Section 1: The Western World: An Overview
Section 2: The Western European Democracies
Section 3: North American Prosperity
Section 4: The Soviet Union: Rise and
Fall of a Superpower
Section 5: A New Era in Eastern Europe
The Western World: An Overview
• What issues troubled Europe after the Cold War?
• How have recent economic and political trends
affected the West?
• How has Europe moved toward greater unity?
• How have social trends changed the West?
Europe After the Cold War
• Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe turned to the West for loans and
investments to build capitalist economies. The Russian Mafia offers “protection”
and threatens capitalism.
• Ethnic clashes, especially in the Balkans, created conflicts that threatened
European peace. UN and Clinton sent troops; Kosovo is its own area. Milosevic
with ethnic cleansing of Serbia—killing Muslim Croats.
• The nuclear peril, although reduced, still remains. Accidents like Chernobyl
affect globe, although Germany and France rely on nuclear power; unaccounted
for nukes make us all fret.
• NATO faced the debate as to whether it should become Europe’s peacekeeper
and protector of human rights. Is UN enough? IMF, World Bank, and NGOs (all
try to step up, but tend to meddle)
Economic and Political Trends
Postwar governments in France, Italy, and Germany adopted many
policies favored by the left.: Socialist coalitions
THE WELFARE THE OIL SHOCK ECONOMIC
The West faced growing
After 1945, governments In 1973, OPEC cut oil competition from other
extended the welfare production and raised parts of the world,
state. prices. causing many factories
Governments took on a The higher prices caused to close.
larger role in national inflation and slowed Economies changed
economies. economic growth. when most new jobs
Conservatives In 1979, OPEC again raised were created in service
condemned the drift prices, triggering a severe industries.
from the free enterprise recession, in which business The gap between the
system toward socialism. slowed and unemployment rich and the poor grew.
Welfare-State Spending in Britain, 1975 – 1980
Toward European Unity
• In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the
Netherlands, and Luxembourg — set up the European Coal and
Steel Community. This agency set prices and regulated the coal
and steel industries of member states.
• In 1957, the same six nations formed the European Community
(EC) or Common Market. Its goal was free trade. It also set up
the European Parliament.
• In 1973, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted to the
• In the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market expanded and took
on the name European Union (EU). The EU pushed for complete
economic unity and greater political unity. Started as a free trade
zone, but this success led to greater cooperation.
1957 – 2000
Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Maastricht
Global Trade/Trade Blocs
• Trade blocs have a range of reasons to “protect” the trade interests of their region:
(1) To establish some form of regional control regarding trade that fulfills the
interests of nations within that region;
(2) To establish tariffs that protect intra-regional trade from “outside” forces;
(3) To promote regional security and political concerns or to develop trade in such as
way as to enhance the security in the region;
(4) To promote South-to-South trade, e.g., between Africa and Asia, and between
Latin American countries;
(5) To promote economic and technical cooperation among developing countries
• They also use several measures to restrain global competition:
(1) import quotas (limiting the amount of imports into the country so that domestic
consumers buy products made by their countries in their region);
(2) customs delays (establishing bureaucratic formalities that slow down the ability
for the imported product from abroad to enter the domestic market;
(3) subsidies (government financial assistances toward sectors of the home economy
so that they have an influx of capital);
(4) boycotts and technical barriers;
(5) bribes and voluntary restraints.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an
international organization designed by its
founders to supervise and liberalize
international trade. The organization officially
commenced on January 1, 1995 under the
Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which
commenced in 1947.
• In Europe, the Maastricht Treaty, which succeeded the Treaty of Rome and called for the
creation of a union (and hence the change in name from European Community to European
Union), created a monetary union and has the ultimate goal of creating a political union, with
member countries switch adopting a common currency and a common central bank. A monetary
union represents the fourth level of integration among politically independent countries.
• The European Union (EU) consists of fifteen countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the
United Kingdom). On January 1, 1999, the eleven countries of the so-called euro-zone (excluding
EU members Denmark, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) embarked on a venture that
created the world's second-largest economic zone, after the United States. The seeds for the euro
were sown three decades ago. In 1969, Pierre Werner, a former prime minister of Luxembourg,
was asked to chair a think-tank on how an European monetary union (EMU) could be achieved by
1980. The Werner Report, published in October 1970, outlined a three-phase plan that was very
similar to the blueprint ultimately adopted in the Maastricht Treaty, signed on February 7, 1992.
Like the Maastricht Treaty, the plan envisioned the replacement of local currencies by a single
currency. However, the EMU was put on hold following the monetary chaos created by the first oil
crisis. The next step on the path to monetary union was the creation of the European monetary
system (EMS) in the late 1970s. Except for the United Kingdom, all member states of the European
Union joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), which determined bilateral currency exchange
rates. Currencies of the, by then, nine member states could still fluctuate, but movements were
limited to a margin of 2.25 percent. The EMS also led to the European currency unit (ecu)—in
some sense the predecessor of the euro. Note the ecu never became a physical currency.
Migration to Western Europe
their populations have
Social Trends Social change speeded up after 1945.
SOCIAL CLASSES ETHNIC DIVERSITY
Since the 1950s, many immigrants from
Class lines blurred as prosperity spread. former colonies in Asia, Africa, and the
More and more people joined the middle Caribbean had settled in Europe.
class. Some Europeans resented the
Most people faced greater opportunities. Many immigrants faced discrimination
WOMEN FAMILY LIFE
Women in the West made progress
Western families had fewer children
toward legal and economic equality.
than in the past.
Women narrowed the gender gap in
Children stayed in school longer.
hiring, promotion, and pay.
The divorce rate climbed.
The Western European Democracies
• How did Britain’s policies change after World War II?
• How did French power and prosperity revive?
• How did Germany reunify?
• What problems have other democratic nations faced?
Britain: Changing Policies
WORLD 1970s 1990s
WAR II Present
Voters Voters elected Voters elected
New PM just elected:
THE elected the the Conservative the Labour party,
David Cameron and
which pledged to
WEL- Labour party party and
follow a “third
Nick Clegg with a
and created reduced social Coalition of political
FARE the welfare welfare
STATE state. programs. right and left.
