The GreaT War Chapter 13 and 14.1 and 14.2 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) & Chapter 15Nationalism and Revolution Around the World (1910–1939)
Summary: World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924)By 1914, Europeans had enjoyed almost a centurywithout a major war. They had witnessed incrediblechanges. Rapid advances in science and industry hadfed a belief in almost unlimited progress, peace, andprosperity. That confidence vanished in August 1914,buried in an avalanche of death and destruction. WorldWar I engulfed much of the world for four years. Forthose who survived, it marked the beginning of adisturbing new age. In Russia, the disastrousconsequences of World War I led to the collapse of themonarchy and the rise of the Bolsheviks.
Canadian John McCrae served as a military In Flanders Fields doctor on the Western Front in World War I. In 1915, McCrae wrote the following poem in the voice of those he had watched die. “In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields.”The poppy became a symbol of remembrance for veterans after World War I.
American soldiers on a trench raid during World War I
The Road to War: 1890-1914•1898: Germany begins its naval buildup.•1902: Britain and Japan conclude a naval alliance•1905: The First Moroccan Crisis. World War I•1907: Anglo-Russian treaty over Persia. oTriple Entente is completed. 1914-1918•1911: Italy annexes Tripoli•1912: The First Balkan War Germany’s Glorious Military Eager crowds 1913: The Second Balkan War•1914: The Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in watch a cavalry regiment, orSarajevo group of troops serving on World War I begins horseback, ride through Berlin in August 1914.The Course of the War: 1914-1918•1914: The Battle of the Marne Germany’s army was known oThe Ottoman Empire enters the war to be highly trained and well•1915: The Armenian Massacre disciplined, making it a•1916: The Battle of Verdun. formidable fighting•1917: The February Revolution in Russia force. How are the people oThe United States enters the war on the Allied side oThe Balfour Declaration on Palestine pictured showing pride in•1918: Germany and the Soviet Union conclude the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. their military? oPresident Wilsons Fourteen Points oArmistice ends the war.The Aftermath•1918: Revolutions in Germany, Austria and Turkey.•1919: Allied governments intervene in Russia•The Treaty of Versailles is ratified.•The League of Nations is founded.
Witness History The The Spark Spark On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, aThe assassin, Gavrilo Princip member of a Serbian terrorist group, killed Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. “The first [bullet] struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. . . . She died instantly. The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered only one word, ’Sofia’—a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.” —Borijove Jevtic, co-conspirator The assassinations triggered World War I, called “The Great War” by Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie people at the time.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, farright, was shot to death on June 28, 1914, shortly afterthis photo was taken. His assassination triggered theoutbreak of World War I.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand• Family name: Hapsburg • Fate: The Archduke and his Heir to the Austrian Throne: wife Sophie were assassinated Third in line to the throne at in Sarajevo on 28-Jun-1914 one point, he became heir (their fourteenth wedding through two untimely deaths. anniversary) by Serbian The first was of the Emperors nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The son, Crown Prince Rudolph, Archdukes role of Inspector who killed himself (and his General of the Austrian army sixteen year old mistress) in had brought him to Sarajevo 1889. The second was the for the summer maneuvers. death of his father, Archduke Neither Emperor Franz Josef Charles Louis, in 1896 or the Kaiser saw fit to attend the funeral.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand General Information Family name: Hapsburg Heir to the Austrian Throne: Third in line to the throne at one point, he became heir through two untimely deaths. The first was of the Emperors son, Crown Prince Rudolph, who killed himself (and his sixteen year old mistress) in 1889. The second was the death of his father, Archduke Charles Louis, in 1896. Now it was Franz Ferdinand that would be next in line for the Crown.1863-1914 Politics: Considered more flexible in matters of military and domestic affairs than his uncle Emperor Franz Josef, he was a reformist with new ideas to be put into practice when he ascended to the Hapsburg throne. One of these ideas was "trialism" - the reorganization of the dual monarchy into a triple monarchy by giving the Slavs an equal voice in the empire. This would put them on an equal footing with the Magyars and Germans living inside the Austro-Hungarian borders. These politics were in direct conflict with those of the Serbian nationalists.
The ill-fated couple arriving in Sarajevo.Personal: Much has been said about Franz Ferdinand and very little of it good.He has been referred to as a miser, a bigot, and a spoiled child.Shunned by the elite of Viennese society, he was also called "theloneliest man in Vienna". He lacked the two key elements for successin this social scene - charm and elegance. His home life appears tohave been surprisingly better. His marriage to Countess Sophia vonChotkowa und Wognin, Duchess of Hohenburg in 1900 was calledone of the worlds great love affairs. Unfortunately the Emperorconsidered the Duchess a commoner and tried to convince FranzFerdinand he was marrying beneath his station. They went throughwith the marriage against the Emperors wishes but had to renouncerights of rank and succession for their children. In the years to come,Sophie would not be allowed to ride in the same car with her husbandduring affairs of state.Fate:The Archduke and his wife Sophie were assassinated in Sarajevo on28-Jun-1914 (their fourteenth wedding anniversary) by Serbiannationalist Gavrilo Princip. The Archdukes role of Inspector Generalof the Austrian army had brought him to Sarajevo for the summermaneuvers. Neither Emperor Franz Josef or the Kaiser saw fit toattend the funeral.
Ferdinand and SophieThe Archduke with Sophieand their children The Heir with his uncle Emperor Franz Josef.The Archduke (left) with theKaiser on maneuvers in 1909.
Gavrilo PrincipA 19 year old tubercular Bosnian Serb student. A member of Mlada Bosna ("YoungBosnia"), a movement dedicated to a Bosnia free of Hapsburg rule. He and his six fellowassassins were equipped with pistols and bombs by a Serbian terrorist organizationknown as the Black Hand.On 28-Jun-1914, he succeeded where his accomplices failed in assassinating ArchdukeFranz Ferdinand and his wife Countess Sophia in Sarajevo.He attempted suicide at the scene, but the gun was knocked from his hand by anonlooker. His second attempt at suicide was by cyanide, but it made him retch and hevomited up the poison. He was taken into custody and made to stand trial. He was foundguilty but, because of his age, spared the death penalty. He died in prison of tuberculosisin 1918. All in all, it seems he was treated fairly by the government he considered sotyrannical."Ujedinjenje ili Smrt" is the Serbian "Black Hand". Link provides full background infoincluding their constitution listing Colonel Dimitrievitch (Apis) as a member."Narodna Odbrana" is the Serbian secret patriotic society of which "Mlada Bosna" wasa splinter group..Quotes "There is no need to carry me to another prison. My life is already ebbingaway. I suggest that you nail me to a cross and burn me alive. My flaming body will be atorch to light my people on their path to freedom." Princip to the prison governor onbeing moved to another prison
This map compares thesize of the different armies in World War I TroopWorld War I with the number Strength andof wounded and dead Casualtiesamong the majorcombatants in the war. Therelatively light numbers ofAmerican dead andwounded reflect the lateentry of the United States inthe war. The majorEuropean participantssuffered enormous losses.Twice as many men died inWorld War I as in all thesignificant wars from 1790 to1913 combined. (Note thatdue to the scale ofdestruction, the estimatedfigures given here forRussians and Ottomanskilled are probably low.)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCsldbh9hAYTop Ten Tanks- #4: WWI Tank
Frederick Wilhelm Viktor Albert of Hohenzollern Kaiser Wilhelm II of GermanyAscent: Emperor Wilhelm I dies 9-Mar-1888. Frederick III is crowned Emperor but cannot rule due to throat cancer and a ninety-nine day coma. Wilhelm II succeeds his father and is crowned Emperor (midyear) 1888.Noteworthy Relations Relationship CountryCrown Prince Wilhelm son GermanyCzar Nicholas II cousin RussiaKing Edward VII uncle BritainKing George V cousin BritainKing Frederick III father PrussiaQueen Victoria grandmother BritainEmperor Wilhelm I grandfather Germany Politics: Above all, the Kaiser wanted "a place in the sun" for the German people. The problem was the only places left were in the shade. There was very little room left for new colonization in the early part of this century. Nevertheless, the Kaiser built up the German military machine and built a naval fleet to rival that of Great Britain. The term "saber rattler" sums up his politics as well as his personality. Historian Barbara Tuchman put it well when she referred to the Kaiser as "possessor of the least inhibited tongue in Europe".Personal: The Kaiser was born with a withered left arm. This, together with having some tough footsteps in which to follow, led Wilhelm towards the military lifestyle. He loved his numerous uniforms and surrounding himself with the elite of German military society.Misconception: The Kaiser was a war monger solely responsible for the First World War. The Kaiser did not start the war. The Kaiser did not want the war. "Saber rattling" is one thing, a war with the other major European powers is something very different indeed! The most that can be said is that the Kaiser did not do enough to try to control the actions of Austria-Hungary and prevent the outbreak of war. In the end he accepted war.Fate: The Kaiser was forced to abdicate as part of the Armistice. He went to Holland where he died in 1941. He is buried at Doorn.
