n g b i r
d
by Harper Lee
The mockingbird is not
Alabama’s state bird, but
it is the state bird of Arkansas,
Florida, Miss...
The whole story is
flashback since we spend
the entire book trying to find
out how Jem broke his arm
Conflict:
Man vs. society
The Scottsboro Boys
A True Story

Samuel Leibowitz

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, poor people would ride in
railroad freight cars,...
In 1896, the US Supreme Court had ruled that “separate but
equal” facilities were constitutional. Thanks to the
Court, Afr...
The KKK and lynching
“Strange Fruit”
by Abel Meeropol (publishing as Lewis Allan)
Southern trees bear strange fruit,
Blood on the leaves and bl...
Exposition—
“Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his
stinginess. In Engl...
The Scottsboro Trials
Took place in the 1930s
Took place in northern Alabama
Began with a charge of rape made by white wom...
Harper Lee's Childhood

Scout Finch's Childhood

Grew up in 1930s - rural southern
Alabama town
Father - Amasa Lee - attor...
Atticus is a
good father
who spends
time with his
children and
enjoys it.
I, Too, Sing America
by Langston Hughes

Conflicts—Jem vs. Scout—man vs. man
Fear is man vs. himself
Prejudice is man vs. ...
I found this
plot diagram that is
almost impossible to read,
but it was so interesting….
Protagonist: Scout
Jem, Dill, Atticus, Calpurnia, etc.
Antagonist: Boo???
Racism/Prejudice
Point of view—from a young
Scout as she grows. She uses
“I” and “me”
BILDUNGSROMAN
—a novel which tells
of a character’s growth
towards maturity.
It’s what is referred to
as a “Coming Of Age”...
‘It’s a sin to kill a
mockingbird’
● Look up the references to
mockingbirds (pp.
96, 100, 247, 261, 282).
● Who are the me...
What is the importance of family to the following characters:
● Atticus, Scout and Jem

● the Finches
● the Ewells
● Dolph...
Class distinctions:
● black ● mixed race ● old families

Conflicts, themes,
and symbolism….

● white ● ‘white trash’ ● the...
Jem, Scout, and Dill are fascinated
by the Boo Radley myth. They
build him into a “boogie” man.

Children actually had fre...
Walter Cunningham is a
peculiar dinner guest.
When Tom Robinson
is accused of rape by
Mayella
Ewell, Atticus Finch is
appointed as his
lawyer by the court.

Gregory Pec...
Atticus is a good father
who has an open, honest
relationship with his
children.
Atticus is a good
man, who treats everyon...
Who are the mockingbirds in this novel?
Why?
Why does Jem
have to read to
this old
lady, Mrs.
Dubose?
Why does
Atticus admire
her courage?
Why do Jem and Scout go
to the First Purchase
Black Church?
With whom do they go?

What do they learn from
the visit?
Who ...
Calpurnia is more than
just a maid, cook, or
housekeeper for the
Finches.
She is a surrogate mother
figure for Scout, who
...
Mayella and Bob Ewell: Are both of them Antagonists?
Notice that the courtroom is segregated.

Atticus only calls 4
witnesses, and
although he proves
that Tom Robinson
could n...
Who would have
guessed that
Atticus was a keen
marksman?
Jem and Scout had
thought he was
old and useless.
Atticus is the best shot and takes down the mad dog
Denouement—
Heck Tate suggests that
a tiny, white lie may be
the best solution as to
how Mr. Ewell met his
faith.
Dill- Charles Baker Harris

One of Atticus’ mistakes—the
children rescue him from a
possible “lynch-mob”.
Harper Lee on the set of “To Kill A Mockingbird”
The Verdict reflects
prejudice.

A climax
Scout has to learn that it is the stand,
not the win that counts.
An unfortunate choice of costume?
This Halloween pageant could prove fatal.
Who saves whom?
Final major
Climax!

