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  1. 1. Chapter 3Needs AssessmentCopyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  2. 2. 3-2Training may be incorrectly used as asolution to a performance problem.Training programs may have the wrongcontent, objectives, or methods.Trainees may be sent to trainingprograms for which they do not have thebasic skills, prerequisite skills, orconfidence needed to learn.Why is Needs AssessmentNecessary?
  3. 3. 3-3Training will not deliver the expectedlearning, behavior change, or financialresults that the company expects.Money will be spent on training programsthat are unnecessary because they areunrelated to the company’s businessstrategy.Why is Needs AssessmentNecessary? (cont.)
  4. 4. 3-4Figure 3.1 – Causes andOutcomes of Needs Assessment
  5. 5. 3-5Table 3.1 – Key Concerns of Upper-Level andMid-Level Managers and Trainers in NeedsAssessment
  6. 6. 3-6Who Should Participate in NeedsAssessment (cont.)It is important to get a sample of jobincumbents involved in the needsassessment because:they tend to be most knowledgeable aboutthe job.they can be a great hindrance to the trainingprocess if they do not feel they have hadinput in the process.Job incumbents – employees who arecurrently performing the job.
  7. 7. 3-7Table 3.2 – Advantages and Disadvantagesof Needs Assessment Techniques
  8. 8. 3-8Table 3.2 – Advantages and Disadvantagesof Needs Assessment Techniques
  9. 9. 3-9Methods Used in NeedsAssessmentBecause no one technique of conductingneeds assessment is superior to theothers, multiple methods are used.Many companies are followingbenchmarking – using informationabout other companies’ training practicesto help determine the appropriate type,level, and frequency of training.
  10. 10. 3-10Figure 3.2 - The NeedsAssessment Process
  11. 11. 3-11Table 3.3 - Questions to Ask in anOrganizational Analysis
  12. 12. 3-12Table 3.4 – Questions to AskVendors and Consultants
  13. 13. 3-13The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Person analysis involves:determining whether performance deficienciesresult from a lack of knowledge, skill, orability (a training issue) or from amotivational or work-design problem.identifying who needs training.determining employees’ readiness for training.
  14. 14. 3-14The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Readiness for training – refers towhether:employees have the personal characteristicsnecessary to learn program content and applyit on the job.the work environment will facilitate learningand not interfere with performance.This process includes evaluating personcharacteristics, input, output,consequences, and feedback.
  15. 15. 3-15The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)A major pressure point for training issubstandard or poor performance.Another potential indicator of the need fortraining is if the job changes such thatcurrent levels of performance need to beimproved or employees must be able tocomplete new tasks.
  16. 16. 3-16Figure 3.3 – Process for Analyzing the Factors ThatInfluence Employee Performance and Learning
  17. 17. 3-17The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Cognitive ability includes threedimensions: verbal comprehension,quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.Readability refers to the difficulty levelof written materials; readabilityassessment usually involves analysis ofsentence length and word difficulty.
  18. 18. 3-18The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Employees’ self-efficacy level can beincreased by:Letting employees know the purpose oftraining.Providing as much information as possibleabout the training program and the purposeof training prior to the actual training.
  19. 19. 3-19The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Employees’ self-efficacy level can beincreased by:Showing employees the training success oftheir peers who are now in similar jobs.Providing employees with feedback thatlearning is under their control and they havethe ability and the responsibility to overcomeany learning difficulties they experience in theprogram.
  20. 20. 3-20The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To ensure that the work environmentenhances trainees’ motivation to learn:Provide materials, time, job-relatedinformation, and other work aids necessaryfor employees to use new skills or behaviorbefore participating in training programs.Speak positively about the company’s trainingprograms to employees.
  21. 21. 3-21The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To ensure that the work environmentenhances trainees’ motivation to learn:Encourage work-group members to involveeach other in trying to use new skills on thejob.Provide employees with time andopportunities to practice and apply new skillsor behaviors to their work.
  22. 22. 3-22The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Is the performance problem important? Doesit have the potential to cost the company asignificant amount of money from lostproductivity or customers?Do the employees know how to performeffectively?Can the employees demonstrate the correctknowledge or behavior?
  23. 23. 3-23The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Were performance expectations clear (input)?Were there any obstacles to performancesuch as faulty tools or equipment?Were positive consequences offered for goodperformance? Was good performance notrewarded?
  24. 24. 3-24The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Did employees receive timely, relevant,accurate, constructive, and specific feedbackabout their performance?Were other solutions such as job redesign ortransferring employees to other jobs tooexpensive or unrealistic?
  25. 25. 3-25The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Task analysis – identifies the importanttasks and knowledge, skills, andbehaviors that need to be emphasized intraining for employees to complete theirtasks.Job – specific position requiring thecompletion of certain tasks.Task – employee’s work activity in aspecific job.
  26. 26. 3-26The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Knowledge – includes facts orprocedures.Skill – indicates competency inperforming a task.Ability – includes the physical andmental capacities to perform a task.
  27. 27. 3-27Table 3.6 - Example of the Relationships among aCritical Job Issue, a Critical Process Issue, and aCritical Business Issue
  28. 28. 3-28The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Steps involved in a task analysisSelect the job or jobs to be analyzed.Develop a preliminary list of tasks performedon the job by:interviewing and observing expert employees andtheir managers.talking with others who have performed a taskanalysis.
  29. 29. 3-29The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Steps involved in a task analysisValidate or confirm the preliminary list oftasks.Once the tasks have been identified, it isimportant to identify the knowledge, skills, orabilities necessary to successfully performeach task.
  30. 30. 3-30Table 3.9 – Key Points to RememberWhen Conducting a Task Analysis
  31. 31. 3-31Competency – areas of personalcapability that enable employees tosuccessfully perform their jobs byachieving outcomes or successfullyperforming tasks.A competency can be knowledge, skills,attitudes, values, personal characteristics.Competency model –identifies thecompetencies necessary for each job.Competency Models
  32. 32. 3-32Table 3.10 - Example of Competenciesand a Competency Model
  33. 33. 3-33Figure 3.4 - Process Used inDeveloping a Competency Model
  34. 34. 3-34Scope of Needs AssessmentTime constraints can limit the length anddetail obtained from a needs assessment.A rapid needs assessment refers to aneeds assessment that is done quicklyand accurately, but without sacrificing thequality of the process or the outcomes.There are seven ways to conduct a rapidneeds assessment.