A wounded German soldier in 1915. World War I artillery shell
• The airplane was first used in combat during World War I. Airco D.H.4s, like this one, were highly regarded British bombers. The D.H.4 held a pilot and a gunner and carried bombs under its wings.• The submarine proved its value as a warship in World War I. German submarines, like this UB II, challenged British sea power. They fired torpedoes that struck surface ships and then exploded. • The tank was a British invention of World War I. Tanks were designed to rip through barbed wire and cross trenches. Crews inside gunned down the enemy. This MK IV tank first saw action in 1917. The machine gun made World War I more deadly than earlier wars. The guns rapid fire slaughtered attacking infantrymen. The 8-millimeter Hotchkiss gun used by the French army is shown here.
• U.K,• Australia,• New Zealand,• Canada,• India, • Romania• South (although Africa, Romania changed sides• West Indies half-way through).
How Did the War Become a Global Conflict? EASTERN EUROPE SOUTHERN EUROPEIn August 1914, Russian armiespushed into eastern Germany. In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped crush Serbia.After Russia was defeated in thebattle of Tannenburg, armies in theeast fought on Russian soil. OUTSIDE EUROPE THE COLONIESJapan, allied with Britain, tried toimpose a protectorate on China. The Allies overran German colonies in Africa and Asia.The Ottoman empire joined theCentral Powers in 1914. The great powers turned to theirArab nationalists revolted against own colonies for troops, laborers,
Anthony Michael Michalski 165th Infantry, KIAJohn Rudolph Webband Crew301st Tank Battalion
Dirigibles and ZeppelinsThe Zeppelin men: (from left) Hugo Eckener, Countvon Zeppelin, and Peter Strasser Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin died of pneumonia on 8-Mar-1917 at the age of seventy-eight. Peter Strasser, Chief of the Naval Airship Division and the driving force behind the German airship program, was aboard the height-climber L 70 when it was shot down over the English Channel on 5- Aug-1918. This event marked the end of the airship as a strategic bomber. Hugo Eckener would go on to lead Germanys postwar airship program.
The Art of War One water bottle for 40 men by G.P. HoskinsGassed by John Singer Sargent
Take a Little Tour• LEGEND:• 1. A 3rd Class berth. 2. The 3rd Class Dining saloon. 3. The Bridge. 4. The Port Side Regal Suite. 5. The 1st Class Library. 6. The 1st Class Lounge. 7. The 1st Class Dining Saloon and 1914 Menu. 8. The 2nd Class Lounge.
By all accounts, she was riding low in the water. What was she carrying? Supplies and shells?Schwiegers log and the testimony of several survivors shows categorically thathe only fired one torpedo; but a larger, second explosion had occurred almostinstantaneously, which was highly likely to have been attributable to a particularconsignment of 5,000 live artillery shells in the hold. It was the second explosion,caused we think by the sympathetic detonation of these munitions, which wasultimately responsible for the ships rapid demise.
Germany and Great Britain were at war. So were most of the other countries of Europe. The United States, wanting to remain neutral, had not yet entered World War I. But theImperial Government of Kaiser Wilhelm II had issued a dire warning to American citizens: Stay out of the waters around the British Isles. Those waters included the Irish Sea. How many of the 1959 people on board the Lusitania on May 7, 1915 knew about Germany’s threat to sink non-military ships? Of those who knew, how many really believed that women and children would be treated like front-line soldiers of war?
"Torpedo coming on the starboard side!"The torpedo struck the ship with a sound which Turner later recalled was "like a heavy door being slammed shut." Almost instantaneously came a second, much larger explosion, which physically rocked the ship. A tall column of water and debris shot skyward, wrecking lifeboat No. 5 as it came back down. The clock on the bridge said 14.10. Watching events through his periscope, Kapitan-Leutnant Schwieger could not believe that so On the bridge of much havoc the Lusitania, could have been wrought by just one torpedo. Captain Turner He noted in his log that "an unusually heavy could see detonation" instantly that hishad taken place and noted that a second explosion had ship was also occurred which he put down to "boilers, coal or doomed.powder." He also noticed that the torpedo had hit the He gave the Lusitania further forward of where he had aimed it. orders to Schwieger brought the periscope down and U-20 abandon ship. headed back to sea.
T Sinking of the he Lusitania• Then, nearly instantaneously, the Lusitania exploded. Not from a second torpedo. From an internal explosion.• Nearly 2,000 people had 18 minutes to get off the mortally wounded, quickly-sinking liner. (Follow the link to a rare copy of the "Annex to the Report," from the official inquiry conducted by Lord Mersey.) • The Lusitania was gone, and with her had gone 1, 201 people.
Captain William TurnerAs the stern of the ship settled back, the bridgewas awash and the Captain was swept into the Irish Sea. He, unlike most others, survived.
Germany, however, was unapologetic. Thegovernment had issued its warning. Theiractions were justified, they said, because theybelieved the ship carried arms that would havebeen used to kill Germans.
“I Dare You To Come Out”• This 1917 cartoon shows the arrogant piratical Kaiser defying American Rights, national honor, freedom of the seas, and international law while standing on the conning tower of a German U- boat.• These are the things for which we will fight!
Schlieffen Plan In 1904 France and Britain signed the Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding). The objective of the alliance was to encourage co-operation against the perceived threat of Germany.• Negotiations also began to add Russia to this alliance. As a result of these moves the German military began to fear the possibility of a combined attack from France, Britain and Russia. Alfred von Schlieffen, German Army Chief of Staff, was given instructions to devise a strategy that would be able to counter a joint attack. In December, 1905, he began circulating what later became known as the Schlieffen Plan.
• Schlieffen argued that if war took place it was vital that France was speedily defeated. If this happened, Britain and Russia would be unwilling to carry on fighting. Schlieffen calculated that it would take Russia six weeks to organize its large army for an attack on Germany. Therefore, it was vitally important to force France to surrender before Russia was ready to use all its forces. Schlieffens plan involved using 90% of Germanys armed forces to attack France. Fearing the French forts on the border with Germany, Schlieffen suggested a scythe-like attack through Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg. The rest of the German Army would be sent to defensive positions in the east to stop the expected Russian advance.• When Helmuth von Moltke replaced Schlieffen as German Army Chief of Staff in 1906, he modified the plan by proposing that Holland was not invaded. The main route would now be through the flat plains of Flanders. Moltke argued that Belgiums small army would be unable to stop German forces from quickly entering France. Moltke suggested that 34 divisions should invade Belgium whereas 8 divisions would be enough to stop Russia advancing in the east.• On 2nd August 1914, the Schlieffen Plan was put into operation when the German Army invaded Luxembourg and Belgium. However, the Germans were held up by the Belgian Army and were shocked by the Russian Armys advance into East Prussia. The Germans were also surprised by how quickly the British Expeditionary Force reached France and Belgium.
