Europe, USSR, and
  North America
  (1945–Present)
Section 1: The Western World: An Overview

Section 2: The Western European Democracies

Section 3: North American Prosperi...
1

The Western World: An Overview

 • What issues troubled Europe after the Cold War?

 • How have recent economic and pol...
1


    Europe After the Cold War

• Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe turned to the West for loans and
  investmen...
1

     Economic and Political Trends
   Postwar governments in France, Italy, and Germany adopted many
   policies favore...
1

Welfare-State Spending in Britain, 1975 – 1980
1


      Toward European Unity
• In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the
  Netherlands, and Luxe...
1



 European
  Union,
1957 – 2000
Treaty of Rome

Treaty of Maastricht
Global Trade/Trade Blocs
•   Trade blocs have a range of reasons to “protect” the trade interests of their region:
    (1)...
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an
international organization designed by its
founders to supervise and liberalize
i...
European Union
•   In Europe, the Maastricht Treaty, which succeeded the Treaty of Rome and called for the
    creation of...
Migration to Western Europe




Immigrants threaten
European cultures;
their populations have
usually been
Homogeneous!
1


 Social Trends                   Social change speeded up after 1945.

       SOCIAL CLASSES                        ET...
2

The Western European Democracies


• How did Britain’s policies change after World War II?

• How did French power and ...
2


   Britain: Changing Policies
             POST
                                                                   200...
2


France: Revival and Prosperity
France emerged from World War II greatly weakened.

The Fourth Republic, set up in 1946...
2


  How Did Germany Reunify?
• In 1969, West German chancellor Willy Brandt tried to
  ease tensions with East Germany.
...
2

    Other Democratic Nations
          ITALY                                    SPAIN
  Political divisions and regiona...
3

  North American Prosperity

• What actions has the United States taken as a global superpower?

• What developments ha...
3


    The United States: A Global Superpower
The United States built bases overseas and organized military
alliances fro...
3
     American Economy and Government

        ECONOMY                             GOVERNMENT
In the postwar decades, Ame...
3

        Civil Rights and Society
During the 1950s and 1960s, many social changes took place.
Some were linked to the ci...
3

  What Issues Has Canada Faced in Recent Years?

• Since the 1950s, Canada has become increasingly
  diverse, with newc...
4

      The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a
                 Superpower

• What ideas guided Soviet political, economic,...
4

Soviet Government and Economy


                GOVERNMENT                    ECONOMY

Khrushchev pursued a policy of d...
4

        Soviet Foreign Policy

      EASTERN            DEVELOPING                UNITED STATES
      EUROPE           ...
4


Collapse of the Soviet Union: Cause and Effect
         Long-             Immediate             Effects
         Term ...
4

    Problems in The Russian Republic

• The changeover to a market economy caused unemployment to soar
  and prices to ...
4


          The Other Republics
• The new nations faced unrest, corruption, and political divisions.

• In some countrie...
5

 A New Era in Eastern Europe


• How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet
  domination and strive for democracy?
...
5

 Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe
1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much of Eastern
Europe.

1949 Most E...
5


Fall of Communist Governments

• Eastern European countries withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and
  requested that Soviet ...
5

New Nations in Eastern Europe
5


     Civil War in Yugoslavia

           CAUSES                            EFFECTS
Yugoslavia consisted of a broad    ...
East Asia and
Southeast Asia
(1945–Present)
Section 1: Japan Becomes an Economic
           Superpower

Section 2: From Revolution to Reform in China

Section 3: The ...
1




• What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic
  miracle?

• How did Japan interact economically and politically
 ...
1


Recovery and Economic Miracle
 In 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japan
 to recover and produce an econ...
1


  Japanese
   Motor
   Vehicle
Exports, 1997
1

        Economic and Political Interaction
• The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on
  the world...
1


    Changing Patterns of Life
• In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression.
• Many workers lost the secu...
2

   From Revolution to Reform in China



• What were the effects of communist policies in China?

• What challenges did...
2


           Communist Policies
Although some reforms did result in more access to education and greater
equality, peopl...
2

    China and the Cold War
    RELATIONS WITH THE               RELATIONS WITH THE
        SOVIET UNION                ...
"Tank man” blocks a column of tanks heading east on Beijing's Chang'an Boulevard (Avenue of Eternal Peace)
near Tiananmen ...
2
          Tiananmen Square
The crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders were
determined to maintain control. To t...
2


      Challenges Today
China’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure from
trading partners such as the Unit...
3

            The Asian Tigers


• How has China influenced Taiwan and Hong Kong?

• How did Singapore modernize?

• Why ...
3


                  Asian Tigers
The term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, Hong Kong,
Singapore, and South Korea.

•   A...
3


          Taiwan and Hong Kong
  Both Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links to China.


       ...
3


How Did Singapore Modernize?
During his 30 years in power, Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew:

• supported a free-market eco...
3


              The Two Koreas

After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States divided
Korea along the 38th ...
3




Korean War,
1950 – 1953
4

        Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim




• How did war affect Vietnam and Cambodia?

• What challenges faced the ...
4


      War in Vietnam and Cambodia
In mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle tore
apart the region o...
4




Vietnam
War, 1968
 – 1975
4


                The Philippines
In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50 years of American rule.
In 196...
4

         Developing Nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asian nations faced many problems after independence.
They lack...
4


               The Pacific Rim
 In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asia are
 part of a vast region ...
South Asia and the
   Middle East
  (1945–Present)
Section 1: Nations of South Asia

Section 2: Forces Shaping the Modern
           Middle East

Section 3: Nation Building ...
1




          Nations of South Asia
• Why was India partitioned?

