................................................................11 3.6 SPACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ...............................................................................11 3.7 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL ............................................................................11 3.8 STANDARDIZATION ..................................................................................................12 3.9 CUSTOMER TRUST ...................................................................................................12 3.10 SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................124. BRIDGING THE GAP - SOLUTIONS ...........................................................................13 4.1 INDUSTRY-DRIVEN STANDARDIZATION ..................................................................13 4.2 TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION THROUGH MILITARY......................................................16 4.3 STANDARDIZATION THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ..............................17 4.4 ISS ROBOTICS SPIN-OFF INITIATIVE ........................................................................19 4.5 COMMERCIAL SPACE STANDARDS BOARD ..............................................................20 4.6 SPACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS .......................................................21 4.7 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................225. NEAR-TERM VISION .....................................................................................................23 5.1 POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS ..........................................................................................24 5.2 KEY CONSIDERATIONS AND ENABLERS ..................................................................24 5.3 MISSIONS AND ACTIVITIES ENABLED ......................................................................26 5.4 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................266. MID-TERM VISION ........................................................................................................27 6.1 POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS ..........................................................................................27 6.2 KEY CONSIDERATIONS AND ENABLERS ..................................................................28  vii
  9. 9. 6.3 MISSIONS AND ACTIVITIES ENABLED ......................................................................307. MID-TERM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE.....................................................................32 7.1 MISSION REQUIREMENTS .........................................................................................32 7.2 ARCHITECTURE TRADE STUDY ................................................................................33 7.3 SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ON-DEMAND ORBITAL REPLACEMENT UNIT ........................37 7.4 SUBSYSTEM DESIGN ................................................................................................44 7.5 MARKET ANALYSIS .................................................................................................54 7.6 CONCLUSIONS ..........................................................................................................608. FAR-TERM VISION ........................................................................................................62 8.1 POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS ..........................................................................................62 8.2 KEY CONSIDERATIONS AND ENABLERS ..................................................................62 8.3 MISSIONS AND ACTIVITIES ENABLED ......................................................................63 8.4 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................649. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................66ANNEX A. FEASIBILITY MATRIX.................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. A.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................75 A.2 POLICY CRITERIA ....................................................................................................76 A.3 ECONOMIC CRITERIA...............................................................................................76 A.4 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY .........................................................................................76 A.5 INTERDISCIPLINARY CRITERIA ...............................................................................77 A.6 ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................77 A.7 MATRIX SENSITIVITY ..............................................................................................80viii 
  10. 10. _________________________________Index of Figures........................................................................4..............................................................20 ...............................................................................................23...........................................................................................26.................................................................................................27 .....................................................................................................31 ......................................................34 ...................................................34.........................................................................................38 .............................................................................40 ................................................................................................45............................................................................................47............................................................................................49.................................................................................50.................................................................................................50 ...........................................................................................51 ...............................................................52....................................................................................................53 .................................................................56 ...............................................................................................................60..................................................................................................62.................................................................64........................................................................................64 ......................................................................................................65  ix
  11. 11. _________________________________ Index of TablesTable 4-1: Cost Model for OOS Delivered by a Satellite Manufacturer ..................................16Table 6-1: Technologies that may enable OOS in the Mid-Term ............................................28Table 6-2: Robotic OOS platforms available in the Near-Term...............................................28Table 7-1: Summary of Systems Trades...................................................................................35Table 7-2: Mass Distribution of the Servicer............................................................................38Table 7-3: ORU Lifetimes ........................................................................................................40Table 7-4: Ion engine performance...........................................................................................45Table 7-5: ODORU Power Budget...........................................................................................46Table 7-6: Power Consumption of Subsystems........................................................................46Table 7-7: Solar Panel efficiency .............................................................................................46Table 7-8: Trade-off of Autonomous vs. Teleoperated Operations..........................................48Table7-9: Requirement of Servicer System (ITU 2007; SLBC 2007) .....................................53Table7-10: Frequency bandwidth and antenna type .................................................................54Table7-11: Result of link budget calculation............................................................................54Table 7-12: Estimated OOS Annual Market Value ..................................................................55Table 7-13: Trade-off Analysis for ORU service mission prices .............................................57Table 7-14: ORU-like failures in GEO (Sullivan 2005)...........................................................57Table 7-15: ORU-replacement market (Sullivan 2005)............................................................58Table 7-16: ORU-Replacement projected annual revenues......................................................59Table 7-17: Project Cost and Revenue until Breakeven ...........................................................60x 
  12. 12. _______________________________List of Acronyms                                                                                                                                                                       xi
  13. 13.                                                                                                                                                                     xii 
  14. 14. __________________________________Chapter 1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                              1
  15. 15.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2 

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