T. E. Lawrence• British archaeological scholar, adventurer, military strategist, and the writer of The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1927), an ambitious work, which combines a detailed account of the Arab revolt against the Turks and the authors own spiritual autobiography. T.E. Lawrences (1888-1935) enigmatic personality still fascinates biographers and his legend has survived many attempts to discredit his achievements.• In 1914, he was quickly taken up by the Intelligence Service, and was based in Cairo where he seems to have made an excellent impression on his superiors. In 1916 he was sent to Jeddah to liaise with the Sharif Hussein who had launched the Arab Revolt on June 10th. He was later detached as permanent liaison, and subsequently at Prince Faisals request was named "advisor" to Faisal. He spent the remainder of the Arab Revolt in this capacity, entered Damascus with the Arab tribesmen to prepare the way for Faisal and later attended the Peace Conference at Versailles with the Arab delegation.• Disillusioned with the decisions taken there, he retired from any public activity and was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1935.
Edith Cavell• Edith Cavell (1865-1915) was a British nurse serving in Belgium who was executed on a charge of assisting Allied prisoners to escape during World War One.• Many of the captured Allied soldiers who were treated at Berkendael subsequently succeeded in escaping - with Cavells active assistance - to neutral Holland. Cavell was arrested on 5 August 1915 by local German authorities and charged with having personally aided in the escape of some 200 such soldiers. She, along with a named Belgian accomplice Philippe Baucq, were duly pronounced guilty and sentenced to death by firing squad.
Miracle of the Marne• The Battle of the Marne was a First World War battle fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. It resulted in a Franco-British victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke.• The battle effectively ended the month-long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris. The counter-attack of Allied forces during the First Battle of the Marne ensured that a quick German victory was impossible, and set the stage for four years of trench warfare on the Western Front.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/video/taxisofthemarne.htm Parisian Taxi Cabs Save the Day! • With German forces close to achieving a breakthrough against beleaguered French forces outside Paris between 6-8 September 1914, a decision was taken by French military authorities to dispatch emergency troop reinforcements from Paris. • Extraordinarily these were dispatched - on 7 September - using a fleet of Parisian taxi cabs, some 600 in all, ferrying approximately 6,000 French reserve infantry troops to the front. • The tactic worked and Paris was saved - barely. The incident quickly gained legend as "the taxis of the Marne". Events at the ensuing First Battle of the Marne led to a throwing back of German forces, ensuring Paris safety - and military stalemate and with it the onset of trench warfare.
Second Battle of Ypres• The Allies planned a major counter- offensive. Their attack was stopped in its tracks by the German use of chlorine gas. Although the Allies knew of German plans, they were unprepared, and there troops were forced to withdraw in disarray.• It was the first time a former colonial force (Canadians) pushed back a major European power (Germans) on European soil, which occurred in the battle of St. Julien-Kitcheners Wood.
• The Battle of Verdun was one of the major battles during the First The Battle of World War on the Western Front. It was fought between the German Verdun and French armies, from 21 February to 18 December 1916 in north-eastern France. The Battle of Verdun ended in a French victory The Battle of Verdun resulted in more than a quarter of a million battlefield deaths and at least half a million wounded. Verdun was the longest battle and one of the most devastating in the First World War and more generally in human history. A total of about 40 million artillery shells were exchanged by both sides during the battle. In both France and Germany it has come to represent the horrors of war.
The Battle of the Somme The Tank makes its debut!• The Battle of the Somme took place during the First World War between 1 July and 18 November 1916 One of the largest battles of the First World War, by the time fighting had petered out in late autumn 1916 more than 1.5 million casualties had been suffered by the forces involved. It is understood to have been one of the bloodiest military operations ever recorded.
The Gallipoli CampaignThe Gallipoli Campaign took place at Gallipoli peninsula inTurkey from 25 April 1915 to 9 January 1916, during the FirstWorld War. A joint British and French operation was mountedto capture the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, and secure a searoute to Russia. The attempt failed, with heavy casualties onboth sides.In Australia and New Zealand, the campaign was the firstmajor battle undertaken by a joint military formation, theAustralian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), and isoften considered to mark the birth of national consciousness inboth of these countries.The Ottoman Empire/Turkey was ably led by the nationsrevered founder, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.The Russians were in desperate need of war supplies. Theonly route to them was blocked by the Turkish blockade of theDardanelle Straits. The British decided to land troops tocapture the heights overlooking the straits. In a campaign thatlasted eight months, the British failed to capture the straits,and were forced to withdraw without accomplishing anything.It probably hastened genocide against the Armenians.
Armenian RefugeesA group of Armenian refugees wait for their daily rations from Near East Relief,an American organization founded to help the surviving Turkish Armenians.Public opinion, especially in the United States, was sympathetic to theArmenians during and after World War I. However, the Allies’ attempts toprotect the Armenians through the treaty that ended the war with Turkeyultimately failed.
4 Total WarWarring nations engaged in total war, the channeling of anation’s entire resources into a war effort.Economic impact• Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport andsupply huge fighting forces.• All nations except Britain imposed universal militaryconscription, or “the draft.”• Governments raised taxes, borrowed money, and rationedfood and other products.Propaganda• Both sides waged a propaganda war. Propaganda is thespreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an
4 Women and WarWomen played a critical role in total war:• As men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national companies going.• Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies.• Women grew food when shortages threatened.• Some women joined branches of the armed forces.• Women worked as nurses close to the front lines.
4 Collapsing Morale By 1917, the morale of both troops and civilians had plunged.• As morale collapsed, troops mutinied or deserted.• Long casualty lists, food shortages, and the failure of generals to win promised victories led to calls for peace.• In Russia, soldiers left the front to join in a full- scale revolution back home.
1917Feb. 1 Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.April 6 The United States declared war on Germany.June 24 American troops began landing in France.Dec. 15 Russia signed an armistice with Germany, ending the fighting on the Eastern Front. 1918Jan. 8 President Woodrow Wilson announced his Fourteen Points as the basis for peace.March 3 Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.March 21 Germany launched the first of its final three offensives on the Western Front.Sept. 26 The Allies began their final offensive on the Western Front.Nov. 11 Germany signed an armistice ending World War I.
Mata Hari• Mata Hari (1876-1917) was the stage name of the Dutch exotic dancer and prostitute Gertrud Margarete Zelle, who was shot by the French as a spy on 15 October 1917.• Born in 1876 in the Netherlands, Mata Haris name has since become synonymous with espionage, although it remains by no means clear that she was guilty of the spying charges for which she charged. Highly successful in Paris (among other cities), Mata Haris attractiveness, as well as her apparent willingness to appear almost nude on the stage, made her a huge hit. She cultivated numerous lovers, including many military officers.
• Still unclear today are the circumstances around her alleged spying activities. It was said that while in The Hague in 1916 she was offered cash by a German consul for information obtained on her next visit to France. Indeed, Mata Hari admitted she had passed old, outdated information to a German intelligence officer when later interrogated by the French intelligence service.• Mata Hari herself claimed she had been paid to act as a French spy in Belgium (then occupied by German forces), although she had neglected to inform her French spymasters of her prior arrangement with the German consul. She was, it seemed, a double agent, if a not very successful one.