• How has India dealt with political, economic, and so...
1


Why Was India Partitioned?

 After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand for
 independence.
 Muslims i...
1




Partition
of India,
  1947
1

               Cause and Effect: Partition of India
 Long-Term            Short-Term              Effects           Con...
1

         India: Political, Economic, and Social Change



       POLITICAL                 ECONOMIC                    ...
1




         PAKISTAN                          BANGLADESH

After independence, military leaders
seized power and ruled a...
1

How is South Asia Linked to World Affairs?


  • India and Pakistan achieved their independence as the Cold
    War beg...
2

Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East


 • How have diversity and nationalism shaped the Middle East?

 • What politica...
2


     Diversity and Nationalism

       DIVERSITY                            NATIONALISM

Most people in the Middle Eas...
2


Political and Economic Patterns

        GOVERNMENT                                  OIL
  Most Middle Eastern nations...
2



World Crude Oil
 Production
2


  Water
Resources
  in the
 Middle
   East
2


            Islamic Revival
For more than 1,300 years, the Quran and Sharia provided
guidance on all aspects of life.
...
2


   Women in the Muslim World
Conditions for women vary greatly from country to country in the
modern Middle East.

Sin...
3

Nation Building in the Middle East:
       Three Case Studies

• What issues has Turkey faced?

• Why was Egypt a leade...
3


   What Issues Has Turkey Faced?

• At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to
  expand southward into Tur...
3


       Egypt: A Leader in the Arab World
In the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out to modernize
Egypt and end western d...
3


    Iran’s Ongoing Revolution
Because of its vast oil fields, Iran became a focus of western interests.
In 1945, weste...
4

    The Middle East and the World

• How did the Cold War increase tensions in the Middle East?

• Why has the Arab-Isr...
4

     The Cold War and the Middle East
During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union
sought access to...
4

                Arab-Israeli Issues
After years of fighting and negotiations, peace in Israel remains an elusive goal. ...
4



 Arab-
 Israeli
Conflict,
 1948 -
  1995
4

                Civil War in Lebanon
   In the 1970s, the Arab-Israeli conflict fueled tensions in nearby
             ...
4

        Wars in the Persian Gulf
Border disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitious
rulers fed tensions a...
4



Wars in
  the
Persian
 Gulf,
1980 –
 1991
Africa
(1945–Present)
Chapter 36: Africa (1945–Present)


Section 1:   Achieving Independence

Section 2:   Programs for Development

Section 3:...
1

Achieving Independence


• How did colonialism contribute to a growing
  spirit of nationalism?

• What routes to freed...
1

              The Colonial Legacy
 Western imperialism had a complex and contradictory impact
 on Africa. Some changes ...
1

   A Growing Spirit of Nationalism
   In 1945, the rising tide of nationalism was sweeping over European colonial
   em...
1
                Routes to Freedom
During the great liberation, each African nation had its own leaders and its own story...
1

        The Cold War and Africa

  African nations emerged into a world dominated by rival blocs
  led by the United St...
2


Programs for Development


• What were barriers to unity and stability in Africa?

• What economic choices did African...
2


Barriers to Unity and Stability

• Once freedom was won, many Africans felt their first loyalty to
  their own ethnic ...
2


                 Economic Choices
  SOCIALISM OR CAPITALISM                         CASH CROPS OR FOOD
               ...
2


               Critical Issues
                                DROUGHT AND FAMINE
POPULATION                      In t...
2




Population                Population Pyramids
 Pyramids    Kenya

              Ages            Males               ...
2




Desertification
   in Africa
Desertification is
the spread of
desert areas.

Overgrazing and
farming remove
topsoil ...
2

            Old and New Patterns
    In Africa, as elsewhere, modernization disrupted old ways.

           URBANIZATIO...
3

Three Nations: A Closer Look


• What were some pressures for change in Nigeria?

• What effects did dictatorship have ...
3


Pressures for Change in Nigeria
 At independence, Nigeria drew up a constitution to protect various regional interests...
3


      Dictatorship in Congo
After World War II, Belgium was determined to keep the Congo and did
nothing to prepare th...
3

          Tanzania’s Experiment in Socialism
Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, sought to improve rural life, ...
4

  Struggles in Southern Africa


• What challenges faced Zimbabwe?

• How did the long struggle to end apartheid lead t...
4

      What Challenges Faced Zimbabwe?

In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe.
The new nation faced s...
4


  South Africa’s Long Struggle

 APARTHEID               BLACK RESISTANCE TOWARD REFORM


In 1910, South Africa    Fro...
4

 Other Nations of Southern Africa
          NAMIBIA                          PORTUGUESE COLONIES:
                     ...
4
            Outlook and Gains
  Despite many setbacks, African nations have made progress.


                 EDUCATION ...
Latin America
(1945–Present)
Section 1:   Forces Shaping Modern Latin
             America
Section 2:   Latin America, the United States,
             ...
1

       Forces Shaping Modern Latin America


• Why is Latin America a culturally diverse region?

• What conditions con...
1

    Why Is Latin America a Diverse Region?


Conquest
• After 1492, Europeans imposed their civilization
  on Native Am...
1

Ethnic Diversity in Latin America
1

      Sources of Unrest

• A growing gulf between the rich and the poor fueled
  discontent in the postwar era.

