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Enjeux et défis des entrevues en ligne

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Conférence de Christine Thoër, professeure au Département de communication sociale et publique de l’UQAM, captée lors de l’École d’été sur les méthodes de recherche en ligne en santé.

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Enjeux et défis des entrevues en ligne

  1. 1. Enjeux et défis des entrevues en ligne Christine Thoër Florence Millerand David Myles, Valérie Orange Département de communication sociale et publique, UQAM Bonnes pratiques pour la recherche en santé sur Internet, 19 mai 2011
  2. 2. L’intérêt des entrevues en ligne <ul><li>Recherches sur des populations distribuées géographiquement </li></ul><ul><li>Terrains sensibles, populations stigmatisées (anonymat) </li></ul><ul><li>Recherches portant sur des pratiques existant en ligne </li></ul><ul><li>Accès plus important au contexte de vie (pas au contexte d’entretien) </li></ul><ul><li>Recherches sur des processus de longue durée </li></ul><ul><li>Coûts moindres : Pas de retranscription !!! Pas de déplacements </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Yes, I am willing to participate in your study. I am in fact a student who has been using Ritalin for the past 2 years for the benefit it pertains. And no, I do not have a prescription for it. I prefer not meeting in person actually. You may email me the questions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Différents types d’entrevues en ligne <ul><li>Différents types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asynchrones (courriel, messagerie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchrones (chat, skype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avec présence ou non de l’audio et de la vidéo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spécificités de chacun des types d’entrevue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L’organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La nature du discours produit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production d’un discours plus réflexif dans le cas des entrevues asynchrones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discours souvent moins développé dans les entrevues synchrones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Des discours beaucoup plus réflexifs <ul><li>I: How many hours per week or month did you practice this hobby? R: For the past few years, a significant portion of my free time has been dedicated to the study of, and sporadic experimentation with, recreational drugs. It's hard for me to put a number on it, but I'd say that I spent at least 2-4 hours a week reading through articles, threads, trip reports, etc etc. Erowid was my best friend. As for the community, well, I found my footing in the DXM thread because that was the drug with which I had, and still, the most personal experience with. This &quot;qualified&quot; me to give advice on the use of the drug. However, it was not enough to just give dosing advice and tips and tricks for a pleasant, rewarding experience. While that is beneficial, I felt that I must become more educated on the drug itself, and help others to further their own understanding of the drug that they were taking. After I had established my presence in the community, I began participating in pretty much all of the threads, about any given drug. The more involved I became, I realized just how little I knew about other drugs. The more knowledge I found I lacked, the more interested I was in my furthering my understanding </li></ul>
  6. 6. Défis : Le recrutement <ul><li>Présence accrue des chercheurs recrutant des participants en ligne </li></ul>
  7. 7. Défis : Le recrutement (2) <ul><li>Créer un climat de confiance : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I would be more than happy to participate in an interview via email. However, I am not convinced that this is not a scam of some sort . It's rather odd that I would be contacted through Developpers’ forum, but I suppose that it makes sense. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informer sur le projet de recherche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informer sur l’équipe de recherche </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Présenter le projet
  9. 9. Présenter l’équipe de recherche
  10. 10. <ul><li>Miser pour un courriel institutionnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seems fairly legit except for that fact that all the emails end with uqam.ca except for yours . Can you explain or even better; provide a uqam.ca email? </li></ul></ul>Garantir le statut de l’interviewer
  11. 11. Entretenir la relation d’entretien (1) <ul><li>L’importance du dévoilement réciproque </li></ul><ul><li>Etre très organisé dans la gestion des profils </li></ul><ul><li>Gérer les agendas des présences/absences </li></ul><ul><li>Nécessité de rassurer fréquemment l’interviewé sur le caractère approprié de ses réponses </li></ul>
  12. 12. Extrait entrevue en ligne <ul><li>I: How do you perceive you body? Your health when taking ritalin ? </li></ul><ul><li>J: I perceive my body as healthy. I dont smoke and exercise sometimes. I try to eat healthy. Ritalin use has caused me to eat less but it seems to be working fine for my body type. My mental health is also fine, with the exception of times I get behind on sleep. Then my mental health may suffer.   Now that I think about this some more the times that I dont sleep well my entire health suffers both physically and mentally.   For example if I dont sleep for 48hrs (which has happened a few times) my physical health suffers because I dont eat well and my body just seems to break down. I notice my skin is not nearly as healthy as it could if I dont sleep well. I get increased blemishes on my skin without sleep. Mentally I have gotten paranoid and loose concentration easily. When Im in this state my production levels drop drastically even when I use ritalin. My thoughts get very jumbled up and I can get bogged down for 2hours doing something simple like organizing my agenda.  These times when Im behind on sleep are rare, normally my health is very good.   I hope this is detailed enough ? </li></ul><ul><li>I: Thank you Jorge, this is great. I really appreciate the details. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Entretenir la relation d’entretien (2) <ul><li>Questionner l’interviewé sur le bon déroulement </li></ul><ul><li>Informer régulièrement de la progression de l’entrevue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just so you know, the next step will be more about the other forum users. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rassurer sur l’orthographe </li></ul><ul><li>S’adapter au niveau de langue (questions courtes) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gestion de la grille d’entretien <ul><li>Deux options : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Découpage de la grille par blocs de questions (nombreux échanges de courriels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envoi des thèmes principaux d’entretien (peu d’échanges de courriel) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ex de présentation d’une question et des sous questions <ul><li>Topic 1: I'd like to start off with your arrival on the forum. Could you talk to me about it? Possible subjects :  Note that you never have to limit yourself to these questions, or take them all into account. The list is there in order to give you a general idea of the types of answers I'm looking for. Feel free to complete as you wish. - How did you hear about Facepunch? - Who talked to you about it? - Did you follow a specific link? - Since when do you visit Facepunch? - What was your motivation to go on Facepunch? - Etc. I'll be waiting for you answer. Take your time, though. If you have any questions, you know where to find me... </li></ul>
  16. 16. La durée des échanges <ul><li>Favorise la relation interviewer /interviewé </li></ul><ul><li>MAIS difficile de maintenir l’intérêt des participants sur le long terme ( interviewés moins captifs) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Considérations éthiques de l’entretien en ligne <ul><li>Une clôture en bonne et dûe forme </li></ul><ul><li>Assurer un suivi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficultés d’évaluer les risques associés à la participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>L’anonymat et la confidentialité </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment garantir la confidentialité? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A qui appartiennent les données d’entrevue ? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Merci de votre attention Questions ??? [email_address]

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