Britain gave up British
WORLD global Britain joined nationalism Britain has backed
leadership to the US in efforts
ROLE the Common led some
the United To combat terrorism.
Market. leaders to EU membership solid,
States, but reject but refuses to give up
remained a greater local currency at
leader in the European home.
UN and NATO. unity.
France: Revival and Prosperity
France emerged from World War II greatly weakened.
The Fourth Republic, set up in 1946, was ineffective. Bloody colonial wars in
Algeria and Vietnam drained and demoralized the country.
In 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the Fifth Republic. He made peace with
Algeria and gave up other French colonies and worked to restore French
prestige and power.
In the 1980s, French socialists, led by Francois Mitterand, won power as a global
recession hit. The economic crisis forced Mitterand to encourage the growth of
In 1995, Jacques Chirac took a very conservative approach and cut government
spending. Over the years, France has built the fourth largest economy in the
world, but had huge unemployment and fears immigration creating too much
Nicholas Sarkozy is in and actually likes the US. Mon Dieu!
How Did Germany Reunify?
• In 1969, West German chancellor Willy Brandt tried to
ease tensions with East Germany.
• In 1989, as Soviet communism declined, Germany was
able to move toward reunification. Without Soviet
backing, East German leaders were ousted. People from
both Germanys tore down the Berlin Wall.
• In 1990, German votes approved reunification.
Other Democratic Nations
Political divisions and regional Spain was economically
differences led to instability. underdeveloped with a large peasant
Corruption, financial scandals, and population.
the Mafia added to the instability. When Francisco Franco finally died,
Despite these problems, Italy made Spain adopted a democratic gov’t.
economic gains and ranked as a The Spanish economy grew rapidly.
leading industrial nation.
Portugal was economically In 1967, military rulers came to
underdeveloped with a large peasant power.
population. Greece and Turkey almost went to
When the authoritarian government war over Cyprus.
finally collapsed, Portugal adopted a In 1975, Greece returned to
democratic government. democratic rule.
Portugal’s economy grew rapidly. But the economy is rocky!
North American Prosperity
• What actions has the United States taken as a global superpower?
• What developments have shaped the economy, government, and
society of the United States?
• What issues has Canada faced in recent years?
The United States: A Global Superpower
The United States built bases overseas and organized military
alliances from Europe to Southeast Asia.
The United States provided economic aid to help Europe rebuild
and to assist emerging nations.
The United States became involved in the Korean and Vietnam wars
in hopes of preventing the spread of communism.
As conflicts erupted in various regions, the United States tried to
resolve some of them:
• In 1991, it led a multinational force against Iraqi invaders of
•We have removed the Taliban fromAfghanistan and are still looking
for Osama there.
• It provided peacekeeping forces to end bloody civil wars in
Bosnia and Kosovo.
American Economy and Government
In the postwar decades, American During the 1960s, the government
businesses expanded into markets expanded social programs to help
around the globe. the poor and disadvantaged.
American industries faced competition
from Asian and other nations. In the 1980s, conservatives
The government’s role in the economy challenged the growth of
grew. government and reduced spending
on social programs. At the same
In the 1980s, government spending and time, military spending increased.
tax cuts greatly increased the national
budget deficit. America entered the twenty-first
century enjoying peace, prosperity,
In the 1990s, the economy rebounded and unrivaled military power.
due to Reaganomics!
The US economy suffered a recession And then 911!
Civil Rights and Society
During the 1950s and 1960s, many social changes took place.
Some were linked to the civil rights movement that set out to end
discrimination and ensure equal rights for all Americans.
• Many states denied equality to various minority groups. They
faced legal segregation, or separation, in education and
housing, and discrimination in jobs and voting.
• By 1956, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as a leader of the
civil rights movement. King organized boycotts and led
peaceful marches to end segregation in the United States.
• Congress outlawed segregation. Despite this, racial prejudice
survived and poverty and unemployment still plagued many
What Issues Has Canada Faced in Recent Years?
• Since the 1950s, Canada has become increasingly
diverse, with newcomers from Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin
America, and the Caribbean.
• Quebec’s French-speaking people demanded more
autonomy within Canada. Some Canadians favored
separatism. They voted 2x, but did not separate.
• Many Canadians have resented the cultural domination
of their neighbor, the United States.
• Economic competition with the United States led to the
creation of the North American Free Trade Association
• Canada and the United States agreed to work together
for a common solution to the problem of pollution.
The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a
• What ideas guided Soviet political, economic, and foreign policy?
• Why did the Soviet Union collapse?
• What problems have Russia and the other republics faced since
the fall of the Soviet Union?
Soviet Government and Economy
Khrushchev pursued a policy of de- Collectivized agriculture remained
Stalinization and sought a thaw in the Cold unproductive.
Brezhnev suppressed dissidents, people The Soviet Union could not match the free-
who spoke out against the government. market economies of the West in producing
The Soviet Union rebuilt its shattered People spent hours waiting on line to buy
industries. food and other goods.
Citizens enjoyed benefits such as low rent, Because workers had lifetime job security,
cheap bread, free health care, and day care they had little incentive to produce better-
for children. quality goods.
Soviet Foreign Policy
EASTERN DEVELOPING UNITED STATES
Stalin and his The Soviet Union Soviet-American
successors asserted sought allies among relations swung back
Soviet control over the developing and forth between
Eastern Europe. nations. confrontation and
Khrushchev set up the The Soviets offered
Warsaw Pact to military and economic
suppress dissent aid in order to win and
within Eastern Europe. keep allies.
Collapse of the Soviet Union: Cause and Effect
Long- Immediate Effects
Low output of crops War with Afghanistan Soviet Union breaks up
and consumer goods into 15 republics
Food and fuel Russian republic
Cold War led to high shortages approves a new
Demonstrations in the
Changeover to market
Ethnic and nationalist Baltic states economy in Russia
movements Cold War ends
Gorbachev’s rise to Yeltsin to Putin to
Denial of rights and power Mevedev
freedoms War in Chechnya
Problems in The Russian Republic
• The changeover to a market economy caused unemployment to soar
and prices to skyrocket.