• A po...
1

    Political Forces in Latin America

Most Latin American states had constitutions modeled on those of France and
the ...
1


     Economic Development
By the 1960s, Latin America faced growing competition from African and
Asian nations.

To re...
1

    Changing Social Patterns
In Latin America, as elsewhere, urbanization brought social upheaval.




  URBANIZATION  ...
2




Latin America, the United States, and the World


 • How did communist rule affect Cuba?

 • What policies did the U...
Communism in Cuba
         2




In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communist
state. Castro:
• nationalize...
2

              The United States and Latin America
• The United States was the leading investor and trading partner
  fo...
2

     Regional and Global Issues
          REGIONAL TIES                            THE DRUG WARS
 Regional trading bloc...
3




    Mexico, Central America, and the
              Caribbean

• What conditions have changed and what
  conditions h...
3

Continuity and Change in Mexico

After the Mexican Revolution, government officials became
committed to improving condi...
3
            War and Peace in Central America
    In Central America, unrest threatened and discontent grew. Fearing the ...
3

The Impact of Hurricane Mitch




Hurricane Mitch dealt a devastating social and economic blow to Central
America, whos...
3
              Struggle in Haiti

             POLITICAL                ECONOMIC
            STRUGGLES                 ST...
4

  Focus on Argentina and Brazil


• What challenges has democracy faced in Argentina?

• How did Brazil’s government ch...
4

From Dictatorship to Democracy in Argentina

From 1946 to 1955, the authoritarian government of Juan Perón stifled
oppo...
4



Economic
Activity in
Argentina
4


        Government in Brazil
Between 1930 and 1945, dictator Getúlio Vargas allied himself with
the working poor.


In...
4

Urbanization in Brazil
4


 Brazil’s Economic Miracle
Beginning in the 1930s, Brazil diversified its economy and, for
a time, chalked up impressi...
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Continents Now