“Hey, Boo!”
And that is how Jem got his arm broken.
Life has
so
many
pieces
—
How
do they
all fit
in?
Symbol—”it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
Will the real Boo please stand up?
Truman Streckfus Persons was known as Truman
Capote, an American author, screenwriter and
playwright, many of whose short
...
Rosa Parks was arrested in
Montgomery, AL for
refusing to give up her bus
seat to a white man.
She sat down to stand up
to...
Although it was a peaceful march for voting rights, Birmingham
Police Chief Eugene “Bull” Connor turned the dogs and the
f...
Dr. King makes his historic “I Have a Dream” speech to thousands
in Washington, DC. This speech will be the catalyst to pa...
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
To Kill A Mockingbird 2014
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To Kill A Mockingbird 2014

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To Kill A Mockingbird 2014

  1. 1. n g b i r d by Harper Lee The mockingbird is not Alabama’s state bird, but it is the state bird of Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas.
  2. 2. The whole story is flashback since we spend the entire book trying to find out how Jem broke his arm
  3. 3. Conflict: Man vs. society
  4. 4. The Scottsboro Boys
  5. 5. A True Story Samuel Leibowitz During the Great Depression of the 1930s, poor people would ride in railroad freight cars, trying to get to a town that might have work. In 1931, two white women were riding the trains along with two groups of men: one white and another black. A fight broke out between the two groups of men. The blacks won and threw the whites off the train. The whites reported this to the local sheriff, and the train was stopped in Scottsboro, Alabama. Everyone on board was arrested. Victoria Price was in serious trouble because her friend, Ruby Bates, was a minor. It's a federal crime to take a minor across state lines for the purpose of prostitution. In order to get out of trouble, Victoria and Ruby said that the black men had raped them. In 1931, rape was punishable by death. Considering the races of the accusers (white) and accused (black), the normal response would have been a lynching (hanging someone who is suspected of a crime). But the Victoria Price and Ruby Bates people of Scottsboro held a trial, instead. Of course, the result had been decided before the trial began. The Scottsboro Boys were convicted and sentenced to death - at the first trial.
  6. 6. In 1896, the US Supreme Court had ruled that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional. Thanks to the Court, African-Americans suffered half a century from legalized discrimination. The Jim Crow laws, often referred to as merely Jim Crow, were state and local laws in force mainly in the Southern states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 (mostly voted by Democratic Party politicians). They enforced the segregation of blacks and whites in all public facilities (public schools, public places, phonebooths, public transportation, restrooms, restaurants etc.) and led to inferior treatment and accommodations for AfricanAmericans, although in theory they were designed to make things “separate but equal” (separation being supposedly in the interests of African-Americans because integration would expose them to white racism and would create low self-esteem). The laws were overruled by Brown v. Board of Education decision of the Supreme Court, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 pushed by Lyndon B. Johnson, but the practices were brought to complete end only in the 1970s. De facto segregation, particularly in schools, continues until today, as
  7. 7. The KKK and lynching
  8. 8. “Strange Fruit” by Abel Meeropol (publishing as Lewis Allan) Southern trees bear strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Lynching, the putting to death (usually by hanging) of an individual by a mob under the pretense of administering justice, occurred throughout the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries, although it was especially common in the South. From the 1880s until the practice ended in the 1960s, the vast majority of lynching victims were AfricanAmerican. Pastoral scene of the gallant south, e bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, en the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is the fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop. "Strange Fruit" is a song performed most famously by Billie Holiday, who first sang and recorded it in 1939. Written by the teacher Abel Meeropol as a poem, it exposed American racism, particularly the lynching of African Americans. Such lynchings had occurred chiefly in the South but also in other regions of the United States.
