1-2Training - a planned effort by a companyto facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.Competencies include knowledge, skills orbehavior critical for successful jobperformance.The goal of training is for employees tomaster the competencies and apply themto their day-to-day activities.What is Training?
1-3What is Training? (cont.)To use training to gain a competitiveadvantage, a company should viewtraining broadly as a way to createintellectual capital.Intellectual capital includes basic skillsadvanced skills an understanding of thecustomer or manufacturing system, andself-motivated creativity.
1-4High-leverage trainingIs linked to strategic business goals andobjectives.Uses an instructional design process to ensurethat training is effective.Compares or benchmarks the companystraining programs against training programsin other companies.Creates working conditions that encouragecontinuous learning.What is Training? (cont.)
1-5Continuous learning - requiresemployees to understand the entire worksystem, including the relationships amongtheir jobs, their work units, and thecompany.What is Training? (cont.)
1-6Managers take an active role in:Identifying training needs.Ensuring that employees use training in theirwork.Facilitating the sharing of knowledge, by usinginformational maps.What is Training? (cont.)
1-7Today, training is being evaluated on howtraining addresses business needs relatedto learning, behavior change, andperformance improvement.What is Training? (cont.)
1-8There is a greater emphasis on:Providing educational opportunities for allemployees.Performance improvement as an ongoingprocess than a one-time training event.Demonstrating to executives, managers, andtrainees the benefits of training.Learning as a lifelong event.Training being used to help attain strategicbusiness objectives.What is Training? (cont.)
1-9Designing Effective TrainingTraining design processA systematic approach for developing trainingprograms.Is based on the principles of InstructionalSystem Design (ISD).Is sometimes referred to as the ADDIE modelbecause it includes analysis, design,development, implementation, andevaluation.Should be systematic yet flexible enough toadapt to business needs.
1-11Designing Effective Training(cont.)Regardless of the specific ISD approachused, all the steps share the followingassumptions:Training design is effective only if it helpsemployees reach their training objectives.Measurable learning objectives should beidentified before the training program begins.Evaluation plays an important part in planningand choosing a training method, monitoringthe training program, and suggesting changesto the training design process.
1-12Designing Effective Training(cont.)Flaws of the ISD model:In organizations, the training design processrarely follows the step by-step approach ofthe activities.Organizations require trainers to providedetailed documents of each activity found inthe model; this adds time and cost todeveloping a training program.It implies an end point: evaluation.
1-13Table 1.1 - Forces InfluencingWorking and Learning
1-14Economic cyclesProvide an opportunity for companies to takea closer look at training and development toidentify those activities that are critical forsupporting the business strategy as well asthose mandated by law.Forces Influencing Working andLearning
1-15GlobalizationProvide training and developmentopportunities for global employees.Provide cross-cultural training to prepareemployees and their families to understandthe culture and norms of the country to whichthey are being relocated and assists in theirreturn to their home country after theassignment.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-17The value of intangible assets and humancapital has the following implication:Focus on knowledge worker - employeeswho contribute to the company not throughmanual labor but through what they know,perhaps about customers or a specializedbody of knowledge.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-18The value of intangible assets and humancapital has the following implication:Employee engagement - the degree towhich employees are fully involved in theirwork and the strength of their commitment totheir job and the company.Companies measure employees engagementlevels with attitude or opinion surveys.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-19The value of intangible assets and humancapital has the following implication:Change - the adoption of a new idea orbehavior by a company.Learning organization - embraces a cultureof lifelong learning, enabling all employees tocontinually acquire and share knowledge.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-20Table 1.3 - How Managing Cultural Diversitycan Provide Competitive Advantage
1-21Talent management - attracting,retaining, developing, and motivatinghighly skilled employees and managers.It is becoming increasingly moreimportant because of:occupational and job changes.retirement of baby boomers.skill requirements.the need to develop leadership skills.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-22Customer service and quality emphasisTotal Quality Management (TQM) - acompanywide effort to continuously improvethe ways people, machines, and systemsaccomplish work.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-23Core values of TQMMethods and processes are designed to meetthe needs of internal and external customers.Every employee in the company receivestraining in quality, which is designed into aproduct or service to prevent errors fromoccurring rather than being detected andcorrected.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-24Core values of TQMThe company promotes cooperation withvendors, suppliers, and customers to improvequality and hold down costs.Managers measure progress with feedbackbased on data.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-25Customer service and quality emphasisThe Malcolm Baldrige National QualityAward , created by public law, is the highestlevel of national recognition for quality that aU.S. company can receive.The ISO 9000 is a family of standards thatinclude requirements for dealing with how toestablish quality standards and how todocument work processes to help companiesunderstand quality system requirements.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-26Table 1.5 - Categories and Point Value for theMalcolm Baldrige National Quality AwardExamination
1-27Customer service and quality emphasisSix Sigma process - a process of measuring,analyzing, improving, and then controllingprocesses once they have been brought withinthe narrow six sigma quality tolerances orstandards.Training can help companies meet the qualitychallenge by teaching employees statisticalprocess control and engaging in “lean”processes.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-28Customer service and quality emphasisLean thinking - involves doing more withless effort, equipment, space, and time, butproviding customers with what they need andwant.ISO 10015 - a quality management tooldesigned to ensure that training is linked tocompany needs and performance.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-29New technologyIs changing the delivery of training andmakes training more realistic.Allows training to occur at any time and anyplace.Reduces travel costs.Provides greater accessibility to training andconsistent delivery.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-30Provides the ability to access experts andshare learning with others.Provides the possibility of creating a learningenvironment with many positive features suchas feedback, self-pacing, and practiceexercises.Allows companies greater use of alternativework arrangements.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-31High performance models of worksystemsWork teams - involve employees withvarious skills who interact to assemble aproduct or provide a service.Cross training - training employees in a widerange of skills so they can fill any of the rolesneeded to be performed on the team.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-32High performance models of worksystemsVirtual teams - teams that are separated bytime, geographic distance, culture, and/ororganizational boundaries and that relyalmost exclusively on technology to interactand complete their projects.Use of new technology and work designsare supported by human resourcemanagement practices.Forces Influencing Working andLearning (cont.)
1-33Snapshot of Training PracticesKey trends in learning initiativeinvestments:Direct expenditures, as a percentage ofpayroll and learning hours, have remainedstable over the last several years.There is an increased demand for specializedlearning that includes professional orindustry-specific content.The use of technology-based learning deliveryhas increased from 11 percent in 2001 to 33percent in 2007.
1-34Snapshot of Training Practices(cont.)Self-paced online learning is the mostfrequently used type of technology-basedlearning.Technology-based learning has helpedimprove learning efficiency, and has resultedin a larger employee–learning staff memberratio.The percentage of services distributed byexternal providers dropped from 29 percent in2004 to 25 percent in 2007.
1-35Table 1.8 - Comparison of BEST AwardWinners and Benchmark Companies
1-36Table 1.7 - Characteristics ofBEST Award Winners
1-37Figure 1.4 - The 2004 ASTDCompetency Model
1-38Snapshot of Training Practices(cont.)In most companies training anddevelopment activities are provided bytrainers, managers, in-house consultants,and employee experts.They can also be outsourced.Training and development can be theresponsibility of professionals in humanresources, human resource development,or organizational development.
1-39Snapshot of Training Practices(cont.)As companies grow and/or recognize theimportant role of training for businesssuccess, they form an entire trainingfunction, which may include instructionaldesigners, instructors, technical training,and experts in instructional technology.To be a successful training professionalrequires staying up-to-date on currentresearch and training practices.