  1. 1. Europe, USSR, and North America (1945–Present)
  2. 2. Section 1: The Western World: An Overview Section 2: The Western European Democracies Section 3: North American Prosperity Section 4: The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a Superpower Section 5: A New Era in Eastern Europe
  3. 3. 1 The Western World: An Overview • What issues troubled Europe after the Cold War? • How have recent economic and political trends affected the West? • How has Europe moved toward greater unity? • How have social trends changed the West?
  4. 4. 1 Europe After the Cold War • Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe turned to the West for loans and investments to build capitalist economies. The Russian Mafia offers “protection” and threatens capitalism. • Ethnic clashes, especially in the Balkans, created conflicts that threatened European peace. UN and Clinton sent troops; Kosovo is its own area. Milosevic with ethnic cleansing of Serbia—killing Muslim Croats. • The nuclear peril, although reduced, still remains. Accidents like Chernobyl affect globe, although Germany and France rely on nuclear power; unaccounted for nukes make us all fret. • NATO faced the debate as to whether it should become Europe’s peacekeeper and protector of human rights. Is UN enough? IMF, World Bank, and NGOs (all try to step up, but tend to meddle)
  5. 5. 1 Economic and Political Trends Postwar governments in France, Italy, and Germany adopted many policies favored by the left.: Socialist coalitions THE WELFARE THE OIL SHOCK ECONOMIC STATE SHIFTS The West faced growing After 1945, governments In 1973, OPEC cut oil competition from other extended the welfare production and raised parts of the world, state. prices. causing many factories Governments took on a The higher prices caused to close. larger role in national inflation and slowed Economies changed economies. economic growth. when most new jobs Conservatives In 1979, OPEC again raised were created in service condemned the drift prices, triggering a severe industries. from the free enterprise recession, in which business The gap between the system toward socialism. slowed and unemployment rich and the poor grew. rates rose.
  6. 6. 1 Welfare-State Spending in Britain, 1975 – 1980
  7. 7. 1 Toward European Unity • In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg — set up the European Coal and Steel Community. This agency set prices and regulated the coal and steel industries of member states. • In 1957, the same six nations formed the European Community (EC) or Common Market. Its goal was free trade. It also set up the European Parliament. • In 1973, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted to the Common Market. • In the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market expanded and took on the name European Union (EU). The EU pushed for complete economic unity and greater political unity. Started as a free trade zone, but this success led to greater cooperation.
  8. 8. 1 European Union, 1957 – 2000 Treaty of Rome Treaty of Maastricht
  9. 9. Global Trade/Trade Blocs • Trade blocs have a range of reasons to “protect” the trade interests of their region: (1) To establish some form of regional control regarding trade that fulfills the interests of nations within that region; (2) To establish tariffs that protect intra-regional trade from “outside” forces; (3) To promote regional security and political concerns or to develop trade in such as way as to enhance the security in the region; (4) To promote South-to-South trade, e.g., between Africa and Asia, and between Latin American countries; (5) To promote economic and technical cooperation among developing countries (Malaysiaexports.com); • They also use several measures to restrain global competition: (1) import quotas (limiting the amount of imports into the country so that domestic consumers buy products made by their countries in their region); (2) customs delays (establishing bureaucratic formalities that slow down the ability for the imported product from abroad to enter the domestic market; (3) subsidies (government financial assistances toward sectors of the home economy so that they have an influx of capital); (4) boycotts and technical barriers; (5) bribes and voluntary restraints.
  10. 10. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization designed by its founders to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1947.
  11. 11. European Union • In Europe, the Maastricht Treaty, which succeeded the Treaty of Rome and called for the creation of a union (and hence the change in name from European Community to European Union), created a monetary union and has the ultimate goal of creating a political union, with member countries switch adopting a common currency and a common central bank. A monetary union represents the fourth level of integration among politically independent countries. • The European Union (EU) consists of fifteen countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). On January 1, 1999, the eleven countries of the so-called euro-zone (excluding EU members Denmark, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) embarked on a venture that created the world's second-largest economic zone, after the United States. The seeds for the euro were sown three decades ago. In 1969, Pierre Werner, a former prime minister of Luxembourg, was asked to chair a think-tank on how an European monetary union (EMU) could be achieved by 1980. The Werner Report, published in October 1970, outlined a three-phase plan that was very similar to the blueprint ultimately adopted in the Maastricht Treaty, signed on February 7, 1992. Like the Maastricht Treaty, the plan envisioned the replacement of local currencies by a single currency. However, the EMU was put on hold following the monetary chaos created by the first oil crisis. The next step on the path to monetary union was the creation of the European monetary system (EMS) in the late 1970s. Except for the United Kingdom, all member states of the European Union joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), which determined bilateral currency exchange rates. Currencies of the, by then, nine member states could still fluctuate, but movements were limited to a margin of 2.25 percent. The EMS also led to the European currency unit (ecu)—in some sense the predecessor of the euro. Note the ecu never became a physical currency.
  12. 12. Migration to Western Europe Immigrants threaten European cultures; their populations have usually been Homogeneous!
  13. 13. 1 Social Trends Social change speeded up after 1945. SOCIAL CLASSES ETHNIC DIVERSITY Since the 1950s, many immigrants from Class lines blurred as prosperity spread. former colonies in Asia, Africa, and the More and more people joined the middle Caribbean had settled in Europe. class. Some Europeans resented the newcomers. Most people faced greater opportunities. Many immigrants faced discrimination and segregation. WOMEN FAMILY LIFE Women in the West made progress Western families had fewer children toward legal and economic equality. than in the past. Women narrowed the gender gap in Children stayed in school longer. hiring, promotion, and pay. The divorce rate climbed.
  14. 14. 2 The Western European Democracies • How did Britain’s policies change after World War II? • How did French power and prosperity revive? • How did Germany reunify? • What problems have other democratic nations faced?
  15. 15. 2 Britain: Changing Policies POST 2000 to WORLD 1970s 1990s WAR II Present Voters Voters elected Voters elected New PM just elected: THE elected the the Conservative the Labour party, David Cameron and which pledged to WEL- Labour party party and follow a “third Nick Clegg with a and created reduced social Coalition of political FARE the welfare welfare way” between Parties. the traditional STATE state. programs. right and left. Britain gave up British WORLD global Britain joined nationalism Britain has backed leadership to the US in efforts ROLE the Common led some the United To combat terrorism. Market. leaders to EU membership solid, States, but reject but refuses to give up remained a greater local currency at leader in the European home. UN and NATO. unity.
