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Subject, Purpose,
    Audience
    Dr. Gerald Lucas
Subject, Purpose,
    Audience
Subject, Purpose,
        Audience
Assess the rhetorical situation
Subject, Purpose,
        Audience
Assess the rhetorical situation

Begin with clear and precise definitions
Subject, Purpose,
        Audience
Assess the rhetorical situation

Begin with clear and precise definitions

Know what you...
Subject, Purpose,
        Audience
Assess the rhetorical situation

Begin with clear and precise definitions

Know what you...
Subject, Purpose,
        Audience
Assess the rhetorical situation

Begin with clear and precise definitions

Know what you...
All writing is persuasive
Writing Appeals to
Writing Appeals to


Reason (“Logos”)

Feeling (“Pathos”)

Character (“Ethos”)
Topic
Topic


General question or concern
Topic


General question or concern

Must narrow and focus
Topic


General question or concern

Must narrow and focus

Must pick an assertion
Sample Topics
Sample Topics
What is one game that is physically or
intellectually challenging
Sample Topics
What is one game that is physically or
intellectually challenging

Identify a particular type of dishonesty ...
Sample Topics
What is one game that is physically or
intellectually challenging

Identify a particular type of dishonesty ...
Subject
Subject
A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic
Subject
A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic

Makes an assertion about the topic
Subject
A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic

Makes an assertion about the topic

Contains the subject and assertion
Subject
A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic

Makes an assertion about the topic

Contains the subject and assertion...
Subject Examples
Subject Examples

Chess is a game that is intellectually
challenging
Subject Examples

Chess is a game that is intellectually
challenging

Lying is a type of dishonesty that is generally
tole...
Subject Examples

Chess is a game that is intellectually
challenging

Lying is a type of dishonesty that is generally
tole...
A subject is not
complete without a
 SUBJECT and an
   ASSERTION!
Purpose
Purpose

WHY are you writing?
Purpose

WHY are you writing?

WHAT are you arguing? (Look to assertion)
Purpose

WHY are you writing?

WHAT are you arguing? (Look to assertion)

ALL college essays persuade — ALL!
Purpose
Purpose

States what you’re arguing
Purpose

States what you’re arguing

States why you’re arguing it
Purpose Examples
Purpose Examples
to argue that chess is intellectually
challenging because it makes players focus
and logically consider e...
Purpose Examples
to argue that chess is intellectually
challenging because it makes players focus
and logically consider e...
Purpose Examples
to argue that chess is intellectually
challenging because it makes players focus
and logically consider e...
Audience
Audience
To WHOM are you writing?
Audience
To WHOM are you writing?

Who would most benefit from your essay?
Audience
To WHOM are you writing?

Who would most benefit from your essay?

What is your relationship to them?
Audience
To WHOM are you writing?

Who would most benefit from your essay?

What is your relationship to them?

What is the...
Audience
Audience
Write to those you know
Audience
Write to those you know

Use language, tone, and style that would
appeal
Audience
Write to those you know

Use language, tone, and style that would
appeal

Modify your subject and purpose to fit
Audience
Write to those you know

Use language, tone, and style that would
appeal

Modify your subject and purpose to fit

...
Audience Examples
Audience Examples
Parents looking for a challenging hobby for
their anti-social boy
Audience Examples
Parents looking for a challenging hobby for
their anti-social boy

Men in my church, 18-25, who think ho...
Audience Examples
Parents looking for a challenging hobby for
their anti-social boy

Men in my church, 18-25, who think ho...
Subject, Purpose,
    Audience
Subject, Purpose,
       Audience

Suggests focus and scope
Subject, Purpose,
       Audience

Suggests focus and scope

Most important part of your essay
Subject, Purpose,
       Audience

Suggests focus and scope

Most important part of your essay

Write these at the top of ...
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1101: Subject, Purpose, Audience

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This presentation is the first in a series for English Composition 1. It is intended to introduce new college students to college-level writing.