• Criminals flourished, and gangs preyed on the new business class.
• In 1998, Russia defaulted, or failed to make payments, on much of
its foreign debt.
• The value of Russia’s currency collapsed. People lost their savings
and their jobs. Suddenly, the good old days look good!
• Minorities within Russia sought greater autonomy or independence.
Countries with resources and wealth decide to bail.
The Other Republics
• The new nations faced unrest, corruption, and political divisions.
• In some countries, authoritarian rulers gained power.
• Ethnic conflict erupted in republics with a mix of national groups.
• Other conflicts arose over border disputes.
• The new nations endured hard times as they switched to market
A New Era in Eastern Europe
• How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet
domination and strive for democracy?
• What were the effects of the fall of communism?
• What were the causes and effects of civil war in
Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe
1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much of Eastern
1949 Most Eastern European countries are under communist rule.
1956 Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact and ends one-party rule;
Soviet troops crush Hungarian uprising.
1968 Czechoslovakia introduces reforms; Soviets use force to restore
communist dictatorship. Alexander Dubchek was Gorby’s hero! The
“Velvet revolution” breaks it into two countries.
1980 Polish government, under Soviet pressure, cracks down on trade
union movement and arrests its leaders. Lech Walesa and Solidarity.
Fall of Communist Governments
• Eastern European countries withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and
requested that Soviet troops leave.
• Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments and
• The many changes contributed to rising inflation, high unemploy-
ment, and crime waves.
• Consumer goods became more plentiful, but many people could
not afford them.
• Former communists were sometimes returned to office when
people became disillusioned with reform.
• In the 1990s, Eastern European nations looked to the West for
• Ethnic tension arose in some areas, especially Balkans/Yugoslavia.
Civil War in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia consisted of a broad Tens of thousands of Bosnian
mixture of ethnic and religious Muslims were killed in a
campaign of ethnic cleansing
groups. with Milosevic.
Tito had silenced nationalist and The Balkan region remained
religious unrest for decades. When unstable.
he died, nationalism tore Yugoslavia New nations needed massive aid
apart. Who knew! to rebuild.
Large numbers of refugees
Communism fell. remained in temporary shelter
for years after the war.
Four of the six republics declared Ethnic feuds were hard to
Section 1: Japan Becomes an Economic
Section 2: From Revolution to Reform in China
Section 3: The Asian Tigers
Section 4: Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim
• What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic
• How did Japan interact economically and politically
with other nations?
• How are patterns of life changing in Japan?
Recovery and Economic Miracle
In 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japan
to recover and produce an economic miracle?
• Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At
first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making
steel, and then to high technology.
• While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had
successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly
build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology.
• Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force.
• Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings
gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth.
• Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large
Economic and Political Interaction
• The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on
the world market. In response to the economic challenge the oil
crisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-
producing nations of the Middle East.
• Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter
memories of World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its
wartime actions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some
public regrets for the destruction of the war years.
• For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics.
More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japan
ranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid.
Changing Patterns of Life
• In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression.
• Many workers lost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment,
and confidence was undermined.
• In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s
dominant political party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded
politicians broke with the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power.
• Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped
• While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them
in subordinate positions in the workplace.
• For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours.
Many younger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy
themselves. Some older Japanese worry that the old work ethic is
From Revolution to Reform in China
• What were the effects of communist policies in China?
• What challenges did China face during the Cold War?
• How did calls for political reform led to repression?
• What challenges face China today?
Although some reforms did result in more access to education and greater
equality, people in China paid a heavy cost for Mao’s programs. During the 1950s
and 1960s, two efforts in particular led to economic disaster and tremendous loss
In the “Great Leap Forward,” Mao urged people to make a
superhuman effort to increase farm output.
• Food output slowed and backyard industries turned out low-
quality, useless goods.
• A terrible famine occurred. Between 1959 and 1961,
up to 30 million Chinese starved to death.
The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to purge China of
• The Cultural Revolution convulsed China. Schools and factories
closed. The economy slowed, and civil war threatened.
China and the Cold War
RELATIONS WITH THE RELATIONS WITH THE
SOVIET UNION UNITED STATES
Stalin sent economic aid and
technical experts to China, but At first, the United States
he and Mao disagreed on many refused to recognize the
issues. People’s Republic of China and
for years tried to isolate
China and the Soviet Union China.
competed for influence in
developing nations. Slowly, relations improved.
By 1960, border disputes and In 1979, the United States set
clashes over ideology led the up formal diplomatic relations
Soviets to withdraw all aid and
advisers from China.
"Tank man” blocks a column of tanks heading east on Beijing's Chang'an Boulevard (Avenue of Eternal Peace)
near Tiananmen Square during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. This photo was taken from the sixth
floor of the Beijing Hotel, about half a mile away, through a 400mm lens. We see bags in his left hand
indicating that he must have been on his way home from shopping which raises the question of whether this
was a student protester or a man standing up for students. The name and fate of the man is unknown. This
photo was taken on June 5, 1989, by Jeff Widener (The Associated Press).
The crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders were
determined to maintain control. To them, order was more important
than political freedom.
By the late 1980s, some Chinese were demanding greater
political freedom and economic reform.
In 1989, thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen
Square and called for democracy.
The government sent in troops and tanks. Thousands of
demonstrators were killed or wounded.
China’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure from
trading partners such as the United States.
Population growth strained the economy and posed a challenge
for the future.
As communist ideology weakened, government corruption
became a growing problem.
Many state-run industries were inefficient, but could not be
closed without risking high unemployment and economic chaos.
Inequalities between rich and poor urban and rural Chinese
continued to grow.
The Asian Tigers
• How has China influenced Taiwan and Hong Kong?
• How did Singapore modernize?
• Why has Korea remained divided for more than 50 years?
The term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, Hong Kong,
Singapore, and South Korea.
• All four are small Asian lands that became
“newly industrialized countries” by the 1980s.
• They are known for their aggressive economic growth.