  16. 16. 2 France: Revival and Prosperity France emerged from World War II greatly weakened. The Fourth Republic, set up in 1946, was ineffective. Bloody colonial wars in Algeria and Vietnam drained and demoralized the country. In 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the Fifth Republic. He made peace with Algeria and gave up other French colonies and worked to restore French prestige and power. In the 1980s, French socialists, led by Francois Mitterand, won power as a global recession hit. The economic crisis forced Mitterand to encourage the growth of private business. In 1995, Jacques Chirac took a very conservative approach and cut government spending. Over the years, France has built the fourth largest economy in the world, but had huge unemployment and fears immigration creating too much diversity. Nicholas Sarkozy is in and actually likes the US. Mon Dieu!
  17. 17. 2 How Did Germany Reunify? • In 1969, West German chancellor Willy Brandt tried to ease tensions with East Germany. • In 1989, as Soviet communism declined, Germany was able to move toward reunification. Without Soviet backing, East German leaders were ousted. People from both Germanys tore down the Berlin Wall. • In 1990, German votes approved reunification.
  18. 18. 2 Other Democratic Nations ITALY SPAIN Political divisions and regional Spain was economically differences led to instability. underdeveloped with a large peasant Corruption, financial scandals, and population. the Mafia added to the instability. When Francisco Franco finally died, Despite these problems, Italy made Spain adopted a democratic gov’t. economic gains and ranked as a The Spanish economy grew rapidly. leading industrial nation. PORTUGAL GREECE Portugal was economically In 1967, military rulers came to underdeveloped with a large peasant power. population. Greece and Turkey almost went to When the authoritarian government war over Cyprus. finally collapsed, Portugal adopted a In 1975, Greece returned to democratic government. democratic rule. Portugal’s economy grew rapidly. But the economy is rocky!
  19. 19. 3 North American Prosperity • What actions has the United States taken as a global superpower? • What developments have shaped the economy, government, and society of the United States? • What issues has Canada faced in recent years?
  20. 20. 3 The United States: A Global Superpower The United States built bases overseas and organized military alliances from Europe to Southeast Asia. The United States provided economic aid to help Europe rebuild and to assist emerging nations. The United States became involved in the Korean and Vietnam wars in hopes of preventing the spread of communism. As conflicts erupted in various regions, the United States tried to resolve some of them: • In 1991, it led a multinational force against Iraqi invaders of Kuwait. •We have removed the Taliban fromAfghanistan and are still looking for Osama there. • It provided peacekeeping forces to end bloody civil wars in Bosnia and Kosovo.
  21. 21. 3 American Economy and Government ECONOMY GOVERNMENT In the postwar decades, American During the 1960s, the government businesses expanded into markets expanded social programs to help around the globe. the poor and disadvantaged. American industries faced competition from Asian and other nations. In the 1980s, conservatives The government’s role in the economy challenged the growth of grew. government and reduced spending on social programs. At the same In the 1980s, government spending and time, military spending increased. tax cuts greatly increased the national budget deficit. America entered the twenty-first century enjoying peace, prosperity, In the 1990s, the economy rebounded and unrivaled military power. due to Reaganomics! The US economy suffered a recession And then 911! recently.
  22. 22. 3 Civil Rights and Society During the 1950s and 1960s, many social changes took place. Some were linked to the civil rights movement that set out to end discrimination and ensure equal rights for all Americans. • Many states denied equality to various minority groups. They faced legal segregation, or separation, in education and housing, and discrimination in jobs and voting. • By 1956, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement. King organized boycotts and led peaceful marches to end segregation in the United States. • Congress outlawed segregation. Despite this, racial prejudice survived and poverty and unemployment still plagued many African Americans.
  23. 23. 3 What Issues Has Canada Faced in Recent Years? • Since the 1950s, Canada has become increasingly diverse, with newcomers from Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. • Quebec’s French-speaking people demanded more autonomy within Canada. Some Canadians favored separatism. They voted 2x, but did not separate. • Many Canadians have resented the cultural domination of their neighbor, the United States. • Economic competition with the United States led to the creation of the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA). • Canada and the United States agreed to work together for a common solution to the problem of pollution.
  24. 24. 4 The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a Superpower • What ideas guided Soviet political, economic, and foreign policy? • Why did the Soviet Union collapse? • What problems have Russia and the other republics faced since the fall of the Soviet Union?
  25. 25. 4 Soviet Government and Economy GOVERNMENT ECONOMY Khrushchev pursued a policy of de- Collectivized agriculture remained Stalinization and sought a thaw in the Cold unproductive. War. Brezhnev suppressed dissidents, people The Soviet Union could not match the free- who spoke out against the government. market economies of the West in producing consumer goods. The Soviet Union rebuilt its shattered People spent hours waiting on line to buy industries. food and other goods. Citizens enjoyed benefits such as low rent, Because workers had lifetime job security, cheap bread, free health care, and day care they had little incentive to produce better- for children. quality goods.
  26. 26. 4 Soviet Foreign Policy EASTERN DEVELOPING UNITED STATES EUROPE WORLD Stalin and his The Soviet Union Soviet-American successors asserted sought allies among relations swung back Soviet control over the developing and forth between Eastern Europe. nations. confrontation and détente. Khrushchev set up the The Soviets offered Warsaw Pact to military and economic suppress dissent aid in order to win and within Eastern Europe. keep allies.
  27. 27. 4 Collapse of the Soviet Union: Cause and Effect Long- Immediate Effects Term Causes Causes Low output of crops War with Afghanistan Soviet Union breaks up and consumer goods into 15 republics Food and fuel Russian republic Cold War led to high shortages approves a new constitution military spending Demonstrations in the Changeover to market Ethnic and nationalist Baltic states economy in Russia movements Cold War ends Gorbachev’s rise to Yeltsin to Putin to Denial of rights and power Mevedev freedoms War in Chechnya
  28. 28. 4 Problems in The Russian Republic • The changeover to a market economy caused unemployment to soar and prices to skyrocket. • Criminals flourished, and gangs preyed on the new business class. • In 1998, Russia defaulted, or failed to make payments, on much of its foreign debt. • The value of Russia’s currency collapsed. People lost their savings and their jobs. Suddenly, the good old days look good! • Minorities within Russia sought greater autonomy or independence. Countries with resources and wealth decide to bail.