• It appears that British intelligence picked up details of Mata Haris arrangements with the German consul and passed these to their French counterparts.• She was consequently arrested by the French on 13 February 1917 in Paris. Following imprisonment she was tried by a military court on 24-25 July 1917 and sentenced to death by a firing squad. The sentence was carried out on 15 October 1917 in Vincennes near Paris. She was 41.• To many she remains the unfortunate victim of a hysterical section of the French press and public determined to root out evidence of a non-existent enemy within, a scapegoat attractive as much for her curious profession as for her crimes.
Why Did the United States Enter the War?• German submarines were attacking merchant and passenger ships carrying American citizens. In May 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania, killing 1,200 passengers, including 120 Americans.• Many Americans felt ties of culture and language to Britain and sympathized with France as another democracy.• In early 1917, the British intercepted a telegram sent by German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman. It revealed that, in exchange for Mexican support, Germany had offered to help Mexico reconquer New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.
Steps to War!1. The Lusitania is sunk! (1915)2. Zimmerman Telegram discovered (1917)3. Sussex pledge broken—unrestricted submarine warfare is back!4. Lenin freed from German jail, goes back to Russia, and the Russians desert the Allies for their Revolution.5. We declare war on Germany/The Central Powers on April 2, 1917.
Propaganda and Rationing Food Management/Distribution Can-do McAdoo, Herbert Hoover, George Creel, & Bernard BaruchEverything was all about Liberty!
Propaganda—Plain & Simple British soldiers are Tommies; Germans are Fritz or Krauts; & we’re the YanksOur soldiers will be called “doughboys” in this war; GI’s will be in WWII.
Bonds areloansto thegovernmentto help thempayfor the war.We callthemUS Savingsbondsnow.
The Zimmerman Telegram • The German ambassador Zimmerman telegraphs the Mexican ambassador with a proposition. The British intercept it and decode it for US. • The Kaiser is offering Mexico choice parts of the US (CA, TX, NM) if they attack US and keep US off balance during The Great War. • This angers US so much that we will join the Allies against Germany.
• It is unrestricted U-boat activity in the North Atlantic that makes US finally ditch Isolationism & join the war.
Jeanette RankinJeannette Pickering Rankin (June 11,1880 – May 18, 1973) was the firstwoman to be elected to the UnitedStates House of Representatives andthe first female member of theCongress sometimes referred to as theLady of the House.A lifelong pacifist and feminist, she votedagainst the entry of the United States intoboth World War I and World War II, theonly member of Congress to vote againstthe latter.To date, she is the only woman to beelected to Congress from Montana.
The Great War/ Facts / Statistics Dates: 1917-1918 World War I Troops: 4,734,991 Deaths: 116,516• Americans reluctantly entered Europe’s “Great War” and tipped the balance to Allied victory. In part the nation was responding to threats to its own economic and diplomatic interests. But it also wanted, in the words of President Woodrow Wilson, to “make the world safe for democracy.” The United States emerged from the war a significant, but reluctant, world power.• The Yanks Are Coming!• Under unprecedented government direction, American industry mobilized to produce weapons, equipment, munitions, and supplies. Nearly one million women joined the workforce. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the South migrated north to work in factories.• Two million Americans volunteered for the army, and nearly three million were drafted. More than 350,000 African Americans served, in segregated units. For the first time, women were in the ranks, nearly 13,000 in the navy as Yeoman (F) (for female) and in the marines. More than 20,000 women served in the Army and Navy Nurse Corps.• The first contingent of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), commanded by General John J. Pershing reached France in June, but it took time to assemble, train, and equip a fighting force. By spring 1918, the AEF was ready, first blunting a German offensive at Belleau Wood.
The Great War was without precedent ... never had so many nations taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so vast… never had the fighting been so gruesome..."• The World War of 1914-18 - The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe of the 20th century. Historians can easily identify the literal "smoking gun" that set the War in motion: a revolver used by a Serbian nationalist to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir apparent to the Austro- Hungarian throne) in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. But scholars are still debating the underlying causes. Was it the desire for greater empire, wealth and territory? A massive arms race? The series of treaties which ensured that once one power went to war, all of Europe would quickly follow? Was it social turmoil and changing artistic sensibilities brought about by the Industrial Revolution? Or was it simply a miscalculation by rulers and generals in power? The answer provided in "The Great War and The Shaping of the 20th Century" is that all of these volatile elements combined to set off a gigantic explosion we now know as World War I. "World War I marked the first use of chemical weapons, the first mass bombardment of civilians from the sky, and the centurys first genocide..."• True to the military alliances, Europes powers quickly drew up sides after the assassination. The allies -- chiefly Russia, France and Britain -- were pitted against the Central Powers -- primarily Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. Eventually, the War spread beyond Europe as the warring continent turned to its colonies and friends for help. This included the United States, which joined the War in 1917 when President Woodrow Wilson called on Americans to "make the world safe for democracy."
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen As a young cadet Manfred von Richthofen climbed a church steeple at Wahlstattand tied his handkerchief to its lighting rod, just for fun. He loved risk. He camefrom a wealthy Junker family and in his youth enjoyed hunting and riding horses.When the war broke out Manfred was a cavalry officer and saw duty on both theEastern and Western fronts scouting for the German Army. By May of 1915 hewas bored with scouting and asked to be transferred to the Flying service.On September 17, 1916, Richthofen recorded his first aerial combat victory.Before his career was over he shot down eighty allied aircraft and was the leadingace of the war. As his success increased so did his popularity with the Germanpeople. He was showered with military decorations and treated like a hero by theGermans. His flaming red Fokker airplane became infamous to the troops in thetrenches. In the air he embodied deadly grace and his experience as a hunterhelped him as a pilot. By 1918 he had become such a legend that it was fearedthat his death would be a blow to the morale of the German people. His superiorsasked him to retire, but he refused as long as there were still troops in thetrenches. He began to get more depressed and the emotional weight of beingresponsible for so many deaths began to press on him. On April 21, 1918, hiscareer ended when he was shot down over enemy lines by Roy Brown of Canada.His opponents had so much respect for the noble flyer, that he was given a hero’sfuneral.
Curse you, Red Baron! Snoopy, the WWI flying Ace in his Sopwith CamelWho put the fatal bullet into the Red Baron as heclosed in on Canadian Wilfrid May along the SommeRiver on April 21, 1918? Theories abound. Mostfolks believe that Canadian Roy Brown got him. Various Allied gunners on the ground claimed to have shot the Baron down. To whom that honor truly belongs will likely never be known.
Over There, Over There• The Americans entered a war that was deadlocked. Opposing armies were dug in, facing each other in trenches that ran nearly 500 miles across northern France—the notorious western front. Almost three years of horrific fighting resulted in huge losses, but no discernable advantage for either side.• American involvement in the war was decisive. Within eighteen months, the sheer number of American “doughboys” added to the lines ended more than three years of stalemate. Germany agreed to an armistice on November 11, 1918.• Machine guns, poison gas, and a variety of other weapons killed tens of thousands on both sides, but far more troops died under the rain of artillery shells. The dead—often just parts of bodies—were carried back from the front lines. Frequently, an American ambulance driver noted, “there wasn’t anything left to bring.”• Two million men in the American Expeditionary Force went to France. Some 1,261 combat veterans—and their commander, General Pershing—were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the nation’s second-highest award for extraordinary heroism. Sixty-nine American civilians also received the award.