• Although they differ in important ways, all followed similar roads
to modernization after 1945.
• All four were influenced by China.
• In each, the Confucian ethic shaped attitudes about work.
• All four had stable governments that invested in education.
Taiwan and Hong Kong
Both Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links to China.
TAIWAN HONG KONG
Taiwan was ruled by China until Britain won Hong Kong from
1895, when it fell to Japan. China after the Opium War.
The Japanese built some industry, Hong Kong’s prosperity was
providing a foundation for later based largely on trade and light
Taiwan first set up light industries Hong Kong also became a world
and later, developed heavy financial center.
industry. Hong Kong’s amazing growth
After the Cold War, Taiwanese was due in part to its location on
businesses invested in companies China’s doorstep.
on the Chinese mainland. In 1997, Britain returned Hong
Kong to China.
How Did Singapore Modernize?
During his 30 years in power, Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew:
• supported a free-market economy
• attracted foreign capital by keeping labor costs low
• expanded Singapore’s seaport into one of the world’s busiest
• welcomed skilled immigrants
• insisted on education for all of Singapore’s people
• encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, and
• followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hard
work and saving money
The Two Koreas
After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States divided
Korea along the 38th parallel.
Before long, North Korea became a communist ally of the Soviet
Union. The United States backed noncommunist South Korea.
In 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea. The war turned into a
In 1953, both sides signed an armistice, or end to fighting. The
armistice has held for 50 years, but no peace treaty has ever been
Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim
• How did war affect Vietnam and Cambodia?
• What challenges faced the Philippines and the
developing nations of Southeast Asia?
• Why is the Pacific Rim a vital region?
War in Vietnam and Cambodia
In mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle tore
apart the region once known as French Indochina.
Communists fought against During the Vietnam War, fighting spilled
noncommunists supported by the over into neighboring Cambodia.
United States for control of Vietnam. In 1970, the United States bombed and
After the United States withdrew then invaded Cambodia.
from the war, the North Vietnamese When the United States left, communist
reunited the country under guerrillas called Khmer Rouge, led by Pol
communist rule. The communist Pot, slaughtered more than a million
victors imposed harsh rule in the Cambodians.
Vietnam had to rebuild a land In 1979, Vietnam invaded and occupied
destroyed by war. Cambodia.
Recently, VN has become more open Land mines cover huge % of Cambodia*
economically to the market economy
In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50 years of American rule.
In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcos promised reform but
became a dictator.
In 1986, the people of the Philippines forced Marcos to leave in what was called
the “people power” revolution.
Corazón Aquino became president and restored the fragile democracy.
• The country enjoyed economic growth during the 1990s, but many people
• Government corruption and guerrilla wars threatened the nation’s stability.
• The Philippines experienced rapid urbanization.
• Natural disasters caused setbacks.
• Many enterprising Filipinos left the country.
Developing Nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asian nations faced many problems after independence.
They lacked experience in self-government.
They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts.
Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent.
Geography posed an obstacle to unity
For years, repressive military rulers battled
rebel ethnic minorities. They isolated the Under authoritarian rule,
country and imposed state socialism. Indonesia made great economic
In 1990, the government held elections.
The opposition party won, but the military The 1997 Asian financial crisis led to
rejected the election results. riots against the government.
A new government was elected and
faced many problems.
The Pacific Rim
In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asia are
part of a vast region known as the Pacific Rim. It includes
countries in Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.
• By the 1990s, the volume of trade across the Pacific Rim was
greater than that across the Atlantic. The region has potential
for further growth.
• Countries on the Pacific Rim formed a huge market that lured
investors, especially multinational corporations.
• The development of the Pacific Rim promises to bring the
Americas and Asia closer together.
Section 1: Nations of South Asia
Section 2: Forces Shaping the Modern
Section 3: Nation Building in the Middle East:
Three Case Studies
Section 4: The Middle East and the World
Nations of South Asia
• Why was India partitioned?
• How has India dealt with political, economic, and social
• What problems did Pakistan and Bangladesh face?
• How is South Asia linked to world affairs?
Why Was India Partitioned?
After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand for
Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan.
Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain to partition,
or divide, the subcontinent.
In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.
As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence erupted in
Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a million people,
including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed.
Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensions
Cause and Effect: Partition of India
Long-Term Short-Term Effects Connections
Causes Causes to Today
Muslim conquest World War II Violence erupts as Continuing clash
of northern India weakens European millions of Hindus between India
in 1100s colonial empires and Muslims cross and Pakistan
the border over Kashmir
British Pressure from Indian
between India and
imperialism in nationalists Nuclear arms
India increases race as both
Gandhi is India and
Nationalists Insistence by
assassinated by Pakistan refuse
organize the Muhammad Ali
Hindu extremists to sign Non-
Indian National Jinnah and the
Congress in 1885 Muslim League that India and Pakistan
Muslims have their become centers of
own state Cold War rivalry
separate Muslim Rioting between Establishment of
League in 1906 Hindus and Muslims the state of
throughout northern Bangladesh
India: Political, Economic, and Social Change
POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL
India’s constitution set up a India adopted a socialist Urbanization undermined
federal system. model to expand agriculture some traditions, but most
For 40 years after and industry. Indians continued to live
independence, the Nehru Rapid population growth hurt in villages.
family led India. efforts to improve living
India’s size and diversity conditions. The government tried to
have contributed to end discrimination based
An economic slowdown
religious and regional on caste. However, deep
forced India to privatize some
divisions. prejudice continued.
industries and make foreign
Today, India is the world’s
largest democratic nation.
After independence, military leaders
seized power and ruled as dictators. In 1971, Bengalis declared
When civilian leaders were finally independence for Bangladesh.
elected, the military continued to Geography has made it difficult to rise
intervene. out of poverty.
The country lacked natural resources
for industry. Explosive population growth has
further strained resources.
Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts.
Severe economic problems and Since the early 1990s, civilian
corruption plagued the government. governments have worked to
encourage foreign investments.
Forty percent of the nation’s budget
goes to repaying foreign debt.
