Solid Waste Management in Shanghai
Eastern coastal city, situated at Yangtze River Delta
largest economic center, trade port and industrial
city in China.
Provincial-level municipality, consisting of 16
districts and 1 county
Area: 6340 km2; residents: over 23 million
GDP: 295.3 billion USD ; Per capita GDP: 12,780
USD in 2011
Waste Generation in Shanghai
• •Generation of Industrial Solid
Waste from 2003 to 2011
Generation of Municipal Solid
Waste from 2003 to 2011
350 12350 30
0 00 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
MSW (mil. Tons) GDP (bil. USD)ISW(mil.tons) GDP (bil. USD)
ISW (IHW included): 24.42 mil. Tons (Smelting
MSW: 7.04 mil. Tons
IHW: 0.56 mil. tons
Medical Waste: 23, 000 tons
slag, coal ash, desulfurization gypsum)
The specific objectives of the solid waste management (SWM) services
were as follows:
Change the role of the Municipality of Shanghai from being a service
provider to being a service regulator and facilitator by transferring the
responsibility for supplying collection, transportation, treatment and
disposal services to social capital participating organizations.
Recover the cost of providing municipal SWM services form user charges
levied on all waste generators.
Introduce more environmental friendly and cost effective SWM systems
in the city and its surrounding districts in steps with other infrastructure
Principles of Solid Waste Management
Favorable policies & incentives
Sorting of MSW
operation of solid waste
Waste minimization planning Phase-
of heavily polluting factories
Current Status of Waste Disposal in Shanghai
• In 2011, safe disposal rate of
MSW is 87.6%.
MSW Safe Disposal
• MSW segregation pilot programs have covered
0.58 mil. households.
More MSW infrastructure facilities are under
designing and construction .
MSW Incineration Plant
• In 2011, ISW (IHW included) has been 100% disposed
• In 2011, medical waste has been 100% safely disposed (incineration).
MW transportation vehicleHW LandfillHW Incinerator
Incineration & landfill
• Infrastructure for HW disposal: 45 professional enterprises with the
capability of 500,000 tons per year, covering physical & chemical
treatment, comprehensive utilization, landfill and incineration.
• Collection and transportation system for medical waste covers more than
2000 hospitals and health institutions citywide
70 MW transportation vehicles and nearly 9000 MW transfer containers.•
Monitoring & supervision
on licensed HW disposal
Communication & cooperation
mechanism between EPB and
health department established
on MW management
Joint conference system on
HW management &
supervision among Yangtze
HW management plan
• Entire-process environmental management system on HW management has been
established and improved;
EPR system established since 2009
8 licensed professional enterprises with the
dismantling capability of 100,000 tons
Recording and reporting institution,
inspection and monitoring institution
Trade-in policy applied on TV, washing
machine, refrigerator, air-conditioner and
PC since 2009
From 2009 to 2011, 8.85 mil. of waste home
appliances and PC have been recovered and
METHODS PRACTISED IN SHANGHAI:
• One of Asia’s biggest landfill is in Shanghai, the Laogang landfill.
• The Shanghai Laogang Municipal Solid Waste Landfill is situated at
Laogang town, Nanhui District, southeast of
Shanghai, some 60 km from the city centre.
• It occupies 360 hectares with an anticipated total capacity of more
than 34 million tonnes of waste over a 20-year concession
• However, although Shanghai possesses sanitary landfills, the
effectiveness of some is nonetheless debated, due to lack of
enforcement of regulations, meaning for example that not all wastes
are sorted and treated before being buried.
• Municipal landfills are, at the moment, the least environmental
solution for the treatment of wastes. They are a hazard to the
landscape, they take up a lot of arable land, they provide high risk of
contamination to surrounding land and water, and also, the methane
produced by the fermentation of the wastes threatens the quality of
• Shanghai currently already has several household incineration factories,
including the one of Minhang, which is supposedly the largest one in
• The facility is designed to have a daily garbage handling capacity of 3,000
tons and generate around 270 million kilowatthour of power every year.
