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Novice teachers, learners in context. A sociocultural approach.


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Ginesta, A., & Mauri, T. (2011). Novice teachers, learners in context. A sociocultural approach. Comunication presented at ISCAR. Rome, 5-10 September.

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Novice teachers, learners in context. A sociocultural approach.

  1. 1. Novice teachers, learners in context: a sociocultural approach. Anna Ginesta & Teresa Mauri Group for Research on Interaction and Educational Influence (GRINTIE) Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology University of Barcelona ISCAR CONGRESS ROME 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>The incorporation of teachers (novice) in a new context needs expert and appropriate support. Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the challenge of insertion of the novice in a context of social practice (Wenger, 1998). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the need to understand the complexity of the educational practice and the teaching and learning processes (Coll, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the challenge of showing competence in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to teach and constructing knowledge of the profession. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching students with other colleagues, participating in a context that offers structure and meaning to what they are doing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the type of initial teacher training received (especially, in the case of new teachers) linked to a different models (Edwards, 2009 ): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the acquisition of information (theory: university) to the application directly into practice (practice: school). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the participation in practical actions on school . </li></ul></ul></ul>The need for appropriate help and support The problem
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Propose a theoretical approach for studying the incorporation of ‘ novice teachers ’ in a professional context (schools) based on sociocultural psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some theoretical and methodological implications for the research in teacher education </li></ul>(*) A teacher who has experience of less than 5 years “ novice in the profession ” (NQT) and also who have incoporated in a new profesional context “novice in the context”.
  4. 4. A sociocultural approach The problem <ul><li>The incorporation of novices in a context (school) implies learning to act competently in a practical professional community (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), note that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participating, negotiating and constructing meaning in the practice; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to projects and shared repertoire of recourses in joint activities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing joint stories and possible trajectories of present and future shared activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In consequence, the problem of novice teacher incorporation implies mediation to make possible the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in the practice and commitment: giving and receiving support. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The elaboration and joint negotiation of meanings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The elaboration and use of appropriate tools and instruments of the significant activities of the community. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We need a another perspective to the incorporation of the novice that is different from those putting the accent unilaterally on the expert mentor as a element of the transmission of knowledge of the new context and/or the profession (Everston & Smithey, 2000). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The human and professional activity as social and cultural mediated activity (Wertsch, 1988) and the knowledge as a situated and distributed activity between the persons and contexts that they are immersed in (Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning as a process is essentially a social and mediated intervening in the Zones of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978) that needs expert help from the others. </li></ul><ul><li>The expert help for the novice learning in the context of the ZPD is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indispensable (Vygotsky, 1978) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed (Hutchins, 1995; Pea, 1993) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory (Wenger, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>A sociocultural approach to the problem (I) Formative, distributed and participatoy influence
  6. 6. A sociocultural approach to the problem (II) <ul><li>Focus of the study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The joint activity of the participants in activities and tasks of the community as a creation of ZPD in which the formative influence is exercised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The community and the participants as potentials agents of formative, distributed and participatory influence (distributed influence). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZPD as learning zones (Samaras et al., 2006) that implies sharing and constructing knowledge jointly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify situations of practice characteristics of the community </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify forms of joint activity (Segments of Joint Activity) in the practices of the community through the process and where the formative influence is possible (Segments of Joint Formative Activity) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify particular forms of mediated actions (Actions in the Segments of Joint Formative Activity) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The discourse as a key element of the influence, the mediation and the joint negotiation of meaning: the dialogicality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utterances and voices: how the novice voice is recognized and integrated in the utterances of the others participants in the segments of joint activity. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The direction and forms of dialogical orientation. Patterns of organization (Bakhtin 1981; Wertsch, 1991). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Levels of analysis of the joint activity to identify the formative influence: different levels of learning in context (Coll, Martin & Mauri, 2001; Edwards, 1998 ; Martin & Mauri, 2001; Rogoff, 1995) </li></ul>Interpersonal level Community level A sociocultural approach to the problem (II)
  8. 8. Levels of formative influence <ul><li>1. COMMUNITY LEVEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) School conditions and characteristics (Mitchell & Sackney, 2000; Imants & van Veen, 2009); School projects and values; culture of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Social design of the community: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situations of joint practice of the teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situations of practices specifically for the novice teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With what goal? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who and for whom ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Map of design of the social practice of the community -school- (situations of joint activity) vs map of the situations of potential formative influence </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Community Classroom (pupils) Family Informal meetings Especific comittions School situations *Situations with explicit formative motive COMMUNITY LEVEL Training sessions Planning meetings Organizational meetings Initial reception
  10. 10. SCHOOL COMMUNITY Design and planning of every situation of practice type Type Objectives Participants Frequency Map of real formative influence in shared practices Interaction between participants in the joint activity in every situations of practice type. Forms of joint activity in every situation of practice type. INTERPERSONAL LEVEL
  11. 11. <ul><li>2. INTERPERSONAL LEVEL (the others members) </li></ul><ul><li> (Coll et a l., 1992, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>FORMATIVE INFLUENCE: to participate, to commit and to jointly elaborate meanings: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize novice teachers: incorporate their voice in the joint activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- How to integrate the voices of participants, especially the novice teacher voice? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- What type of dialogical patterns is configured in the course of the joint activities? (Bakhtin 1981; Wertsch, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construct and negotiate the knowledge of the profession in context (instruments and tools of joint activity ) </li></ul>Tasks,contents in particular situation Others teachers Novice learners Joint activity-Interactivity Zone of potential formative influence
  12. 12. Levels of analysis <ul><li>Joint activity </li></ul>Community Situation Task contents/tasks teachers novice learners Design: integrates the joint activity of the participants (effectively planned )in a specific context. Activities: forms of joint activity of the participants within a situation. A situation can include lots of activities and tasks that are different identifiable products. Temporal dimension
  13. 13. Conclusions ans implications <ul><li>THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>The formative influence have an indispensable, distributed (between members of the community) and participatory character </li></ul><ul><li>The formative support (formative influence) has to be identified in the community of professional practice. </li></ul><ul><li>A community of formative practice is characterized by the design of situations in which the participation, commitment and co-construction of meanings is possible mediated by the joint activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The sociocultural practices of the community becoming exceptional learning and professionalism zones (Zones of Potential Formative Influence) through the mediation or the different forms of joint activity </li></ul><ul><li>The discourse in the joint activity is the fundamental instrument of the mediation, integrating the “ voice ” of the novices in the configurations of the utterances. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>METHODOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>An approach with these characteristics needs: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Consider different levels of analysis: </li></ul>Conclusions ans implications <ul><ul><ul><li>b) Analyze the interactivity identifying the dialogicality: directions, orientation and patterns. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Identify specific forms of formative distributed influence with novice teachers in communities of practices, that promote their participation. </li></ul></ul></ul>Social practice-Community Formative joint activity - Situations Forms of joint activity- Task
  15. 15. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Ginesta & Teresa Mauri </li></ul><ul><li>University of Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Novice teachers, learners in context: a sociocultural approach.