How is South Asia Linked to World Affairs?
• India and Pakistan achieved their independence as the Cold
• Pakistan accepted military aid from the United States,
while India signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet
• When the Cold War ended, both India and Pakistan sought
aid from the western powers.
• Regional conflicts bred global concern after both India and
Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons.
Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East
• How have diversity and nationalism shaped the Middle East?
• What political and economic patterns have emerged?
• Why has an Islamic revival spread across the region?
• How do women’s lives vary in the Middle East?
Diversity and Nationalism
Most people in the Middle East After World War I, Arab nationalists
today are Muslims, but Jews and opposed the mandate system that placed
Christians still live there. Arab territories under European control.
Middle Eastern people speak more
than 30 different languages. The Pan-Arab dream of a united Arab
state foundered, but the Arab League
Every country is home to minority continued to promote Arab solidarity.
Muslims share the same faith but
belong to different national groups.
Often, such differences have created
Political and Economic Patterns
Most Middle Eastern nations Oil-rich nations built roads,
developed authoritarian hospitals, and schools. Poorer
governments. countries lacked the capital
needed for development.
Most of the region has limited rainfall. Some nations turned to socialism to end
Oil-rich countries have built desalinization foreign economic control and modernize
Individual nations have built dams to To get capital, governments took foreign
supply water. loans.
Nations must seek ways to use water Heavy borrowing left many nations
cooperatively. deeply in debt.
For more than 1,300 years, the Quran and Sharia provided
guidance on all aspects of life.
During the Age of Imperialism, westerners urged Muslim
nations to modernize and to adopt western forms of secular
government and law.
Some Middle Eastern leaders adopted western models of
development, promising economic progress and social justice.
By the 1970s, in the face of failed development and repressive
regimes, many Muslim leaders called for a return to Sharia.
Islamic reformers, called fundamentalists by the West, did not
reject modernization, but they did reject westernization.
Women in the Muslim World
Conditions for women vary greatly from country to country in the
modern Middle East.
Since the 1950s, women in most countries have won voting rights
and equality before the law. In other countries, though, laws and
traditions emerged that limited women’s right to vote, work, or
even drive cars.
The changes have taken place at different rates in different places:
• In Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, many urban women gave up long-
held practices such as wearing hejab, or cover.
• Conservative countries like Saudi Arabia and Iran have opposed
the spread of western secular influences among women.
Nation Building in the Middle East:
Three Case Studies
• What issues has Turkey faced?
• Why was Egypt a leader in the Arab world?
• What were the causes and results of the
revolution in Iran?
What Issues Has Turkey Faced?
• At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to
expand southward into Turkey.
• Turkey struggled to build a stable government.
• Modernization and urbanization brought social turmoil.
Outlawing of the fez and Kemal Attaurk
• In 1999, a series of powerful earthquakes shook western
Turkey, including major industrial areas.
• Kurdish nationalists fought for autonomy.
• Turkey waged a long struggle over Cyprus.
• Turkey was divided politically, with secular politicians on
one side and Islamic reformers on the other.
Egypt: A Leader in the Arab World
In the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out to modernize
Egypt and end western domination. He:
• nationalized the Suez Canal
• led two wars against Israel
• employed socialist economic policies, which had limited success
• built the Aswan High Dam
Anwar al-Sadat came to power in the 1970s. He:
• opened Egypt to foreign investment and private business
• became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel
Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak:
• reaffirmed the peace with Israel
• mended fences with his Arab neighbors
• faced serious domestic problems
Iran’s Ongoing Revolution
Because of its vast oil fields, Iran became a focus of western interests.
In 1945, western powers backed Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi,
despite opposition from Iranian nationalists.
In the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini, who condemned western influences and accused the shah
of violating Islamic law.
The shah was forced into exile and Khomeini’s supporters proclaimed
an Islamic Republic.
Revolutionaries bitterly denounced the West. They attacked
corruption, replaced secular courts with religious ones, dismantled
women’s rights, and banned everything western. While, at first, they
allowed some open discussion, before long they were suppressing
The Middle East and the World
• How did the Cold War increase tensions in the Middle East?
• Why has the Arab-Israeli conflict been difficult to resolve?
• Why did conflicts arise in Lebanon and the Persian Gulf?
The Cold War and the Middle East
During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union
sought access to the oil and waterways of the Middle East.
Superpower rivalries had a far-reaching impact on the region.
• In their global rivalry, each of the superpowers tried to line
up allies in the Middle East.
• Each superpower sold arms to its ally in the region.
• In the Arab-Israeli conflict, the United States helped Israel,
while the Soviet Union gave aid to the Arabs.
• During and after the Cold War, the development of
weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East became a
After years of fighting and negotiations, peace in Israel remains an elusive goal. A
number of specific issues continue to divide the two sides.
Palestinians demanded that part
Palestinians demanded the right of Jerusalem become the capital
to return to lands they fled of a future Palestinian nation.
during the Arab Israeli wars.
Israeli conservatives insisted that
Jerusalem remain undivided as the
Many Israelis insisted on the survival
capital of Israel.
of Israeli settlements that had been
built on these occupied lands.
Civil War in Lebanon
In the 1970s, the Arab-Israeli conflict fueled tensions in nearby
• The Muslim population began to increase, disturbing the balance among
Maronites (a Christian sect) and Sunni and Shiite Muslims. This led to
• Palestinian refugees entering Lebanon from occupied territories strained
• PLO guerrillas in refugee camps in Lebanon crossed into Israel to attack
civilian and military targets.
In 1975, Lebanon was plunged into seemingly endless civil war.
• Christian and Muslim militias battled for control of Beirut, the capital city.
• Israel invaded the south, while Syria occupied eastern Lebanon.
By 1990, Lebanese leaders finally restored some measure of order.
Wars in the Persian Gulf
Border disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitious
rulers fed tensions along the Persian Gulf.
In 1980, Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran.
• The resulting war dragged on for eight years, ending in a
stalemate. For both nations, the human and economic toll was
In 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil-rich nation of Kuwait.
