Vaccines and their effect on public health

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Vaccines and their effect on public health

  1. 1. Griffin Walker
  2. 2. The History of Vaccines  The concept of vaccines have been around for centuries.  First vaccines in the modern sense created in 1796 by the use of inoculation.  The most famous landmark with vaccines was in 1955, when Jonas Salk created the polio vaccine. This led to the eradication of polio in the Americas by 1994.
  3. 3. Vaccines: How do they work?  Most vaccines consist of weakened or dead microbes  Macrophages break down the microbes  The antigens from the microbes are transported to lymphocytes, which send a signal to create T and B cells.  These cells are used to fight infection, however due to the small amount of microbes in a vaccine, these cells are translated in memory cells which permanently protect the body from disease.
  4. 4. What do vaccines do for public health?  Vaccines can ultimately lead to the eradication of diseases. With vaccines we have eradicated polio, smallpox, diphtheria, and many more other potentially lethal diseases.  Vaccines establish herd immunity  Vaccines help in isolating those who are sick, since transmition is impossible.
  5. 5. Frontline Intro Video http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/vaccines/view/
  6. 6. The Anti Vaccine Debate  Vaccines can cause Autism  Vaccines contain harmful heavy metals  Vaccines aren't needed for diseases that have been eradicated  Vaccines can cause the disease that they are trying to eradicate
  7. 7. The Andrew Wakefield Controversy  In 1998, Andrew Wakefield and a team of researchers discovered a link between Autism and the MMR vaccine.  This finding caused mass uproar over whether vaccines are a public health risk.  However, the findings were deemed false after further investigation pinning Wakefield to false lab findings in exchange for £400,000  Andrew Wakefield’s findings are still used by the Anti-vaccine movement as evidence.
  8. 8. Thimerosal  Thimerosal is a chemical in vaccines used to preserve dead microbes.  The WHO organization announced a removal of Thimerosal from vaccines in 1999 after finding the toxicity levels in the preservative to be too high.  However this finding was false, and the WHO organization continued to allow Thimerosal in vaccines.  Misconceptions of Thimerosal continue among the community.
  9. 9. Vaccine derived Poliovirus  In the 1970s, reports of the orally distributed polio vaccine creating a new strand of poliovirus was released.  3 strains of vaccine derived poliovirus exist, and are incredibly rare for a varied of reasons. (1 in 2.7 million chance)  This is an issue only with the oral polio vaccine, which has seen less use in the United States however has seen increased use in Nigeria and other developing nations.
  10. 10. Are Vaccines bad for Public Health? NO!

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