“Over there, over there” “Over there, over there, Send the word, send the word over there, That the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming… We’ll be over, we’re coming over, And we won’t come back till it’s over Over there.” —George M. Cohan, from the song “Over There,” written in 1917 On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany.A young woman bids farewell to her sweetheart
Mademoiselle from Armentieres |: Mademoiselle from Armentieres, 5 . |: Mademoiselle from gay Paree "Parley or Three German Officers crossed the Rhine Parlez-vous, :| voo" Mademoiselle from Armentieres, Mademoiselle from gay Paree "Parley voo" She hasnt been kissed for forty years, Mademoiselle from gay Paree Chorus: You certainly did play heck with me Hinky-dinky parlez-vous. Chorus: 2. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres, 6. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres, Parlez-vous :| Parlez-vous :| She got the palm and the croix de guerre, The cooties rambled through her hair; For washin soldiers underwear, She whispered sweetly "Cest la guerre." Chorus: Chorus: 3. |: The Colonel got the Croix de Guerre, 7. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres, Parlez-vous :| Parlez-vous :| The Colonel got the Croix de Guerre, Shell do it for wine, shell do it for rum, The son-of-a-gun was never there! And sometimes for chocolate or chewing gum! Chorus: Chorus: 8. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres, 4. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres, Parlez-vous :| Parlez-vous :| You might forget the gas and shells You didnt have to know her long, But youll nevr forget the Mademoiselles! To know the reason men go wrong! Chorus: Chorus: 9. |: Oh, Mademoiselle from Armentieres,http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZNAoYsgSYY Parlez-vous :|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Db5uGDcG0Rw Where are the girls who used to swarmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6k9XZB6O26w About me in my uniform?
In 1917, The United States declared war onCampaign Germany.to Victory By 1918, about two million American soldiers had joined the Allies on the Western Front.“LaFayette,we are here!” The Germans launched a huge offensive, pushing the Allies back. The Allies launched a counteroffensive, driving German forces back across France and Germany. Germany sought an armistice, or agreement to end fighting, with the Allies. On November 11, 1918, the war ended.
American Troops “Over There”The arrival of freshAmerican troops inEurope throughout 1918helped turn the tide of thewar in favor of the Allies.Recruitment posters, likethe one above, inspiredsoldiers to enlist.How was the experienceof American soldiersdifferent from that ofother Allied soldiers?
Sergeant Alvin C. YorkYork, 1919, • Born Alvin Cullum York, December 13, 1887, in Pall Mall,in the Argonne Tennessee. • His life was turned around by a woman, Gracie Williams, who convinced him to give up his worldly ways and go to church. Formed long held and firm religious beliefs as a result. • Drafted in 1917. • Impressed the regular army officers with his ability to use a gun. Shot accurately at ranges of 200, 300 and 500 yards. Struggled with the moral issue of killing human beings, and refused to shoot at human silhouettes (targets). • At the battle of the Argonne Forest in the fall of 1918, as a member of the 82nd division, he killed 25 Germans, knocked out 35 machine guns, and captured 132 prisoners almost single-handed. • Received the French Medaille Militaire and Croix de Guerre, the 1887-1964 Italian Croce de Guerra and the American Medal of Honor. • Came home to the adulation of the American people, married Gracie Williams, and died in Nashville, Tenn. on September 2, 1964 after having a cerebral hemorrhage.
• "Sir, I am doing wrong. Practicing to kill people is against my religion." York, speaking of target practice at human silhouettes.• "What you did was the greatest thing accomplished by any private soldier of all the armies of Europe." Field Marshall Ferdinand Foch, on Yorks feat in the Argonne.• "This uniform aint for sale." York, on demands for his endorsement.• "Its over; lets just forget about it." Yorks modesty about the event that brought him the Medal of Honor.
Edward "Eddie" Vernon Rickenbacker1890-1973 • The son of Swiss immigrants, Rickenbacker was the American "Ace of Aces." He recorded 26 official victories against German aircraft during World War I and was awarded the Medal of Honor. Between WWI and WWII, Rickenbacker bought and administered the Indianapolis Speedway and became president of Eastern Airlines. In October 1942, he was aboard a B-17 bomber that crashed in the Pacific Ocean while on a secret mission to New Guinea. "Iron Man Eddie" and six companions survived 24 days afloat on life rafts. In 1995, the United States Postal Service issued a postage stamp in honor of Rickenbackers accomplishments as an aviation pioneer.
Edward V. Rickenbacker• Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)• "For extraordinary heroism in action near Montsec, France, 29 April 1918. Lt. Rickenbacker attacked an enemy Albatross monoplane and after a vigorous fight, in which he followed his foe into German territory, he succeeded in shooting it down near Vigneulles-les-Hatten-Chatel." DSC citation• Medal of Honor• "Edward V. Rickenbacker, Colonel, specialist reserve, then first lieutenant, 94th Aero Squadron, Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy near Billy, France, 25 September 1918. While on a voluntary patrol over the lines Lieutenant. Rickenbacker attacked seven enemy planes (five type Fokker protecting two type Halberstadt photographic planes). Disregarding the odds against him he dived on them and shot down one of the Fokkers out of control. He then attacked one of the Halberstadts and sent it down also..." Medal of Honor citation, awarded 6 November 1930
• World War I - More than 400,000 African-American troops fight against the Germans. * 6,000 of the 8,000 American Indians who fought were volunteers.
The Battle of Henry Johnson (1897-1929)• Henry Johnson’s claim to fame was his remarkable performance during WWI in France. Johnson, born in 1897 in Winston- Salem, North Carolina, moved to Albany, New York with his family when he was still a child. At the age of 20, Johnson worked as a “Red-cap” porter at the Albany train station. On June 5th of that ear, however, he signed up to fight in World War I and was eventually assigned to the all-black New York 369th Infantry Regiment better known as the “Harlem Hellfighters.”• Nearly four months into his Army enlistment, Johnson married Georgia Edna Jackson of Great Barrington, Massachusetts on September 17, 1917.
• Johnson and the other troops were trained in segregated Camp Wadsworth, South Carolina. Due to racial tensions between the black soldiers and the local red necks, Johnson’s regiment was shipped over to Europe earlier than others. They were attached to French units despite Black Jack Pershing’s order. (The French were not prejudiced along color lines.)• On January 1, 1918, the unit arrived in Brest, France and at first used as laborers and stevedores. By mid- March the 369th was sent to the front and attached to the 16th Division of the French Army.
• In 1923, he and his wife divorced. Denied work and without a pension, Johnson became an alcoholic and died in poverty and alone at the age of 32 in New York City on July 2, 1929.• He was, however, buried with full military honors in the Arlington National Cemetery just outside Washington, D.C.• On July 25, 1996 the U.S. Army awarded posthumously awarded Johnson a Purple Heart for his battle wounds. Six years later on March 19, 2002, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for bravery.
• On May 1, 1918, Johnson was promoted to sergeant. Fourteen days later, on the night of May 14, Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts were assigned to sentry duty at a bridge held by American forces.• They were ambushed by a 20 man German Army raiding party. Although Roberts was taken prisoner, Johnson killed four German soldiers in hand-to-hand combat, wounded twenty others and rescued Roberts.• His heroic stubborn defense of the bridge sent the other German soldiers into retreat. After this skirmish which was soon dubbed the Battle of Henry Johnson,” it was discovered that the sergeant was wounded 21 times. He was treated in a French hospital for bayonet wounds in the back, stabs on the left arm and knife cuts on the face and lips. Johnson was awarded the Croix de Guerre, France’s highest military honor, becoming the first enlisted American soldier to win the medal.
• Johnson went home a hero of World War I.• Discharged on February 14, 1919, he and the 369th received a tumultuous welcome when they paraded up New York City’s Fifth Avenue to Harlem. Johnson was personally greeted by New York Governor Alfred E. Smith and other officials when his train arrived in Albany. Despite the hero’s welcome which included discussions of a movie contract and proposals to name a street after him, Johnson, who was permanently disabled by his wounds, was never able to fully support himself in post-World War I America.