• In the Gulf War, the United States organized a coalition of United
Nations/American, European, and Arab powers to drive Iraqi forces
out of Kuwait.
Chapter 36: Africa (1945–Present)
Section 1: Achieving Independence
Section 2: Programs for Development
Section 3: Three Nations: A Closer Look
Section 4: Struggles in Southern Africa
• How did colonialism contribute to a growing
spirit of nationalism?
• What routes to freedom did Ghana, Kenya, and
• How did the Cold War affect Africa?
The Colonial Legacy
Western imperialism had a complex and contradictory impact
on Africa. Some changes brought real gains. Others had a
destructive effect on African life that is felt down to the present.
• After liberation, the pattern of economic dependence established
during the colonial period continued.
• During the colonial period, Europeans undermined Africa’s
traditional political system.
• Colonial doctors addressed some diseases, such as yellow fever,
smallpox, and malaria. Colonial governments did not emphasize
general health care, however.
• At independence, African nations inherited borders drawn by
colonial powers. These borders often caused immense problems.
A Growing Spirit of Nationalism
In 1945, the rising tide of nationalism was sweeping over European colonial
empires. Around the world, liberation would follow this tide.
Impact of The Global Nationalist
World War II Setting Leaders
Japanese victories in Asia After the war, most Most were western
shattered the West’s Europeans had had their fill educated.
reputation as an of fighting.
unbeatable force. Leaders organized
In response to growing political parties, which
Africans who fought for demands for independence, published newspapers,
the Allies resented the Britain and France held rallies, and
discrimination and introduced political reforms mobilized support for
second-class status they that would lead to independence.
returned to at home. independence.
Routes to Freedom
During the great liberation, each African nation had its own leaders and its own story.
GHANA KENYA ALGERIA
Kwame Nkrumah tried Before World War II, Jomo Muslim Algerian
to win independence for Kenyatta became a nationalists used guerrilla
the British trading spokesman for the Kikuyu, warfare to win
colony Gold Coast. He who had been displaced by independence from France.
organized strikes and white settlers.
During eight years of
boycotts. Radical leaders turned to
fighting, hundreds of
Nkrumah was guerrilla warfare.
thousands of Algerians, and
imprisoned. The British imprisoned thousands of French, were
In 1957, Gold Coast won Kenyatta and killed or killed.
independence. imprisoned thousands of
Kikuyu. In 1962, Algeria won
Nkrumah named the
new country Ghana, independence.
after the ancient West In 1963, Kenya won its
African empire. independence.
The Cold War and Africa
African nations emerged into a world dominated by rival blocs
led by the United States and the Soviet Union.
• By supplying arms to rival governments, the superpowers boosted
the power of the military in many countries and contributed to
• Cold War rivalries affected local conflicts within Africa. The Soviet
Union and the United States supported rival groups in the
• Weapons supplied by the superpowers enabled rival clans,
militias, or guerrilla forces to spread violence across many lands.
Programs for Development
• What were barriers to unity and stability in Africa?
• What economic choices did African nations make?
• What critical issues affect African nations today?
• How has modernization affected patterns of life?
Barriers to Unity and Stability
• Once freedom was won, many Africans felt their first loyalty to
their own ethnic group, not to a national government.
• Civil wars, some of which were rooted in colonial history,
erupted in many new nations.
• Faced with divisions that threatened national unity, many early
leaders turned to a one-party system.
• When bad government led to unrest, the military often seized
SOCIALISM OR CAPITALISM CASH CROPS OR FOOD
Governments pushed to grow more cash
Many new nations chose socialism. crops for export.
Some nations set up mixed economies, As a result, countries that once fed their
with both private and state-run people from their own land had to import
URBAN OR RURAL NEEDS THE DEBT CRISIS
Many governments kept food prices Lenders required developing nations to
artificially low to satisfy poor city people. make tough economic reforms before
As a result, farmers used their land for extending new loans.
export crops or produced only for
themselves. In the short term, these reforms increased
Many governments neglected rural unemployment and led to higher prices the
development in favor of industrial projects. poor could not pay.
DROUGHT AND FAMINE
POPULATION In the 1970s and 1980s,
EXPLOSION prolonged drought contributed
to famine in parts of Africa.
The rising population put
a staggering burden on
The AIDS epidemic spread
rapidly across parts of Africa.
DEFORESTATION In 1998,
it was estimated that more
Once forests were cleared, than 21 million people were
heavy rains washed nutrients infected with the virus.
from the soil and destroyed
Population Population Pyramids
Ages Males Females Ages
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Percentage of male population Percentage of female population
Ages Males Females Ages
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Percentage of male population Percentage of female population
Ages Males Females Ages
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
the spread of
topsoil and speed
up the process of
Old and New Patterns
In Africa, as elsewhere, modernization disrupted old ways.
Urbanization contributed to the As men moved to cities, rural women took on
development of a larger national the sole responsibility of providing for their
However, it weakened traditional Most constitutions promised women
cultures and undermined ethnic and generous rights. In reality, most women’s
kinship ties. lives continued to be ruled by traditional
CHRISTIANITY ISLAMIC REVIVAL
Christianity has grown since its Messages of reform based on Islamic
introduction to Africa centuries ago. traditions and the call for social justice
were welcomed by many Islamic Africans.
Christian churches often combine
Christian and traditional African beliefs. In some areas, it stimulated deeper
Three Nations: A Closer Look
• What were some pressures for change in Nigeria?
• What effects did dictatorship have on the Congo?
• What was the outcome of Tanzania’s experiment
Pressures for Change in Nigeria
At independence, Nigeria drew up a constitution to protect various regional interests.
The system did not work and ethnic rivalries increased. When Ibo leaders declared the
independent state of Biafra, civil war broke out. By the time Biafra surrendered, almost
a million people had died.
During the 1970s oil boom, Nigeria set up industries and borrowed heavily from the
Between 1960 and 1985, rural people flooded to the cities. While the cities grew,
Nigeria ignored its farmers. Once a food exporter, Nigeria began importing expensive
When oil prices fell, the economy almost collapsed.