  29. 29. 4 The Other Republics • The new nations faced unrest, corruption, and political divisions. • In some countries, authoritarian rulers gained power. • Ethnic conflict erupted in republics with a mix of national groups. • Other conflicts arose over border disputes. • The new nations endured hard times as they switched to market economies.
  30. 30. 5 A New Era in Eastern Europe • How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet domination and strive for democracy? • What were the effects of the fall of communism? • What were the causes and effects of civil war in Yugoslavia?
  31. 31. 5 Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe 1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much of Eastern Europe. 1949 Most Eastern European countries are under communist rule. 1956 Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact and ends one-party rule; Soviet troops crush Hungarian uprising. 1968 Czechoslovakia introduces reforms; Soviets use force to restore communist dictatorship. Alexander Dubchek was Gorby’s hero! The “Velvet revolution” breaks it into two countries. 1980 Polish government, under Soviet pressure, cracks down on trade union movement and arrests its leaders. Lech Walesa and Solidarity.
  32. 32. 5 Fall of Communist Governments • Eastern European countries withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and requested that Soviet troops leave. • Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments and free-market economies. • The many changes contributed to rising inflation, high unemploy- ment, and crime waves. • Consumer goods became more plentiful, but many people could not afford them. • Former communists were sometimes returned to office when people became disillusioned with reform. • In the 1990s, Eastern European nations looked to the West for aid. • Ethnic tension arose in some areas, especially Balkans/Yugoslavia.
  33. 33. 5 New Nations in Eastern Europe
  34. 34. 5 Civil War in Yugoslavia CAUSES EFFECTS Yugoslavia consisted of a broad Tens of thousands of Bosnian mixture of ethnic and religious Muslims were killed in a campaign of ethnic cleansing groups. with Milosevic. Tito had silenced nationalist and The Balkan region remained religious unrest for decades. When unstable. he died, nationalism tore Yugoslavia New nations needed massive aid apart. Who knew! to rebuild. Large numbers of refugees Communism fell. remained in temporary shelter for years after the war. Four of the six republics declared Ethnic feuds were hard to independence. contain.
  35. 35. East Asia and Southeast Asia (1945–Present)
  36. 36. Section 1: Japan Becomes an Economic Superpower Section 2: From Revolution to Reform in China Section 3: The Asian Tigers Section 4: Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim
  37. 37. 1 • What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic miracle? • How did Japan interact economically and politically with other nations? • How are patterns of life changing in Japan?
  38. 38. 1 Recovery and Economic Miracle In 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japan to recover and produce an economic miracle? • Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to high technology. • While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology. • Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force. • Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. • Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large military force.
  39. 39. 1 Japanese Motor Vehicle Exports, 1997
  40. 40. 1 Economic and Political Interaction • The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on the world market. In response to the economic challenge the oil crisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil- producing nations of the Middle East. • Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memories of World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartime actions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some public regrets for the destruction of the war years. • For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics. More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japan ranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid.
  41. 41. 1 Changing Patterns of Life • In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression. • Many workers lost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment, and confidence was undermined. • In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s dominant political party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded politicians broke with the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power. • Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped apartments. • While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them in subordinate positions in the workplace. • For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours. Many younger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy themselves. Some older Japanese worry that the old work ethic is weakening.
  42. 42. 2 From Revolution to Reform in China • What were the effects of communist policies in China? • What challenges did China face during the Cold War? • How did calls for political reform led to repression? • What challenges face China today?
  43. 43. 2 Communist Policies Although some reforms did result in more access to education and greater equality, people in China paid a heavy cost for Mao’s programs. During the 1950s and 1960s, two efforts in particular led to economic disaster and tremendous loss of life. In the “Great Leap Forward,” Mao urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm output. • Food output slowed and backyard industries turned out low- quality, useless goods. • A terrible famine occurred. Between 1959 and 1961, up to 30 million Chinese starved to death. The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to purge China of “bourgeois” tendencies. • The Cultural Revolution convulsed China. Schools and factories closed. The economy slowed, and civil war threatened.
  44. 44. 2 China and the Cold War RELATIONS WITH THE RELATIONS WITH THE SOVIET UNION UNITED STATES Stalin sent economic aid and technical experts to China, but At first, the United States he and Mao disagreed on many refused to recognize the issues. People’s Republic of China and for years tried to isolate China and the Soviet Union China. competed for influence in developing nations. Slowly, relations improved. By 1960, border disputes and In 1979, the United States set clashes over ideology led the up formal diplomatic relations Soviets to withdraw all aid and with China. advisers from China.
  45. 45. "Tank man” blocks a column of tanks heading east on Beijing's Chang'an Boulevard (Avenue of Eternal Peace) near Tiananmen Square during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. This photo was taken from the sixth floor of the Beijing Hotel, about half a mile away, through a 400mm lens. We see bags in his left hand indicating that he must have been on his way home from shopping which raises the question of whether this was a student protester or a man standing up for students. The name and fate of the man is unknown. This photo was taken on June 5, 1989, by Jeff Widener (The Associated Press).
  46. 46. 2 Tiananmen Square The crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders were determined to maintain control. To them, order was more important than political freedom. By the late 1980s, some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom and economic reform. In 1989, thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square and called for democracy. The government sent in troops and tanks. Thousands of demonstrators were killed or wounded.
  47. 47. 2 Challenges Today China’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure from trading partners such as the United States. Population growth strained the economy and posed a challenge for the future. As communist ideology weakened, government corruption became a growing problem. Many state-run industries were inefficient, but could not be closed without risking high unemployment and economic chaos. Inequalities between rich and poor urban and rural Chinese continued to grow.