The extraordinary valor of the 369thearned them fame in Europe andAmerica. Newspapers headlinedthe feats of Corporal HenryJohnson and Private NeedhamRoberts. In May 1918 they weredefending an isolated lookout poston the Western Front, when theywere attacked by a German unit.Though wounded, they refused tosurrender, fighting on with whateverweapons were at hand. They were the first Americans awarded the Croix de Guerre, and they were not the only Harlem Hellfighters to win awards; 171 of its officers and men received individual medals and the unit received a Croix de Guerre for taking Sechault. Henry Johnson (left) and Needham Roberts (NARA photo)
Henry Johnson More than 83 years later, and following a campaign of several369th Infantry years, the US Army has agreed to posthumously award JohnsonAwarded DSC the countrys second-highest medal, the Distinguished Service Cross. Now senators Hillary Clinton and Charles Schumer have 14 Feb 2003 proposed legislation to enable Johnson to receive the ultimate recognition of his service, the Medal of Honor - and in doing so have focused fresh attention on a largely unrecognized episode in American military and racial history. The 369th Regiment from New York - the "Harlem Hellfighters" - were not conscripts. They were black soldiers who chose to sign up, despite the US militarys insistence that they would not be permitted to fight alongside white troops. Mostly low-paid laborers in Manhattans service sector - waiters, doormen, messengers - they were sent to South Carolina, a particularly racist state even by the standards of the time, for rudimentary training using wooden sticks for guns. Eventually, the army - facing a manpower crisis on the European frontline - reluctantly allowed them to fight. To avoid breaching segregation rules, they had them placed under the command of the French. "The French were horrified by the segregation, and by all these directives that came from the American high command instructing them not to praise the black troops, not to socialize with or speak to black officers outside of the line of duty," says Gail Buckley, author of American Patriots, a study of African-Americans in war. "The French command apparently ordered [General John] Pershings directives to be burned."
• And the Hellfighters did return to something like a heroes welcome. They had not been permitted to march in the farewell parade before their departure, but now they were at the helm of a tickertape parade that swept up Fifth Avenue into Harlem. But it was not to last. It was the summer of 1919, and the Ku Klux Klan was on the rise. The Harlem Hellfighters received no official American honors except the standard Purple Heart - "just a recognition that hed been wounded", says Herman Johnson. "In spite of what some people may think of black people, weve fought in every war this countrys ever had... Its a classic example of racism in our country." "For this American hero to be denied his due honors simply due to the color of his skin is a tragic yet blatant reminder of the rampant racism that existed in this nation during the first world war," said New York governor George Pataki recently. "The time is now to right this eight decades-long injustice, and finally recognize the valor, patriotism and grit of a man who was both a great New Yorker and an exemplary American soldier." Now, says John Howe, the Distinguished Service Cross "means the fable of Henry Johnson is no longer a fable. Its not the award he deserves, but it makes him an official part of American history. It makes him a real American hero. Hes not just a legend any more." Herman Johnson holds Sunday the Distinguished Service Cross awarded posthumously to his father, Sergeant Henry Johnson. John Howe, left, was a key fighter for recognition of Henry Johnsons heroism.
Broken Promises & Broken Dreams We return We return from fighting. We return fighting. -W.E.B. DuBois, after WWIThe world was perhaps not safe for democracy, but hypocrisy was on the run.
Cost in Dollars inCelebrating the Central Powers 1914-18Armistice Germany 37,775,000,000Around the globe,crowds celebrated the Austria-Hungary 20,622,960,000end of the war. Here, Turkey 1,430,000,000British and Americansoldiers and civilians Bulgaria 815,200,000wave the American andFrench flags in relief Total of all Costs 60,643,160,000and jubilation.
Deaths Wounded in Battle in BattleAlliesFrance 1,357,800 4,266,000British Empire 908,371 2,090,212Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000Italy 462,391 953,886United States 50,585 205,690Others 502,421 342,585Central PowersGermany 1,808,546 4,247,143Austria-Hungary 922,500 3,620,000Ottoman Empire 325,000 400,000
The Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference. Lloyd George,Vittorio Orlando, George Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilsonfrom Britain, Italy, France and the United States, respectively. The 11th day of the 11th month, on the 11th hour of 1918, the war ends as The Armistice was signed in a railroad car Germany and Allies sign an to cease "The War to End All Wars". A Armistice. bold, and later on, a false claim. That very same railroad car was the scene of the surrender of France to Germany in WWII.
At eleven oclock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice. It’s taken a bit longer than expected, but WWI is officially over. I know what you’re thinking; didn’t the first World War end in 1919 when Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the others sign the Treaty of Versailles with the US, British, and French in that train car? Well yes and no. The hostilities officially ended, but as part of the armistice, the Germans had to pay reparations to the French, British, and Americans for their actions during the war. Germany, with a last payment of $94 million dollars (or 59.5 million pounds) officially paid off WWI as of 9/29/2010!
Woodrow Wilson In 1916 Wilson ran on the slogan," he kept us out of war," and narrowly defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Even Hughes. Wilson managed to keep America out of the war until it was clear that Germanys submarine warfare would continue to claim American civilian lives. During the 976 days of neutrality Wilson repeatedly tried to negotiate for an end to the fighting, and called on all those involved to accept peace without victory. Facing the imminent defeat of France, and seeing no end to Germanys attacks on civilian shipping, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany 2-Apr-1917. Neutrality had ended, the nation was at war. United States Involvement in WW1 Wilson continued to work for an end to the fighting while mobilizing the nation for war. American forces led by General Pershing made a significant addition to the allied fighting force in both numbers and morale. When America entered the war France was on the verge of collapse. Within months the Germans agreed to an armistice based on Wilsons 14 points. It was clear that they could not continue.The Versailles Peace Conference "Punitive damages, the dismemberment of empire we deem childishand in the end less than futile" Wilson became the first President to leave the country while in office when he left forFrance aboard the S.S. George Washington 4-Dec-1918. Wherever he went in Europe hugecrowds gathered to cheer him on. His 14 points were very popular and the common people sawhim as the savior of France, and the greatest hope for world peace. His efforts, for the most part,would end in vain. British Prime Minister Lloyd George and French Prime Minister GeorgesClemenceau resisted most of his ideas. To them the goal was to punish Germany to theextent that it could never make war again. They both were very conscious of the revengefulattitude of constituents, and would not budge. Wilson, through much effort, did manage toprevent some of the more extreme punishments against Germany, and convinced the allies thata League of Nations was necessary. With these small victories in hand Wilson headed home.
1. There should be no secret alliances between countries Wilson’s2. Freedom of the seas in peace and war 14 Points3. The reduction of trade barriers among nations4. The general reduction of armaments5. The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers6. The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations7. The restoration of Belgian territories in Germany8. The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine9. The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality10. Independence for various national groups in Austria-Hungary11. The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia12. Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles13. Independence for Poland, including access to the sea14. A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike."
4 Wilson’s Fourteen PointsPresident Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, alist of his terms for resolving World War I and future wars.He called for:• freedom of the seas• free trade• large-scale reductions of arms• an end to secret treaties• self-determination, or the right of people to choose theirown form of government, for Eastern Europe• the creation of a “general association of nations” to keepthe peace in the future –The League of Nations
We refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles• Wilson ruins his health trying to get support for his League of Nations and the Treaty ratification, but his health fails—and then so does he. US signs a separate peace with Germany, and does not join the League of Nations, therefore dooming it to failure and another World War… We, the people, are the BOSS. Congress refuses to join the League of Nations and signs a separate peace. The American people do not override the decision.