During Nigeria’s debt crisis in the 1980s, General Ibrahim Babangida imposed harsh
economic reforms to restore economic stability.
In 1993, elections were held, but Babangida and his military successors set aside
election results and cracked down on critics.
Dictatorship in Congo
After World War II, Belgium was determined to keep the Congo and did
nothing to prepare the colony for freedom.
In 1960, Belgium suddenly rushed the Congo to independence.
With some 200 ethnic groups and no sense of unity, the new nation quickly
Civil war raged for almost three years.
In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko seized power and renamed the country Zaire.
For the next 30 years, Mobutu built an increasingly brutal dictatorship.
In the late 1990s, ethnic violence in neighboring countries spilled into Zaire.
Mobutu was at last overthrown.
Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuing violence.
Tanzania’s Experiment in Socialism
Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, sought to improve rural life, build a
classless society, and create a self-reliant economy.
To carry out his programs, Nyerere embraced “African socialism.” Nyerere
claimed that this system was based on African village traditions of cooperation
and shared responsibility.
Under African socialism, rural farmers were encouraged to live in large villages
and farm the land collectively.Under this arrangement, Nyerere believed farm
output would increase.
Nyerere’s experiment did not work as planned. Many families had to be forcibly
moved to the village collectives, farm output did not rise, and high oil prices,
inflation, and a bloated bureaucracy plunged Tanzania into debt.
Nyerere’s successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi moved Tanzania toward a market
economy. These moves brought some improvement.
Struggles in Southern Africa
• What challenges faced Zimbabwe?
• How did the long struggle to end apartheid lead to a
new South Africa?
• How did the Cold War affect nations of southern
What Challenges Faced Zimbabwe?
In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe.
The new nation faced severe challenges after years of war:
• International sanctions had damaged the economy.
• Droughts had caused problems.
• Recovery was slowed by a power struggle between
nationalist leaders, Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo.
• When Mugabe prevailed and became president, he called
for a one-party system and tolerated little opposition.
• In 2000, tensions over land ownership led to renewed
South Africa’s Long Struggle
APARTHEID BLACK RESISTANCE TOWARD REFORM
In 1910, South Africa From the beginning, black In the late 1980s,
won self-rule from South Africans protested President F. W. de Klerk
Britain. Over the next apartheid. In 1912, the African abandoned apartheid,
decades, the white National Congress (ANC) was lifted the ban on the
minority government set up to oppose white ANC, and freed Mandela.
imposed apartheid, a domination. Nelson Mandela In 1994, Mandela was
system of racial laws mobilized young South elected president in
which separated the Africans to take part in acts of South Africa’s first
civil disobedience against
races and kept the multiracial elections.
apartheid laws. As protests
black majority in a Mandela welcomed
subordinate position. longtime political foes
into his government.
Other Nations of Southern Africa
NAMIBIA PORTUGUESE COLONIES:
Angola & Mozambique
Instead of preparing the territory for Portugal was unwilling to relinquish its
independence, South Africa backed the colonies in Angola and Mozambique.
oppressive regime run by the white In 1975,after fifteen years of fighting,
minority. Angola and Mozambique won
By the 1960s, the Southwest African independence.
People’s Organization (SWAPO) turned to After independence, bitter civil wars
armed struggle to win independence. raged, fueled by Cold War rivalries.
The struggle became part of the Cold The United States and South Africa saw
War, with the Soviet Union and Cuba the struggles in southern Africa as a
lending their support to the threat because some of the liberation
independence movement. leaders were socialists.
When the Cold War ended, Namibia was The end of the Cold War helped stop the
finally able to win independence. conflict.
Outlook and Gains
Despite many setbacks, African nations have made progress.
EDUCATION HEALTH CARE
As governments set up more schools, Most African nations sought to improve
literacy rates rose. health care and created family planning
Universities trained a new generation of programs.
leaders. Governments recognized the profound
A few countries promoted higher effect population growth had on
education for women. standards of living.
ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY CULTURE
Africa has enormous
In literature, film, and the arts,
potential for growth.
Africans made major
contributions to global culture.
With free-market reforms,
countries such as Ghana
enjoyed economic growth.
Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin
Section 2: Latin America, the United States,
and the World
Section 3: Mexico, Central America, and the
Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil
Forces Shaping Modern Latin America
• Why is Latin America a culturally diverse region?
• What conditions contributed to unrest in Latin American
• What forces shaped political, economic, and social
patterns in Latin America?
Why Is Latin America a Diverse Region?
• After 1492, Europeans imposed their civilization
on Native Americans.
• Since the late 1800s, immigrants from Europe
and Asia have contributed to the diversity.
• As Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
mingled, they created new cultures.
Sources of Unrest
• A growing gulf between the rich and the poor fueled
discontent in the postwar era.
• A population explosion contributed to poverty.
• Pressure on the land contributed to a great migration that
sent millions of peasants to the cities.
Political Forces in Latin America
Most Latin American states had constitutions modeled on those of France and
the United States. Yet, real democracy seemed difficult to achieve in nations
plagued by poverty and inequality.
• Conflict between conservatives and reformers contributed to political
instability in many nations.
• Military leaders held power in many Latin American nations.
• During the 1960s and 1970s, guerrillas and urban terrorists battled
repressive governments in many Latin American countries.
• By the mid-1980s, inflation, debt, and growing protests led repressive
leaders to step aside.
• A number of countries held elections to replace military governments
with civilian governments.
• Heavy debt burden and economic slowdowns have threatened the
success of elected rulers, putting the stability of democratic governments in
the region in doubt.
By the 1960s, Latin America faced growing competition from African and
To reduce dependence on imported goods, many governments
encouraged the development of local industries. This policy, called
import substitution, had mixed success.
Over the past 60 years, large areas of land were opened up to farming.
Much of the best farmland belonged to agribusiness. Commercial
agriculture increased the need to import food.
In the 1980s, the region was rocked by economic crisis.
In the 1990s, free trade organizations, such as NAFTA, opened Latin
American economies to larger markets. The mutual support and
expanded markets of these organizations did bring some economic
growth in the years around 2000.