  48. 48. 3 The Asian Tigers • How has China influenced Taiwan and Hong Kong? • How did Singapore modernize? • Why has Korea remained divided for more than 50 years?
  49. 49. 3 Asian Tigers The term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. • All four are small Asian lands that became “newly industrialized countries” by the 1980s. • They are known for their aggressive economic growth. • Although they differ in important ways, all followed similar roads to modernization after 1945. • All four were influenced by China. • In each, the Confucian ethic shaped attitudes about work. • All four had stable governments that invested in education.
  50. 50. 3 Taiwan and Hong Kong Both Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links to China. TAIWAN HONG KONG Taiwan was ruled by China until Britain won Hong Kong from 1895, when it fell to Japan. China after the Opium War. The Japanese built some industry, Hong Kong’s prosperity was providing a foundation for later based largely on trade and light growth. industry. Taiwan first set up light industries Hong Kong also became a world and later, developed heavy financial center. industry. Hong Kong’s amazing growth After the Cold War, Taiwanese was due in part to its location on businesses invested in companies China’s doorstep. on the Chinese mainland. In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kong to China.
  51. 51. 3 How Did Singapore Modernize? During his 30 years in power, Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew: • supported a free-market economy • attracted foreign capital by keeping labor costs low • expanded Singapore’s seaport into one of the world’s busiest harbors • welcomed skilled immigrants • insisted on education for all of Singapore’s people • encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, and tourism • followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hard work and saving money
  52. 52. 3 The Two Koreas After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea along the 38th parallel. Before long, North Korea became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. The United States backed noncommunist South Korea. In 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea. The war turned into a stalemate. In 1953, both sides signed an armistice, or end to fighting. The armistice has held for 50 years, but no peace treaty has ever been negotiated.
  53. 53. 3 Korean War, 1950 – 1953
  54. 54. 4 Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim • How did war affect Vietnam and Cambodia? • What challenges faced the Philippines and the developing nations of Southeast Asia? • Why is the Pacific Rim a vital region?
  55. 55. 4 War in Vietnam and Cambodia In mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle tore apart the region once known as French Indochina. VIETNAM CAMBODIA Communists fought against During the Vietnam War, fighting spilled noncommunists supported by the over into neighboring Cambodia. United States for control of Vietnam. In 1970, the United States bombed and After the United States withdrew then invaded Cambodia. from the war, the North Vietnamese When the United States left, communist reunited the country under guerrillas called Khmer Rouge, led by Pol communist rule. The communist Pot, slaughtered more than a million victors imposed harsh rule in the Cambodians. south. Vietnam had to rebuild a land In 1979, Vietnam invaded and occupied destroyed by war. Cambodia. Recently, VN has become more open Land mines cover huge % of Cambodia* economically to the market economy & trade
  56. 56. 4 Vietnam War, 1968 – 1975
  57. 57. 4 The Philippines In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50 years of American rule. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcos promised reform but became a dictator. In 1986, the people of the Philippines forced Marcos to leave in what was called the “people power” revolution. Corazón Aquino became president and restored the fragile democracy. Challenges: • The country enjoyed economic growth during the 1990s, but many people remained poor. • Government corruption and guerrilla wars threatened the nation’s stability. • The Philippines experienced rapid urbanization. • Natural disasters caused setbacks. • Many enterprising Filipinos left the country.
  58. 58. 4 Developing Nations of Southeast Asia Southeast Asian nations faced many problems after independence. They lacked experience in self-government. They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts. Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent. MYANMAR INDONESIA Geography posed an obstacle to unity in Indonesia. For years, repressive military rulers battled rebel ethnic minorities. They isolated the Under authoritarian rule, country and imposed state socialism. Indonesia made great economic progress. In 1990, the government held elections. The opposition party won, but the military The 1997 Asian financial crisis led to rejected the election results. riots against the government. A new government was elected and faced many problems.
  59. 59. 4 The Pacific Rim In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asia are part of a vast region known as the Pacific Rim. It includes countries in Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean. • By the 1990s, the volume of trade across the Pacific Rim was greater than that across the Atlantic. The region has potential for further growth. • Countries on the Pacific Rim formed a huge market that lured investors, especially multinational corporations. • The development of the Pacific Rim promises to bring the Americas and Asia closer together.
  60. 60. South Asia and the Middle East (1945–Present)
  61. 61. Section 1: Nations of South Asia Section 2: Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East Section 3: Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies Section 4: The Middle East and the World
  62. 62. 1 Nations of South Asia • Why was India partitioned? • How has India dealt with political, economic, and social change? • What problems did Pakistan and Bangladesh face? • How is South Asia linked to world affairs?
  63. 63. 1 Why Was India Partitioned? After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand for independence. Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan. Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain to partition, or divide, the subcontinent. In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence erupted in Northern India. Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a million people, including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed. Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensions persisted.
  64. 64. 1 Partition of India, 1947
  65. 65. 1 Cause and Effect: Partition of India Long-Term Short-Term Effects Connections Causes Causes to Today Muslim conquest World War II Violence erupts as Continuing clash of northern India weakens European millions of Hindus between India in 1100s colonial empires and Muslims cross and Pakistan the border over Kashmir British Pressure from Indian between India and imperialism in nationalists Nuclear arms Pakistan India increases race as both Gandhi is India and Nationalists Insistence by assassinated by Pakistan refuse organize the Muhammad Ali Hindu extremists to sign Non- Indian National Jinnah and the Proliferation Congress in 1885 Muslim League that India and Pakistan Treaty Muslims have their become centers of Muslim own state Cold War rivalry nationalists form separate Muslim Rioting between Establishment of League in 1906 Hindus and Muslims the state of throughout northern Bangladesh India