  9. 9. Exposition— “Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his stinginess. In England, Simon was irritated by the persecution ofthose who called themselves Methodists at the hands of their more liberal brethren, and as Simon called himself a Methodist, he worked his way across the Atlantic to Philadelphia, thence to Jamaica, thence to Mobile, and up the Saint Stephens. Mindful of John Wesley's strictures on the use of many words in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So Simon, having forgotten his teacher's dictum on the possession of human chattels, bought three slaves and with their aid established a homestead on the banks of the Alabama River some forty miles above Saint Stephens. He returned to Saint Stephens only once, to find a wife, and with her established a line that ran high to daughters. Simon lived to an impressive age and died rich. It was customary for the men in the family to remain on Simon's homestead, Finch's Landing, and make their living from cotton. The place was self-sufficient: modest in comparison with the empires around it, the Landing nevertheless produced everything required to sustain life except ice, wheat flour, and articles of clothing, supplied by river-boats from Mobile. Simon would have regarded with impotent fury the disturbance between the North and the South, as it left his descendants stripped of everything but their land, yet the tradition of living on the land remained unbroken until well into the twentieth century, when my father, Atticus Finch, went to Montgomery to read law, and his younger brother went to Boston to study medicine. Their sister Alexandra was the Finch who remained at the Landing: she married a taciturn man …” . Include The Great Depression, Jim Crow, and Scottsboro information.
  10. 10. The Scottsboro Trials Took place in the 1930s Took place in northern Alabama Began with a charge of rape made by white women against African American men The poor white status of the accusers was a critical issue. A central figure was a heroic judge, a member of the Alabama Bar who overturned a guilty jury verdict against African American men. This judge went against public sentiment in trying to protect the rights of the African American defendants. The first juries failed to include any African Americans, a situation which caused the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn the guilty verdict. The jury ignored evidence, for example, that the women suffered no injuries. Attitudes about Southern women and poor whites complicated the trial. Tom Robinson's Trial Occurs in the 1930s Takes place in southern Alabama Begins with a charge of rape made by a white woman against an African American man The poor white status of Mayella is a critical issue. A central figure is Atticus, lawyer, legislator and member of the Alabama Bar, who defends an African American man. Atticus arouses anger in the community in trying to defend Tom Robinson. The verdict is rendered by a jury of poor white residents of Old Sarum. The jury ignores evidence, for example, that Tom has a useless left arm. Attitudes about Southern women and poor whites complicate the trial of Tom Robinson.
  11. 11. Harper Lee's Childhood Scout Finch's Childhood Grew up in 1930s - rural southern Alabama town Father - Amasa Lee - attorney who served in state legislature in Alabama Grew up in 1930s - rural southern Alabama town Father - Atticus Finch - attorney who served in state legislature in Alabama Older brother and young neighbor (Dill) are playmates Scout reads before she enters school; reads Mobile Register newspaper in first grade Six years old when the trial of Tom Robinson takes place Older brother and young neighbor (Truman Capote) are playmates Harper Lee - an avid reader Six years old when Scottsboro trials were meticulously covered in state and local newspapers
  12. 12. Atticus is a good father who spends time with his children and enjoys it.
  13. 13. I, Too, Sing America by Langston Hughes Conflicts—Jem vs. Scout—man vs. man Fear is man vs. himself Prejudice is man vs. society Boo Radley—man vs. society I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes. But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow I’ll sit at the table When company comes Nobody’ll dare Say to me, “Eat in the kitchen” then. Besides, they’ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed,– I, too, am America.
  14. 14. I found this plot diagram that is almost impossible to read, but it was so interesting….
  15. 15. Protagonist: Scout Jem, Dill, Atticus, Calpurnia, etc. Antagonist: Boo??? Racism/Prejudice
  16. 16. Point of view—from a young Scout as she grows. She uses “I” and “me”
  17. 17. BILDUNGSROMAN —a novel which tells of a character’s growth towards maturity. It’s what is referred to as a “Coming Of Age” novel. Mary Badham and Gregory Peck studying their lines.
  18. 18. ‘It’s a sin to kill a mockingbird’ ● Look up the references to mockingbirds (pp. 96, 100, 247, 261, 282). ● Who are the metaphorical mockingbirds in the novel? Tom Robinson, Boo Radley are two. Is Mayella Ewell another? ‘Climb into a person’s skin’ ● Look up the references to this idea (pp. 35, 163, 224, 285) ● How does this teach tolerance? ● How important is empathy for others to Harper Lee? Conflicts, themes, and symbolism….