• Wilson could not convince people at home that it was time for America to join the World Community. America had stepped back into isolationism, and would not be budged. The Congress was in Republican hands and was generally uncooperative with Wilson. Led by Wilsons longtime adversary Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, the Republicans insisted that certain parts of the League be altered. Wilson refused to make even the smallest concessions, fearing it would make it impotent. The Senate would not agree to the treaty so Wilson entered the final chapter of his relatively short political story. He decided to take the matter directly to the public.• His doctor warned him not to go. His wife begged him to reconsider. Wilson was determined and would not be turned back. The Senate would not listen to him, so he hoped to convince the public through an extensive speaking tour, and thus pressure the Senate into ratifying the treaty. The tour started out well. Enthusiastic supporters cheered him at each stop. Victory turned out to be beyond his grasp. Wilson’s fragile health halted the tour abruptly in Colorado. . "I dont seem to realize it," he commented to an advisor, "but I seem to have gone to pieces."• For the remainder of his administration Wilson was a near invalid. His wife, Edith Wilson, looked over him carefully and was suspected of making important decisions for him. His hope was not shattered, but his body was, and that handicap was insurmountable. Wilson lived on until 1924, but never fully regained his mental or physical abilities.• He died with his wife by his side, confident to the end that wrongs would be righted, and that Americas mission would be fulfilled. His last words were "Edith,(his wife) Im a broken machine, but Im ready."
LegacyHis influence has been significant. During his tenure there were 3 amendments to the constitution. The Seventeenth provided for the direct election of United States Senators.The Eighteenth prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors. The Nineteenth, guaranteed suffrage for women. His legislative successes included the Federal Reserve Act, the Clayton Anti- trust Act, Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, and the Adamson Act which established the eight-hour work day on railroads. According to Henry Kissinger, his foreign policy has shaped 20th Century United States policy like no other.He was a man known for his principles, drawn from the pages of the Bible and the doctrine of the Presbyterians. He was an unusual president in that he had years of thinking and writing the philosophy of government, but little in the way of political experience. In the end he may be remembered more for his failure concerning the League of Nations than his progressive reform.Wilson served in an era before Watergate, and before all of the scandals that have reduced faith in government to tired cynicism. Wilson was a great man in an age when people still believed in great men.Epilogue : "I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." Woodrow Wilson, 1919
Americas last World War I veteran dies Frank Buckles lied about his age to get into uniform• MORGANTOWN, West Virginia — Frank Buckles, the last surviving U.S. veteran of World War I, has died, February 27, 2011. He was 110.• Buckles lied about his age to join the army at age 16.The Missouri native was among nearly 5 million Americans who served in World War I in 1917 and 1918.
American Lives Lost: Cause of Overseas Domestic Total DeathKilled in Action 36,926 5 36,931Died of Wounds 13,628 45 13,673Died of Accident 2,557 1,946 4,503Drowned 328 399 727Committed 296 671 967 SuicideMurdered 159 159 318Executed 11 25 36Other Deaths 131 190 321Total 54,036 3,440 57,476
5The Paris Peace ConferenceThe delegates to the Paris Peace Conference faced manydifficult issues:• The Allied leaders had different aims.• The Italians insisted that the Allies honor their secret agreement to gain Austria-Hungary. Such secretagreements violated Wilson’s principle of self-determination.• Many people who had been ruled by Russia, Austria-Hungary, or the Ottoman empire now demanded nationalstates of their own. The territories claimed by these peopleoften overlapped, so it was impossible to satisfy them all.
5 The Treaty of VersaillesThe Treaty: • forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war. • imposed huge reparations upon Germany. Russia was not included in any negotiations.The Treaty aimed at weakening Germany by: • limiting the size of the German military, • returning Alsace and Lorraine to France, • removing hundreds of miles of territory from Germany, • stripping Germany of its overseas colonies.The Germans signed the treaty because they had no choice, butGerman resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison theinternational climate for 20 years and lead to an even deadlier worldwar. Humiliated, bankrupt, and broken, Germany will vow revenge!
Lenin (1870–1924) was the son of a teacher and his wifewho lived in a little town on the Volga River. Vladimir livedwith his parents and five siblings in a rented wing of alarge house. By all accounts it was a happy home.Vladimir excelled at school and looked up to his olderbrother Alexander. But when Vladimir was 16, his fatherdied. When he was 17, his beloved brother Alexanderwas hanged for plotting to kill the tsar.Still reeling from the death of his brother, Vladimirenrolled at Kazan University. There he met otherdiscontented young people. They united to protest thelack of student freedom in the university. Within threemonths, Vladimir was expelled for his part in thedemonstrations. VladimirHow do you think Lenin’s early life affected his later Ilyichpolitical ideas? Lenin
The Treaty of Brest-Litovskwas a peace treaty signed on March3, 1918 between the RussianSFSR and the Central Powers, butprior to that on February 9, 1918,the Central Powers signed anexclusive protectorate treaty withthe Ukrainian Peoples Republic aspart of the negotiations that tookplace in Brest-Litovsk, MinskGovernorate (now Brest, Belarus)recognizing the sovereignty of therepublic. Although not formallyannexing the territory of the formerRussian Empire, theGermany and Austria-Hungary secured a food supplysupport in return for the militaryprotection.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin• Lenin (1870–1924) was the son of a teacher and his wife who lived in a little town on the Volga River. Vladimir lived with his parents and five siblings in a rented wing of a large house. By all accounts it was a happy home. Vladimir excelled at school and looked up to his older brother Alexander. But when Vladimir was 16, his father died. When he was 17, his beloved brother Alexander was hanged for plotting to kill the tsar.• Still reeling from the death of his brother, Vladimir enrolled at Kazan University. There he met other discontented young people. They united to protest the lack of student freedom in the university. Within three months, Vladimir was expelled for his part in the demonstrations.• How do you think Lenin’s early life affected his later political ideas?
Rasputin, the Mad Monk• During the fateful last evening of Rasputins life, the conspirators drugged with poisoned wine (he had taken enough cyanide to kill six men), poisoned with cyanide in the cakes, shot at point blank range, beaten, and then dumped in the river. Yet the monk survived all of these and actually died by drowning when his body, wrapped in a carpet was thrown into the Moika Canal on the Neva River. Rasputins corpse was discovered under the ice of the Neva on December 19. His hands had been untied and there was water in his lungs. He died from drowning.
Tsar NicholasThe Last of the of Russia Romanovs • The Romanovs were murdered by the Bolshevik guards, machine- gunned to death, thus eliminating the threat of a counter-coup by the supporters of the Czar. Rumors Nicholas II, Olga, The Last of the persisted that Tatiana, Marie, Romanovs: L to R: Olga, Marie, Anastasia had Anastasia, and Alexei Nicholas II, Alexandra, escaped this fate. (photo taken by Anastasia, Alexei, Alexandra) Tatiana
Anastasia Lives?Most persistent was the claim that the Tsar’s youngest daughter,the Grand Duchess Anastasia, survived. (Anastasia is Greek for“the woman who rose again.”) Only 17 at the time of theexecution, the Russian report had it that she had not been hit bybullets (some may have ricocheted off her jewelry) but merelyfainted. She revived moments later in a pool of her family’s bloodand began screaming. At this point she was run through withmany bayonets and bludgeoned to death. This much wasreported and this much was confirmed in recent excavations. The Anastasia rumors lived, bolstered perhaps by her failure todie in the initial volley. As early as 1925 Grand Duchess Olga(the Tsar’s sister) interviewed one Anna Anderson in Berlin.Anderson was a young woman with a history of mental illness,and Olga quickly rejected her claim to be Anastasia. Yet justthree years later the first of at least four books was publishedclaiming Anna Anderson was Anastasia. One, purporting to be afirst-person account, titled I am Anastasia, was even rejected asa forgery by Anderson herself. Her claim was featured in a 1956cover article in Life. Over the years additional faux-Anastasiasappeared, many of them interviewed and rejected by Olga, whodied in 1960. The Anastasia mania inspired four films, five plays,a musical, two ballets, two TV shows, and a 1956 song by PatBoone. Ingrid Bergman copped an Oscar for her role in the 1956eponymously titled movie.