Changing Social Patterns
In Latin America, as elsewhere, urbanization brought social upheaval.
URBANIZATION WOMEN RELIGION
City life weakened the Upper-class women had The Catholic Church has
extended family. access to education and remained a powerful
The struggle to make a
During the 1960s and
living caused some Rural women often faced 1970s, the Church
families to fall apart. hardship and poverty. crusaded for social
justice and an end to
In large cities, thousands Women struggled to win poverty. This movement
of abandoned or change. became known as
runaway children roamed
Latin America, the United States, and the World
• How did communist rule affect Cuba?
• What policies did the United States
follow in Latin America?
• What global issues have linked Latin
America to other regions in the world?
Communism in Cuba
In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communist
• nationalized foreign-owned sugar plantations and other
• put most land under government control
• distributed land to peasants
Effects of communist rule:
Castro imposed harsh authoritarian rule.
Conditions for the poor improved, basic health care was provided
for all, the literacy rate increased, and equality for women was
Critics were jailed or silenced and hundreds of thousands fled to
the United States.
When the Cold War ended, Soviet aid disappeared, and Cuba’s
The United States and Latin America
• The United States was the leading investor and trading partner
for most nations in Latin America.
• During the Cold War, the United States intervened repeatedly in
Latin America to protect its interests and to prevent the spread of
• The United States saw itself as the defender of democracy and
capitalism and the source of humanitarian aid. Many Latin
Americans, however, resented living under the shadow of the
“colossus of the north.”
• Latin American nations and the United States worked together in
the Organization of American States (OAS). The organization was
formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation,
and human rights.
Regional and Global Issues
REGIONAL TIES THE DRUG WARS
Regional trading blocs gained Drug cartels in Latin America began exportin
importance in the 1990s. Such groups ever-larger quantities of cocaine and other
created larger markets by lowering drugs.
trade barriers among neighboring In the 1980s, the United States declared a
countries. “war on drugs,” pressing Latin American
Examples: NAFTA, Mercosur governments to cooperate with these efforts
DEVELOPMENT VS ENVIRONMENT MIGRATION
Developing nations insisted Poverty, civil war, and repressive
that they needed to exploit governments caused Latin American
their land and other resources immigration to the United States to
if they wanted economic increase rapidly after the 1970s.
growth. This came at the
expense of the environment. Pressure increased in the United States
to halt illegal immigration.
Mexico, Central America, and the
• What conditions have changed and what
conditions have remained the same in Mexico?
• Why did Central American countries suffer civil
• What were the causes of Haiti’s political and
Continuity and Change in Mexico
After the Mexican Revolution, government officials became
committed to improving conditions for the poor. At the end of the
1900s, however, Mexico remained a disturbing mix of poverty and
Since the Mexican Revolution, a single party — the Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI) — dominated Mexican politics. In the
1990s, the PRI began to lose its monopoly on power.
In the 1930s, the Mexican government distributed millions of acres
of land to peasants. Over the years, as economic conditions
worsened, many peasants migrated to towns and cities. The
population of Mexico City mushroomed from 1.5 million in 1940 to
about 20 million in 1995.
War and Peace in Central America
In Central America, unrest threatened and discontent grew. Fearing the spread of
communism, the United States intervened repeatedly in the region.
NICARAGUA GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR
In 1979, revolutionaries Fearing communist During a vicious civil war,
called Sandinistas ousted influence, the United right-wing death squads
the ruling Somoza family. States helped oust slaughtered anyone
Guatemala’s reformist thought to sympathize
Fearing that Nicaragua government in 1954. with the leftists.
would become socialist,
While the military regained The United States pressed
the United States secretly
power, decades of civil war for reform, but at the same
backed the “contras” in a
ensued, during which the time provided weapons
long civil war against the
government routinely and other aid to help the
tortured and murdered military battle rebel
The Impact of Hurricane Mitch
Hurricane Mitch dealt a devastating social and economic blow to Central
America, whose nations were just recovering from decades of civil war.
Struggle in Haiti
Haiti endured brutal dictatorial Haiti is the poorest state in the
rule from 1957 until 1986. Western Hemisphere, lacking
A succession of military leaders adequate roads, electricity, and
then ruled the nation until other services.
1990. The weakness of the government
In 1990, in its first free discouraged foreign investment.
elections, Jean-Bertrand A skewed distribution of wealth
Aristide was chosen as put most of the productive land in
president. the hands of one or two percent
Aristide was overthrown by a of the citizens.
military coup, but restored to Hit by earthquake recently, and
power by the United States. world compassion moved in to
Focus on Argentina and Brazil
• What challenges has democracy faced in Argentina?
• How did Brazil’s government change in recent times?
• Why did Brazil’s “economic miracle” have limited
From Dictatorship to Democracy in Argentina
From 1946 to 1955, the authoritarian government of Juan Perón stifled
In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup.
For two decades, the military was in and out of power.
In 1973, Perón returned to power. When he died the next year, his second
wife, Isabel Perón, became president. When she faced economic and political
crises, the military took over.
To combat leftist guerrillas, the army waged a “dirty war,” torturing and
murdering as many as 20,000 people.
In 1983, an elected government restored democracy. Despite some setbacks,
democratic rule survived.
Government in Brazil
Between 1930 and 1945, dictator Getúlio Vargas allied himself with
the working poor.
In 1945, the military overthrew Vargas.
The military allowed elected presidents to rule for the next 20 years.
In the mid-1980s, the military eased their grip on power. Brazilians
voted directly for a president for the first time in 29 years.
In 1964, economic problems and fear of communism led the
military to take over again.
Brazil’s Economic Miracle
Beginning in the 1930s, Brazil diversified its economy and, for
a time, chalked up impressive growth. Brazil’s prosperity
enriched only a few. To most Brazilians, it brought little or no
In the 1980s, Brazil faced a host of economic problems —
from inflation to a staggering debt. One of the greatest
economic problems was the unequal distribution of land.
In the 1990s, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, provided
strong leadership for Brazil. His policies promoted rapid
economic growth and helped limit inflation. He promised to
distribute land to 300,000 families.