solid waste management in shanghai, china


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solid waste management in shanghai, china

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management in Shanghai G.R.KARTHIK DEEPAN 11B37
  2. 2. City Profile • • Eastern coastal city, situated at Yangtze River Delta largest economic center, trade port and industrial city in China. Provincial-level municipality, consisting of 16 districts and 1 county Area: 6340 km2; residents: over 23 million GDP: 295.3 billion USD ; Per capita GDP: 12,780 USD in 2011 • • •
  3. 3. Waste Generation in Shanghai • •Generation of Industrial Solid Waste from 2003 to 2011 Generation of Municipal Solid Waste from 2003 to 2011 350 12350 30 300300 1025 250250 820 200200 615 150150 410 100100 25 5050 0 00 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 MSW (mil. Tons) GDP (bil. USD)ISW(mil.tons) GDP (bil. USD) In 2011 ISW (IHW included): 24.42 mil. Tons (Smelting MSW: 7.04 mil. Tons IHW: 0.56 mil. tons Medical Waste: 23, 000 tons • • • • slag, coal ash, desulfurization gypsum) GDP(bil.USD) ISW(mil.tons) GDP(bil.USD) MSW(mil.tons)
  4. 4. Objectives: The specific objectives of the solid waste management (SWM) services were as follows: Change the role of the Municipality of Shanghai from being a service provider to being a service regulator and facilitator by transferring the responsibility for supplying collection, transportation, treatment and disposal services to social capital participating organizations. Recover the cost of providing municipal SWM services form user charges levied on all waste generators. Introduce more environmental friendly and cost effective SWM systems in the city and its surrounding districts in steps with other infrastructure development
  5. 5. Principles of Solid Waste Management Favorable policies & incentives Circular Economy Sorting of MSW regulate the design, construct ion and operation of solid waste management system Cleaner production Waste minimization planning Phase- out of heavily polluting factories Upgrading of industries
  6. 6. Current Status of Waste Disposal in Shanghai • In 2011, safe disposal rate of MSW is 87.6%. MSW Safe Disposal 1%14% 18% 67% • MSW segregation pilot programs have covered 0.58 mil. households. More MSW infrastructure facilities are under designing and construction . • MSW Incineration Plant Landfill SanitaryLandfill Incineration Composting Recycling
  7. 7. • In 2011, ISW (IHW included) has been 100% disposed 0.47% 3.07%ISW Disposal 96.47% • In 2011, medical waste has been 100% safely disposed (incineration). MW transportation vehicleHW LandfillHW Incinerator Comprehensive Utilization Incineration & landfill Storage
  8. 8. • Infrastructure for HW disposal: 45 professional enterprises with the capability of 500,000 tons per year, covering physical & chemical treatment, comprehensive utilization, landfill and incineration. • Collection and transportation system for medical waste covers more than 2000 hospitals and health institutions citywide 70 MW transportation vehicles and nearly 9000 MW transfer containers.• Monitoring & supervision on licensed HW disposal enterprises Communication & cooperation mechanism between EPB and health department established on MW management HW transferring management information system Joint conference system on HW management & supervision among Yangtze River Delta HW management plan • Entire-process environmental management system on HW management has been established and improved;
  9. 9. • • • E-waste management EPR system established since 2009 8 licensed professional enterprises with the dismantling capability of 100,000 tons Recording and reporting institution, inspection and monitoring institution established. Trade-in policy applied on TV, washing machine, refrigerator, air-conditioner and PC since 2009 From 2009 to 2011, 8.85 mil. of waste home appliances and PC have been recovered and dismantled. • • •
  10. 10. METHODS PRACTISED IN SHANGHAI: 1. LANDFILLS: • One of Asia’s biggest landfill is in Shanghai, the Laogang landfill. • The Shanghai Laogang Municipal Solid Waste Landfill is situated at Laogang town, Nanhui District, southeast of Shanghai, some 60 km from the city centre. • It occupies 360 hectares with an anticipated total capacity of more than 34 million tonnes of waste over a 20-year concession contract.
  11. 11. • However, although Shanghai possesses sanitary landfills, the effectiveness of some is nonetheless debated, due to lack of enforcement of regulations, meaning for example that not all wastes are sorted and treated before being buried. • Municipal landfills are, at the moment, the least environmental solution for the treatment of wastes. They are a hazard to the landscape, they take up a lot of arable land, they provide high risk of contamination to surrounding land and water, and also, the methane produced by the fermentation of the wastes threatens the quality of the air.
