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Med partnership bouareg_rev


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Med partnership bouareg_rev

  1. 1. Hydrogeochemistry as a tool for coastal aquifers management The case of the Bou Areg aquifer and the Nador Lagoon (Morocco) Re Viviana, PhD Ca' Foscari University of Venice (Italy) & National Engineering School of Sfax (Tunisia)
  2. 2. The Study Area • Semi-arid climate (300mm/y) • No regular rain season • Agricultural activities cover more than 62% of the Bour-Areg plain area
  3. 3. Issues Increase in water demand /Overexploitation Water Scarcity Saline Water Intrusion Water Pollution Food Security Coastal Aquifer Arid/ Semi-Arid climate Population Growth • Internal migration • Tourism Agricultural Activities Urban and Industrial development
  4. 4. Project Goals • Overall objectives – Support science based management practices – Provide data on water quality in the Bou-Areg coastal aquifer and the Lagoon of Nador • Specific objectives – Assessment of the natural groundwater quality (baseline conditions) – Evaluation of deviations from the natural conditions – Assessment of aquifer/lagoon interactions, evaluation of groundwater quality discharging in the lagoon
  5. 5. Methods – Hydrogeological investigation – Geochemical analysis of major and trace element – Isotope geochemistry (δ18O, δ2H, δ18ONO3 ,δ15NNO3, δ13CDIC, δ11B) – Statistical data treatment Work performed with contribution of: Prof.G.M. Zuppi (Scientific Coordinator) Prof. N. El Hamouti and Mr. R. Bouchnan Faculté pluridisciplinaire de Nador, Universitè de Oujda (Morocco) Prof. N. El Amrani, Universitè Hassan I Settat (Morocco) Prof. E. Sacchi, Università degli studi di Pavia (Italy) Dr. E. Allais and ISO4 s.n.c. (Italy) Dr. T. Lovato, Euro Mediterranean Center For Climate Change (Italy) Prof. J.Mas-Pla and Dr. A Menciò, University of Girona (Spain) And with the support of the Italian Ministry for the Environment Land and Sea
  6. 6. Results • Sodium-chloride type • High natural salinity, mainly due to water-rock interaction processes (dissolution of evaporative rocks and carbonates) • Agricultural return flow: main contribution to groundwater salinization especially in the central part of the aquifer • [NO3 -] often exceeding WHO limits • High dependency on seasonal variations
  7. 7. Results Oued Selouane Irrigation Channel Agricultural return flow Water-rock interactions
  8. 8. Results URBAN RURAL Identify the main anthropogenic sources of groundwater pollution Understand the governing factors of groundwater vulnerability UNDERSTANDING THE HYDROGEOLOGYC SYSTEM & THE ASSOCIATED BEHAVIOR OF CONTAMINANTS: A NECESSARY STEP IN GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
  9. 9. Conclusions • HIGH AQUIFER SALINITY due to the coexistence of dissolution processes, water-rock interactions, and human impacts due to agricultural return flows Saline water intrusion from the lagoon in the shallow aquifer is negligible, while discharge of polluted groundwater into the lagoon has been found to partially alter its quality • HIGH NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS associated with two main drivers for human induced pollution: (i) manure and septic effluents, (ii) synthetic fertilizers • HIGH AQUIFER VULNERABILITY • HIGH DEPENDENCY ON SEASONAL VARIATIONS
  10. 10. Management implications • Need for improving the understanding of groundwater quality • Control of applied irrigation volumes and identification alternative irrigation sources to improve groundwater quality • Enhance public participation and the involvement of local farmer associations to enforce adequate groundwater protection Re V., 2011
  11. 11. Hydrogeochemistry as a management tool Water quality assessment Pollution sources identification Vulnerability assessment Science based management pracrices • Identification of recharge processes • Separating baseline conditions from anthropogenic impacts • Identification of groundwater and surface water Interaction • Identification of mixing processes • Contaminant-specific vulnerability assessment • Support the development of effective (science- based) policies for reducing contaminant loads and protecting water resources • Promotion of stakeholder engagement and public participation • Development of participatory monitoring assessment
  12. 12. Thank you for your attention Merci pour votre attention ‫النتباهكم‬ ً‫ا‬‫شكر‬ In loving memoriy of Prof. Gian Maria Zuppi