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  1. 1. Chapter 7Traditional TrainingMethodsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin
  2. 2. 7-2Presentation Methods• Methods in which trainees are passiverecipients of information, which may include:– facts or information– processes– problem-solving methods• It includes lectures and audio-visualtechniques.
  3. 3. 7-3Presentation Methods (cont.)• Lecture– Trainers communicate through spoken words whatthey want the trainees to learn.– Least expensive and least time-consuming ways topresent a large amount of information.– It is easily employed with large groups of trainees.– Supports training methods such as behaviormodeling and technology-based techniques.
  4. 4. 7-4Table 7.1 - Variations of the LectureMethod
  5. 5. 7-5Presentation Methods (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesTeam teaching Brings more expertise andalternative perspectivesto the training session.Require more time on thepart of trainers.Guest speakers Motivate learning by bringing tothe trainees relevant examplesand applications.Presentation does not relateto the course content.Panels Good for showing traineesdifferent viewpoints in a debate.Trainees who are relativelynaive about a topic may havedifficulty understanding theimportant points.Student presentations Increase the material’smeaningfulness and trainees’attentiveness.Can inhibit learning if thetrainees do not havepresentation skills.
  6. 6. 7-6Presentation Methods (cont.)• Lecture– Lacks participant involvement, feedback, andmeaningful connection to the work environment.– Appeals to few of the trainees’ senses becausetrainees focus primarily on hearing information.– It is difficult to judge quickly and efficiently thelearners’ level of understanding.– Is often supplemented with question-and-answerperiods, discussion, video, games, or case studies.
  7. 7. 7-7Presentation Methods (cont.)• Audiovisual instruction - includes overheads,slides, and video.• Video is a popular instructional method usedfor improving communications skills,interviewing skills, and customer-service skillsand for illustrating how procedures should befollowed.
  8. 8. 7-8Hands-on MethodsAdvantages DisadvantagesVideo Flexibility in customizing thesession depending on trainees’expertise.Trainees can be exposed toequipment, problems, andevents that cannot be easilydemonstrated.Trainees are provided withconsistent instruction.Provides immediate objectivefeedback.It requires minimalknowledge of technology andequipment. Too much content forthe trainee to learn. Poor dialoguebetween the actors. Overuse of humor ormusic, and dramathat makes itconfusing for thetrainee to understandthe importantlearning pointsemphasized in thevideo.
  9. 9. 7-9Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Training methods that require the trainee tobe actively involved in learning.– On-the-job training (OJT) - new or inexperiencedemployees learning in the work setting and duringwork by observing peers or managers performingthe job and trying to imitate their behavior.• Can be useful for training newly hired employees,upgrading experienced employees’ skills, cross-trainingemployees, and orienting transferred or promotedemployees to their new jobs.
  10. 10. 7-10Hands-on Methods (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesOn-the-jobtraining (OJT) Customized to theexperiences and abilities oftrainees. Training is immediatelyapplicable to the job. Save costs. Can be offered at anytime, and trainers will beavailable because they arepeers. Managers and peers maynot use the sameprocess to complete atask. Overlooks thatdemonstration, practice,and feedback areimportant conditions foreffective on-the-jobtraining. Unstructured OJT canresult in poorly trainedemployees.
  11. 11. 7-11Table 7.2 - Principles of On-the-JobTraining
  12. 12. 7-12Hands-on Methods (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesSelf directedlearning –employees takeresponsibility for allaspects of learningincluding when it isconducted and whowill be involved. Allows trainees to learn attheir own pace andreceive feedback aboutthe learning performance. Requires fewer trainers,reduces costs associatedwith travel and meetingrooms, and makesmultiple-site trainingmore realistic. Provides consistenttraining content. Makes it easier for shiftemployees to gain accessto training materials. Trainees must bemotivated to learn ontheir own. Higher developmentcosts. Development time islonger.
  13. 13. 7-13Hands-on Methods (cont.)Advantages DisadvantagesApprenticeshipwork-studytraining methodwith both on-the-job andclassroomtraining. Learners can earn pay whilethey learn. Involves effective learningabout “why and how.” Results in full-timeemployment for traineeswhen the program iscompleted. Meets specific businesstraining needs and helpattract talented employees. High developmentcosts. Increased timecommitment requiredof management andjourney workers. Limited access forminorities andwomen. No guarantee of full-time employment. Training results innarrow focusexpertise.
  14. 14. 7-14Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Simulation - training method that represents areal-life situation, with trainees’ decisionsresulting in outcomes that mirror what wouldhappen if they were on the job.– Is used to teach production, process skills,management, and interpersonal skills.