  19. 19. What is the importance of family to the following characters: ● Atticus, Scout and Jem ● the Finches ● the Ewells ● Dolphus Raymond ● Dill. Racism: ● black and white in the novel ● the verdict of the trial ● Lula ● Dolphus Raymond ● the Ewells and ‘white trash’. Conflicts, themes, and symbolism….
  20. 20. Class distinctions: ● black ● mixed race ● old families Conflicts, themes, and symbolism…. ● white ● ‘white trash’ ● the rural poor Other key ideas you might want to make notes on are: ● moral justice and legal justice ● prejudice ● democracy and dictatorship ● the need for social reform ● the need for legal reform
  21. 21. Jem, Scout, and Dill are fascinated by the Boo Radley myth. They build him into a “boogie” man. Children actually had free time and played outside all day.
  22. 22. Walter Cunningham is a peculiar dinner guest.
  23. 23. When Tom Robinson is accused of rape by Mayella Ewell, Atticus Finch is appointed as his lawyer by the court. Gregory Peck and Brock Peters
  24. 24. Atticus is a good father who has an open, honest relationship with his children. Atticus is a good man, who treats everyone regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, or religion with compassion, honesty, and genuine concern.
  25. 25. Who are the mockingbirds in this novel? Why?
  26. 26. Why does Jem have to read to this old lady, Mrs. Dubose? Why does Atticus admire her courage?
  27. 27. Why do Jem and Scout go to the First Purchase Black Church? With whom do they go? What do they learn from the visit? Who complains about their being taken there? How does Atticus respond to this?
  28. 28. Calpurnia is more than just a maid, cook, or housekeeper for the Finches. She is a surrogate mother figure for Scout, who doesn’t always get along with her. Atticus respects her as her own person.
  29. 29. Mayella and Bob Ewell: Are both of them Antagonists?
  30. 30. Notice that the courtroom is segregated. Atticus only calls 4 witnesses, and although he proves that Tom Robinson could not have done what he is accused, the verdict will reflect 12 white men’s prejudice in Alabama in the 1930s.
  31. 31. Who would have guessed that Atticus was a keen marksman? Jem and Scout had thought he was old and useless.
  32. 32. Atticus is the best shot and takes down the mad dog
  33. 33. Denouement— Heck Tate suggests that a tiny, white lie may be the best solution as to how Mr. Ewell met his faith.
  34. 34. Dill- Charles Baker Harris One of Atticus’ mistakes—the children rescue him from a possible “lynch-mob”.
  35. 35. Harper Lee on the set of “To Kill A Mockingbird”
  36. 36. The Verdict reflects prejudice. A climax
  37. 37. Scout has to learn that it is the stand, not the win that counts.
  38. 38. An unfortunate choice of costume? This Halloween pageant could prove fatal.
  39. 39. Who saves whom? Final major Climax! “Hey, Boo!”
  40. 40. And that is how Jem got his arm broken.
  41. 41. Life has so many pieces — How do they all fit in?
  42. 42. Symbol—”it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
  43. 43. Will the real Boo please stand up?
  44. 44. Truman Streckfus Persons was known as Truman Capote, an American author, screenwriter and playwright, many of whose short stories, novels, plays, and nonfiction are recognized literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's (1958) and the true crime novel In Cold Blood (1966), which he labeled a "nonfiction novel." At least 20 films and television dramas have been produced of Capote novels, stories and plays. Born in New Orleans, Louisiana, his parents divorced when he was four, and he was sent to Monroeville, Alabama, where, for the following four to five years, he was raised by his mother's relatives. In Monroeville, he was a neighbor and friend of author Harper Lee, who wrote the 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird, and based the character Dill on Capote. As a lonely child, Capote taught himself both to read and to write before he entered his first year of school. Capote was often seen at age five carrying his dictionary and notepad, and he began writing fiction at the age of 11.
  45. 45. Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, AL for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. She sat down to stand up to Jim Crow/for her rights Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested and jailed for organizing the Birmingham March.
  46. 46. Although it was a peaceful march for voting rights, Birmingham Police Chief Eugene “Bull” Connor turned the dogs and the firehoses loose upon the assembly. I went to school with his grandson, who was proud of his “PopPop Bull.”
  47. 47. Dr. King makes his historic “I Have a Dream” speech to thousands in Washington, DC. This speech will be the catalyst to passing

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