• Incineration reduces the volume of waste by 90%, and 80% of its weight.
Furthermore, it reduces the toxicity of the wastes that will then be put
in landfills, and offer the opportunity to
use the energy contained in the waste.
(A Chinese worker controls robotic arms to throw rubbish into an
incinerator at a plant in Shanghai, Southern Hainan province of
One of the largest waste-to-energy power plant is in Jiangqiao,
Shanghai. It is actually a Sino-French Joint venture between
Shanghai Huancheng Waste-To-Energy Co. Ltd and the French giant
Veolia. Established in 2004, it burns 1,000 metric tons of waste each
• Although the State does sponsor some kind of
recycling industry, the private and informal activities
constitute the most important mode of recycling.
That is because the informal waste picker relies on
this recycling to resell the materials and make a
living. As such, every thinkable material is
collected, from papers to plastic, electric appliances
to metals, and everything else in between.
RECYCLING GOES IN FOUR STEPS IN SHANGHAI:
1) individuals separate the wastes to their smallest
2) it is brought to community based waste collection
centres (there are around 200 to 300 of them in
3) it is then brought to centralized garbage centres
4) it is sent to a plant. (A man collecting recyclable
electronic items in a transfer
station in shanghai,
when wastes are recycled, different kinds of use are found for
• In general, household wastes are reused as fertilizer or
incinerated to produce electricity.
• Industrial wastes are turned into construction materials
• Hazardous wastes are turned into rawmaterials again.
Finding a recycling bin in Shanghai is extremely hard, which
explains the tendency of the inhabitants to dump all the waste
While not quite as color-coded and easy to find municipal treatment
facilities as in the U.S., Japan, and elsewhere, recycling does happen
in China. It’s quite common to see someone dragging a large cart, or
just as often, drive a truck piled dangerously high with recyclables.
Challenges on Solid Waste Management
• Continuing growth of industrial solid waste
- sludge from sewage water plant
- desulfurization gypsum
- denitrification catalyst
- coal ash
- fly-ash sourced from MSW incineration
• Environmental risk prevention & control in the process of HW collection
Capability and layout of treatment & disposal facilities need to be
improved and optimized
Capacity building on whole-process monitoring & supervision, risk
prevention & control need to be strengthened
MSW segregation and recycling need to be greatly pushed forward
Challenges faced by
The representatives of Shanghai are aware of
the gravity of the environmental situation and
are trying to take counter-measures.
However, the challenges Shanghai has to face
are numerous, and involve several social and
The main challenge is rapid urbanization,
which means a fast-growing demand for safe
and clean water in rapidly-modernizing cities
and areas, as local populations continue to
swell with an influx of new arrivals, and as
industry increases consumption. This also
involves upgrading the piping network.
In addition, some parts of the administration
in Shanghai still regard economic growth more
important than the protection of the
Challenges faced by Shanghai:
Although there is a plan to fight corruption, it is still much
present, and the support of local leaders can sometimes still be bought
by businesses threatened of being shut because of lack authorization or
inadequacy in applying to new laws.
In general, the minimal fees for sewage and municipal waste
collection, and water are a major problem creating a total lack of
incentive from the Shanghainese to improve the situation in these
Outcome from Shanghai EXPO on Solid Waste
• Waste minimization at source: recyclable construction materials,
potable water supply system (reducing 5460 tons of plastic), use of
electronic information technology
Waste segregation and recycling: Two-Bin Waste Segregation-at-
source system; kitchen waste, kitchen oil and non-recyclable waste
were treated separately.
Pneumatic Conveyance System (PCS) for solid waste transportation
Building Shanghai into a zero waste society
in the future
‡ Waste minimization & segregation at source (MSW safe disposal
rate aims to reach 95% by 2015) ;
‡ Professional transportation system for hazardous waste
‡ Improvement of solid waste treatment & disposal capability
‡ Enhancement of management and supervision
‡ Regulations & Fund