  15. 15. 7-15Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Case studies - description about howemployees or an organization dealt with adifficult situation.– Trainees are required to analyze and critique theactions taken, indicating the appropriate actionsand suggesting what might have been donedifferently.– Assumes that employees are most likely to recalland use knowledge and skills if they learn througha process of discovery.
  16. 16. 7-16Hands-on Methods (cont.)– Appropriate for developing higher orderintellectual skills such as analysis, synthesis, andevaluation.– Help trainees develop the willingness to take risksgiven uncertain outcomes, based on their analysisof the situation.– The case may not actually relate to the worksituation or problem that the trainee willencounter.
  17. 17. 7-17Table 7.5 - Process for CaseDevelopment
  18. 18. 7-18Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Business games - require trainees to gatherinformation, analyze it, and make decisions.– Is primarily used for management skilldevelopment.– Stimulates learning because participants areactively involved and games mimic thecompetitive nature of business.
  19. 19. 7-19Hands-on Methods (cont.)– Involves a contest among trainees or against anestablished criterion such as time or quantity.– Designed to demonstrate an understanding of orapplication of a knowledge, skill, or behavior.– Provides several alternative courses of action andhelps estimate the consequences of eachalternative with some uncertainty.
  20. 20. 7-20Hands-on Methods (cont.)– Rules limit participant behavior.– Should be simple enough and should be debriefedby a trainer to ensure learning and transfer oftraining.
  21. 21. 7-21Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Role plays - have trainees act out charactersassigned to them.– For role plays to be effective, trainers need toengage in several activities before, during, andafter the role play.– Role plays differ from simulations on the basis ofresponse choices available to the trainees, thelevel of detail of the situation given to trainees,and the outcomes of the trainees’ response.
  22. 22. 7-22Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Behavior modeling– Demonstrates key behaviors to replicate andprovides trainees with the opportunity to practicethe key behaviors.– Is based on the principles of social learning theory.– Is more appropriate for teaching skills andbehaviors than for teaching factual information.
  23. 23. 7-23Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Developing behavior modeling trainingprograms requires determining:– the tasks that are not being adequately performeddue to lack of skill or behavior– the key behaviors that are required to perform thetask.• Key behavior - set of behaviors that are necessary tocomplete a task.
  24. 24. 7-24Table 7.7 - Activities in a Behavior ModelingTraining Program
  25. 25. 7-25Hands-on Methods (cont.)• Behavior modeling– Modeling display - key behaviors that the traineeswill practice to develop the same set of behaviors.• The display presents models engaging in both positiveuse of key behaviors and negative use.– Application planning - prepares trainees to usethe key behaviors on the job.• It involves having all participants prepare a writtendocument identifying specific situations in which theyshould use the key behaviors.
  26. 26. 7-26Group Building Methods• Training methods designed to improve teamor group effectiveness.• Involve experiential learning. Four stages ofthis are:– gain conceptual knowledge and theory.– take part in a behavioral simulation.– analyze the activity.– connect the theory and activity with on-the-job orreal-life situations.
  27. 27. 7-27Group Building Methods (cont.)• Adventure learning - focuses on thedevelopment of teamwork and leadershipskills through structured activities.– Includes wilderness training, outdoor training,drum circles, and even cooking classes.– Best suited for developing skills related to groupeffectiveness such as self-awareness, problemsolving, conflict management, risk taking.
  28. 28. 7-28Group Building Methods (cont.)• Adventure learning– To be successful:• Exercises should be related to the types of skills thatparticipants are expected to develop.• After the exercises, a skilled facilitator should lead adiscussion about:– what happened in the exercise.– what was learned.– how events in the exercise relate to job situation.– how to apply what was learned on the job.
  29. 29. 7-29Group Building Methods (cont.)• Team training coordinates the performance ofindividuals who work together to achieve acommon goal.– Teams that are effectively trained, developprocedures to identify and resolve errors,coordinate information gathering, and reinforceeach other.– The three components of team performance:knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
  30. 30. 7-30Figure 7.3 - Main Elements of theStructure of Team Training
  31. 31. 7-31Group Building Methods (cont.)• Action learning– Gives teams or work groups an actual problem,has them solve it and commit to an action plan,and holds them accountable for carrying out theplan.– Addresses how to change the business, betterutilize technology, remove barriers between thecustomer and company, and develop globalleaders.
  32. 32. 7-32Table 7.9 - Steps in Action Learning
  33. 33. 7-33Choosing a Training Method• Identify the type of learning outcome thatyou want training to influence.• Consider the extent to which the learningmethod facilitates learning and transfer oftraining.• Evaluate the costs related to developmentand use of the method.• Consider the effectiveness of the trainingmethod.