Lenin• Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism.• "Lenin" was one of his revolutionary pseudonyms. He is believed to have created it to show his opposition to Georgi Plekhanov who used the pseudonym Volgin, after the Volga River; Ulyanov picked the Lena which is longer and flows in the opposite direction. However, there are many theories on where his name came from and he himself is not known to have ever stated exactly why he chose it. He is sometimes erroneously referred to in the West as "Nikolai Lenin", though he has never been known as such in Russia.• Lenin was chilling in a German jail until his sudden release. He was put on a train back to Russia and he fomented a revolution that took Russia out of The Great War.
Key Events in the Russian Revolution1914–1917 World War I pressures Russia.March 1917 March Revolution causes tsar toabdicate; the provisional government takes power.November 1917 Bolsheviks under Lenin toppleprovisional government (November Revolution).
1 Russian Civil War How did the Communists defeat their opponents in Russia’s civil war? Lenin quickly made peace with Germany so that the Communists could focus all their energy on defeating enemies at home. The Communists adopted a policy called “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads, took control of food produced by peasants, and drafted peasant laborers into military or factory work. Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force. When the Allies intervened to support the Whites, the Communists appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners.
Famine in RussiaYears of war took its toll on Russian people, like thesestarving families in the Volga region. An Americanjournalist, accompanying an international relief team inRussia, described the horrible desolation. In village aftervillage, he noted, “no one stirred from the little woodenhouse…where Russian families were hibernating andwaiting for death.”
Lenin died in 1924 at the age of 54. His deathset off a power struggle among Communistleaders. The chief contenders were Trotskyand Joseph Stalin. Trotsky was a brilliantMarxist thinker, a skillful speaker, and anarchitect of the Bolshevik Revolution. Stalin,by contrast, was neither a scholar nor anorator. He was, however, a shrewd politicaloperator and behind-the-scenes organizer.Trotsky and Stalin differed on the future ofcommunism. Trotsky urged support for aworldwide revolution against capitalism. Stalin,more cautious, wanted to concentrate onbuilding socialism at home first.Eventually, Stalin isolated Trotsky within theparty and stripped him of party membership.Trotsky fled the country in 1929, but continuedto criticize Stalin. In 1940, a Stalinist agentmurdered Trotsky in Mexico. Lenin’s embalmed body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924.
Leon Trotsky was a close friend of Lenin and shared idealistic ideas about the Communist state. He can be seen with Lenin in both photos.But Trotsky was deported in1929 and declared “an enemy of the State”, as athreat to Stalin’s power, so Stalin had Trotsky airbrushed out of the pix. Many others will be “erased”. Some for real!
The Case of the Vanishing CommissarStalin’s enemies just seem todisappear!Nikolai Yezhov, chief of theSoviet secret policeKnew where too many bodieswere buried, so he is made tovanish.
2 Soviet Foreign PolicyBetween 1917 and 1939, the Soviet Union pursued twovery different goals in foreign policy.As Communists, both Lenin and Stalin wanted to bringabout the worldwide revolution that Marx hadpredicted.• Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, whichaided revolutionary groups around the world.As Russians, they wanted to guarantee their nation’ssecurity by winning the support of other countries.•The Soviet Union sought to join the League of Nations.The Comintern’s propaganda against capitalism madewestern powers highly suspicious of the Soviet Union.
3 A Totalitarian StateStalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. Inthis form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts toregulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens.• To ensure obedience, Stalin used secret police (theKGB), censorship, violent purges, and terror.• The party bombarded the public with relentlesspropaganda.• The Communists replaced religion with their ownideology.
Widespread Dissatisfaction 5Eastern Europe remained a center of conflict.Colonized peoples from Africa to the Middle East and acrossAsia were angry that self-determination was not applied tothem.Italy was angry because it did not get all the lands promised ina secret treaty with the Allies.Japan was angry that western nations refused to honor itsclaims in China.Russia resented the reestablishment of a Polish nation andthree Baltic states on lands that had been part of the Russianempire.
5World War I: Cause and Effect Long-Term Causes Immediate CausesImperialist and economic rivalries among Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia andEuropean powers HerzegovinaEuropean alliance system Fighting in the BalkansMilitarism and arms race Assassination of Archduke Francis FerdinandNationalist tensions in Balkans German invasion of Belgium Immediate Effects Long-Term EffectsEnormous cost in lives and moneyRussian Revolution Economic impact of war debts on EuropeCreation of new nations in Eastern Europe Emergence of United States and Japan as important powersRequirement that Germany pay reparations Growth of nationalism in coloniesGerman loss of its overseas colonies Rise of fascismBalfour Declaration World War IILeague of Nations
How did the poppy become a symbol of remembrance? • Flanders is the name of the whole western part of Belgium. It saw some of the most concentrated and bloodiest fights at the first world war . There was complete devastation: buildings, roads, trees and natural life is simply disappeared. Where once there were homes and farms, there was now a sea of mud and graves for the dead where the men still lived and fought. • Only one other living thing survived and that was the poppy ,flowering each year with the coming of the warm weather brought life, hope, color and reassurance to those still fighting. • Poppies on flower thrive in uprooted soil. Their seeds can lay in the ground for years without germinating and will only grow after the ground has been disturbed.
In Flanders Fields the poppies blowBetween the crosses, row on row In FlandersThat mark our place; and in the sky Fields The larks, still bravely singing, flyScarce heard amid the guns below.We are the Dead.Short days agoWe lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,Loved and were loved, and now we lie,In Flanders Fields.Take up our quarrel with the foeTo you from failing hands we throwThe torch; be yours to hold it high.If ye break faith with us who dieWe shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders Fields. John McCrae 1915
By 1918 the poem was well known throughout the allied world. Moina Michael, an American woman, wrote these lines in reply. We cherish too, the Poppy red That grows on fields where valor led, It seems to signal to the skies That blood of heroes never dies.She then adopted the custom of wearing a red poppy in memory of the sacrifices of war and also as a symbol of keeping the faith.
• Since it began in 1921, the Poppy Appeal has raised over £518m for war veterans and their families. Poppies will go on sale this weekend but after the death of the last British World War One veteran, Sam Wood asks whether the poppy is still relevant• MY granddad tells me about what it was like to grow up during the war with the rationing and everything," says 10-year-old Megan Armstrong. "Soldiers fought and died to save this country and we should remember that."• Megan and her classmates at Canning Street Primary School in Newcastle will be among 40 million people who buy poppies as part of the Royal British Legion’s annual campaign this year. In the North East alone 200,000 veterans and their families are eligible for support, and £10,000 is distributed every week in the region.
• But after the death of the last surviving World War One veteran Harry Patch earlier this year, questions have been raised about whether the poppy – a symbol of the killing fields of the Great War – is still relevant today.• Dr Martin Farr, of the School of Historical Studies at Newcastle University, said it would be almost impossible to come up with a symbol as powerful and simple as the poppy. He said: "Current conflicts add resonance and make people think. Some of the images we have seen coming back from Iraq and Afghanistan have been shocking and that will strengthen the support for the appeal I would think. "If you paid an expensive London advertising company top money, they could not come up with a better symbol than the poppy. It is just so simple and gets the message across. There are still legs in it even after the sad death of Harry Patch.
• A French woman, Madam Guerin, visiting the United States, learned of the custom and took it one step further. When she returned to France she decided to hand make the red poppies and sell them to raise money for the benefit of the orphaned and destitute women and children in war-torn areas of France.• This tradition spread to The United Kingdom, Canada, The United States and Australia and is still followed today. The money collected from the sale of poppies goes to fund various veterans programs.