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1101: Subject, Purpose, Audience

  1. 1. Subject, Purpose, Audience Dr. Gerald Lucas
  2. 2. Subject, Purpose, Audience
  3. 3. Subject, Purpose, Audience Assess the rhetorical situation
  4. 4. Subject, Purpose, Audience Assess the rhetorical situation Begin with clear and precise definitions
  5. 5. Subject, Purpose, Audience Assess the rhetorical situation Begin with clear and precise definitions Know what you’ll do up front
  6. 6. Subject, Purpose, Audience Assess the rhetorical situation Begin with clear and precise definitions Know what you’ll do up front Make a flexible guideline
  7. 7. Subject, Purpose, Audience Assess the rhetorical situation Begin with clear and precise definitions Know what you’ll do up front Make a flexible guideline Suggest a direction: thesis statement
  8. 8. All writing is persuasive
  9. 9. Writing Appeals to
  10. 10. Writing Appeals to Reason (“Logos”) Feeling (“Pathos”) Character (“Ethos”)
  11. 11. Topic
  12. 12. Topic General question or concern
  13. 13. Topic General question or concern Must narrow and focus
  14. 14. Topic General question or concern Must narrow and focus Must pick an assertion
  15. 15. Sample Topics
  16. 16. Sample Topics What is one game that is physically or intellectually challenging
  17. 17. Sample Topics What is one game that is physically or intellectually challenging Identify a particular type of dishonesty that is generally tolerated
  18. 18. Sample Topics What is one game that is physically or intellectually challenging Identify a particular type of dishonesty that is generally tolerated What is your favorite piece of furniture
  19. 19. Subject
  20. 20. Subject A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic
  21. 21. Subject A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic Makes an assertion about the topic
  22. 22. Subject A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic Makes an assertion about the topic Contains the subject and assertion
  23. 23. Subject A problem, concern, or aspect of the topic Makes an assertion about the topic Contains the subject and assertion Addresses something unique and worthy
  24. 24. Subject Examples
  25. 25. Subject Examples Chess is a game that is intellectually challenging
  26. 26. Subject Examples Chess is a game that is intellectually challenging Lying is a type of dishonesty that is generally tolerated
  27. 27. Subject Examples Chess is a game that is intellectually challenging Lying is a type of dishonesty that is generally tolerated My footlocker is my favorite piece of furniture
  28. 28. A subject is not complete without a SUBJECT and an ASSERTION!
  29. 29. Purpose
  30. 30. Purpose WHY are you writing?
  31. 31. Purpose WHY are you writing? WHAT are you arguing? (Look to assertion)
  32. 32. Purpose WHY are you writing? WHAT are you arguing? (Look to assertion) ALL college essays persuade — ALL!
  33. 33. Purpose
  34. 34. Purpose States what you’re arguing
  35. 35. Purpose States what you’re arguing States why you’re arguing it
  36. 36. Purpose Examples
  37. 37. Purpose Examples to argue that chess is intellectually challenging because it makes players focus and logically consider each move
  38. 38. Purpose Examples to argue that chess is intellectually challenging because it makes players focus and logically consider each move to argue that lying is generally tolerated because people would rather be deceived than know the harsh truth
  39. 39. Purpose Examples to argue that chess is intellectually challenging because it makes players focus and logically consider each move to argue that lying is generally tolerated because people would rather be deceived than know the harsh truth to argue that my footlocker is my favorite piece of furniture because it contains all my hopes and dreams
  40. 40. Audience
  41. 41. Audience To WHOM are you writing?
  42. 42. Audience To WHOM are you writing? Who would most benefit from your essay?
  43. 43. Audience To WHOM are you writing? Who would most benefit from your essay? What is your relationship to them?
  44. 44. Audience To WHOM are you writing? Who would most benefit from your essay? What is your relationship to them? What is their attention span? knowledge of subject? level of interest? attitudes about the subject?
  45. 45. Audience
  46. 46. Audience Write to those you know
  47. 47. Audience Write to those you know Use language, tone, and style that would appeal
  48. 48. Audience Write to those you know Use language, tone, and style that would appeal Modify your subject and purpose to fit
  49. 49. Audience Write to those you know Use language, tone, and style that would appeal Modify your subject and purpose to fit Do not preach to the choir
  50. 50. Audience Examples
  51. 51. Audience Examples Parents looking for a challenging hobby for their anti-social boy
  52. 52. Audience Examples Parents looking for a challenging hobby for their anti-social boy Men in my church, 18-25, who think honesty is always the best policy, even when it hurts
  53. 53. Audience Examples Parents looking for a challenging hobby for their anti-social boy Men in my church, 18-25, who think honesty is always the best policy, even when it hurts Teenagers who may not understand the value of saving memories
  54. 54. Subject, Purpose, Audience
  55. 55. Subject, Purpose, Audience Suggests focus and scope
  56. 56. Subject, Purpose, Audience Suggests focus and scope Most important part of your essay
  57. 57. Subject, Purpose, Audience Suggests focus and scope Most important part of your essay Write these at the top of your paper for all essays in this course

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