  12. 12. 2) INCINERATION: • Shanghai currently already has several household incineration factories, including the one of Minhang, which is supposedly the largest one in China. • The facility is designed to have a daily garbage handling capacity of 3,000 tons and generate around 270 million kilowatthour of power every year. • Incineration reduces the volume of waste by 90%, and 80% of its weight. Furthermore, it reduces the toxicity of the wastes that will then be put in landfills, and offer the opportunity to use the energy contained in the waste.
  13. 13. (A Chinese worker controls robotic arms to throw rubbish into an incinerator at a plant in Shanghai, Southern Hainan province of China.)
  14. 14. One of the largest waste-to-energy power plant is in Jiangqiao, Shanghai. It is actually a Sino-French Joint venture between Shanghai Huancheng Waste-To-Energy Co. Ltd and the French giant Veolia. Established in 2004, it burns 1,000 metric tons of waste each day.
  15. 15. 3)RECYCLING: • Although the State does sponsor some kind of recycling industry, the private and informal activities constitute the most important mode of recycling. That is because the informal waste picker relies on this recycling to resell the materials and make a living. As such, every thinkable material is collected, from papers to plastic, electric appliances to metals, and everything else in between.
  16. 16. RECYCLING GOES IN FOUR STEPS IN SHANGHAI: 1) individuals separate the wastes to their smallest unit. 2) it is brought to community based waste collection centres (there are around 200 to 300 of them in Shanghai) 3) it is then brought to centralized garbage centres 4) it is sent to a plant. (A man collecting recyclable electronic items in a transfer station in shanghai, China)
  17. 17. when wastes are recycled, different kinds of use are found for them. • In general, household wastes are reused as fertilizer or incinerated to produce electricity. • Industrial wastes are turned into construction materials • Hazardous wastes are turned into rawmaterials again. Finding a recycling bin in Shanghai is extremely hard, which explains the tendency of the inhabitants to dump all the waste together.
  18. 18. While not quite as color-coded and easy to find municipal treatment facilities as in the U.S., Japan, and elsewhere, recycling does happen in China. It’s quite common to see someone dragging a large cart, or just as often, drive a truck piled dangerously high with recyclables.
  19. 19. Challenges on Solid Waste Management • Continuing growth of industrial solid waste - sludge from sewage water plant - desulfurization gypsum - denitrification catalyst - coal ash - fly-ash sourced from MSW incineration • Environmental risk prevention & control in the process of HW collection and transportation Capability and layout of treatment & disposal facilities need to be improved and optimized Capacity building on whole-process monitoring & supervision, risk prevention & control need to be strengthened MSW segregation and recycling need to be greatly pushed forward • • •
  20. 20. Challenges faced by Shanghai: The representatives of Shanghai are aware of the gravity of the environmental situation and are trying to take counter-measures. However, the challenges Shanghai has to face are numerous, and involve several social and political aspects. The main challenge is rapid urbanization, which means a fast-growing demand for safe and clean water in rapidly-modernizing cities and areas, as local populations continue to swell with an influx of new arrivals, and as industry increases consumption. This also involves upgrading the piping network. In addition, some parts of the administration in Shanghai still regard economic growth more important than the protection of the environment.
  21. 21. Challenges faced by Shanghai: Although there is a plan to fight corruption, it is still much present, and the support of local leaders can sometimes still be bought by businesses threatened of being shut because of lack authorization or inadequacy in applying to new laws. In general, the minimal fees for sewage and municipal waste collection, and water are a major problem creating a total lack of incentive from the Shanghainese to improve the situation in these respective fields.
  22. 22. Outcome from Shanghai EXPO on Solid Waste Management • Waste minimization at source: recyclable construction materials, potable water supply system (reducing 5460 tons of plastic), use of electronic information technology Waste segregation and recycling: Two-Bin Waste Segregation-at- source system; kitchen waste, kitchen oil and non-recyclable waste were treated separately. Pneumatic Conveyance System (PCS) for solid waste transportation • •
  23. 23. Building Shanghai into a zero waste society in the future ‡ Waste minimization & segregation at source (MSW safe disposal rate aims to reach 95% by 2015) ; ‡ Professional transportation system for hazardous waste ‡ Improvement of solid waste treatment & disposal capability ‡ Enhancement of management and supervision ‡ Regulations & Fund
  24. 24. Thanks for your attention!