Enlightenmentreview

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A review to help me study for my Enlightenment test.

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Enlightenmentreview

  1. 1. 1. What does it mean to be“enlightened”?
  2. 2. To gain knowledge andwisdom: to be freedfrom prejudice,ignorance, or superstition
  3. 3. 2. What is the Enlightenmentcommonly referred to as?
  4. 4. The Age of Reason
  5. 5. 3. What is“reason”?
  6. 6. To think logically
  7. 7. ***When was theEnlightenment?
  8. 8. 1600-180017th and 18th centuries
  9. 9. 4. How were the Enlightenmentand Renaissance similar?
  10. 10. Both studied the ideas and art of ancient Greece and Rome.
  11. 11. 5. What new form of literatureevolved during the Age of Enlightenment?
  12. 12. The novel The most popular novel author today is John GrishamTom Clancy is alsovery popular today
  13. 13. 6. What Age of Enlightenmentbook did Thomas Hobbes write?
  14. 14. Leviathan A Leviathan is a huge “sea monster”
  15. 15. 7. What didHobbes argue was the best form ofgovernment in
  16. 16. Absolutism: to manage behavior The Leviathan, or sea monster, represents the all powerful governmentHobbes Hobbes believed existabsolute to avoid chaos ruler
  17. 17. 8. Who wrote the TwoTreatises of Government? The mystery author!
  18. 18. John Locke
  19. 19. 9A. What didLocke argue wasthe best form ofGovernment?9B. Why?
  20. 20. A. democracyB. Locke believed indemocracy because heargued the people wereSOVEREIGN--the people haveultimate power
  21. 21. 10. What three rights did Locke say theGovernment MUST protect?
  22. 22. Life, liberty, and property
  23. 23. 11. Whateffects did JohnLocke have onthe UnitedStates?
  24. 24. He influenced the Declaration of Independence . “among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ”
  25. 25. 12. Who wrote The Spirit of Laws ?Who is this author?
  26. 26. Baron deMontesquieu Montesquieu was from France
  27. 27. 13. What idea about the structure ofgovernment did Montesquieu express in
  28. 28. “separation of powers” --3 branches of government
  29. 29. 14. Why did Montesquieu advocate“separation of powers”?
  30. 30. In order to avoid oneperson gaining all the power (NO ABSOLUTISM!)
  31. 31. 15. If Montesqueiu is AGAINST absolutism, thenwhich thinker does he disagree with?
  32. 32. ThomasHobbes A Leviathan: The absolute government
  33. 33. 16. What effectdid Montesquieu have on theUnited States ?
  34. 34. Montesquieuinfluenced the U.S. Constitution The Constitution sets up three branches of Government, just as Montesquieu recommended.
  35. 35. 17. What wasVoltaire famous for saying?
  36. 36. “I disapprove of what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”
  37. 37. 18. What does this quote defend?
  38. 38. Freedom ofspeech and religion
  39. 39. 19. What was Voltaire’s opinionon the relationship between religion and the government?
  40. 40. There should be “separation of church and state” Church State
  41. 41. 20. Whowrote the SocialContract ?
  42. 42. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  43. 43. 21. What does Rousseau say about “The Social (or society’s)
  44. 44. It is a contract between thepeople and their rulers
  45. 45. 22. What does Rousseau sayshould happen if this contract is broken by the rulers?
  46. 46. The people should rebel!The Storming of Bastille Liberty leading the People by Delacroix
  47. 47. 23. What were four effects of the Enlightenment?
  48. 48. Fueled democratic revolutions around world (American, French) Bastille: The French Signing of the DeclarationRevolution Begins July of Independence: July 4, 14, 1789! 1776
  49. 49. Applied reason tothe human world(government, law)
  50. 50. Stimulated religious tolerance “It would be reasonable if we all just got along, wouldn’t it?Billy Graham,Protestant, andPope John Paul II
  51. 51. Taught that our rights come from natural law NOT the governmentNatural rights

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