  66. 66. 1 India: Political, Economic, and Social Change POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL India’s constitution set up a India adopted a socialist Urbanization undermined federal system. model to expand agriculture some traditions, but most For 40 years after and industry. Indians continued to live independence, the Nehru Rapid population growth hurt in villages. family led India. efforts to improve living India’s size and diversity conditions. The government tried to have contributed to end discrimination based An economic slowdown religious and regional on caste. However, deep forced India to privatize some divisions. prejudice continued. industries and make foreign Today, India is the world’s investment easier. largest democratic nation.
  67. 67. 1 PAKISTAN BANGLADESH After independence, military leaders seized power and ruled as dictators. In 1971, Bengalis declared When civilian leaders were finally independence for Bangladesh. elected, the military continued to Geography has made it difficult to rise intervene. out of poverty. The country lacked natural resources for industry. Explosive population growth has further strained resources. Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts. Severe economic problems and Since the early 1990s, civilian corruption plagued the government. governments have worked to encourage foreign investments. Forty percent of the nation’s budget goes to repaying foreign debt.
  68. 68. 1 How is South Asia Linked to World Affairs? • India and Pakistan achieved their independence as the Cold War began. • Pakistan accepted military aid from the United States, while India signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union. • When the Cold War ended, both India and Pakistan sought aid from the western powers. • Regional conflicts bred global concern after both India and Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons.
  69. 69. 2 Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East • How have diversity and nationalism shaped the Middle East? • What political and economic patterns have emerged? • Why has an Islamic revival spread across the region? • How do women’s lives vary in the Middle East?
  70. 70. 2 Diversity and Nationalism DIVERSITY NATIONALISM Most people in the Middle East After World War I, Arab nationalists today are Muslims, but Jews and opposed the mandate system that placed Christians still live there. Arab territories under European control. Middle Eastern people speak more than 30 different languages. The Pan-Arab dream of a united Arab state foundered, but the Arab League Every country is home to minority continued to promote Arab solidarity. groups. Muslims share the same faith but belong to different national groups. Often, such differences have created divisions.
  71. 71. 2 Political and Economic Patterns GOVERNMENT OIL Most Middle Eastern nations Oil-rich nations built roads, developed authoritarian hospitals, and schools. Poorer governments. countries lacked the capital needed for development. WATER ECONOMICS Most of the region has limited rainfall. Some nations turned to socialism to end Oil-rich countries have built desalinization foreign economic control and modernize plants. rapidly. Individual nations have built dams to To get capital, governments took foreign supply water. loans. Nations must seek ways to use water Heavy borrowing left many nations cooperatively. deeply in debt.
  72. 72. 2 World Crude Oil Production
  73. 73. 2 Water Resources in the Middle East
  74. 74. 2 Islamic Revival For more than 1,300 years, the Quran and Sharia provided guidance on all aspects of life. During the Age of Imperialism, westerners urged Muslim nations to modernize and to adopt western forms of secular government and law. Some Middle Eastern leaders adopted western models of development, promising economic progress and social justice. By the 1970s, in the face of failed development and repressive regimes, many Muslim leaders called for a return to Sharia. Islamic reformers, called fundamentalists by the West, did not reject modernization, but they did reject westernization.
  75. 75. 2 Women in the Muslim World Conditions for women vary greatly from country to country in the modern Middle East. Since the 1950s, women in most countries have won voting rights and equality before the law. In other countries, though, laws and traditions emerged that limited women’s right to vote, work, or even drive cars. The changes have taken place at different rates in different places: • In Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, many urban women gave up long- held practices such as wearing hejab, or cover. • Conservative countries like Saudi Arabia and Iran have opposed the spread of western secular influences among women.
  76. 76. 3 Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies • What issues has Turkey faced? • Why was Egypt a leader in the Arab world? • What were the causes and results of the revolution in Iran?
  77. 77. 3 What Issues Has Turkey Faced? • At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to expand southward into Turkey. • Turkey struggled to build a stable government. • Modernization and urbanization brought social turmoil. Outlawing of the fez and Kemal Attaurk • In 1999, a series of powerful earthquakes shook western Turkey, including major industrial areas. • Kurdish nationalists fought for autonomy. • Turkey waged a long struggle over Cyprus. • Turkey was divided politically, with secular politicians on one side and Islamic reformers on the other.
  78. 78. 3 Egypt: A Leader in the Arab World In the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination. He: • nationalized the Suez Canal • led two wars against Israel • employed socialist economic policies, which had limited success • built the Aswan High Dam Anwar al-Sadat came to power in the 1970s. He: • opened Egypt to foreign investment and private business • became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak: • reaffirmed the peace with Israel • mended fences with his Arab neighbors • faced serious domestic problems
  79. 79. 3 Iran’s Ongoing Revolution Because of its vast oil fields, Iran became a focus of western interests. In 1945, western powers backed Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, despite opposition from Iranian nationalists. In the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who condemned western influences and accused the shah of violating Islamic law. The shah was forced into exile and Khomeini’s supporters proclaimed an Islamic Republic. Revolutionaries bitterly denounced the West. They attacked corruption, replaced secular courts with religious ones, dismantled women’s rights, and banned everything western. While, at first, they allowed some open discussion, before long they were suppressing opponents.
  80. 80. 4 The Middle East and the World • How did the Cold War increase tensions in the Middle East? • Why has the Arab-Israeli conflict been difficult to resolve? • Why did conflicts arise in Lebanon and the Persian Gulf?
  81. 81. 4 The Cold War and the Middle East During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union sought access to the oil and waterways of the Middle East. Superpower rivalries had a far-reaching impact on the region. • In their global rivalry, each of the superpowers tried to line up allies in the Middle East. • Each superpower sold arms to its ally in the region. • In the Arab-Israeli conflict, the United States helped Israel, while the Soviet Union gave aid to the Arabs. • During and after the Cold War, the development of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East became a global concern.
  82. 82. 4 Arab-Israeli Issues After years of fighting and negotiations, peace in Israel remains an elusive goal. A number of specific issues continue to divide the two sides. Palestinians demanded that part Palestinians demanded the right of Jerusalem become the capital to return to lands they fled of a future Palestinian nation. during the Arab Israeli wars. Israeli conservatives insisted that Jerusalem remain undivided as the Many Israelis insisted on the survival capital of Israel. of Israeli settlements that had been built on these occupied lands.
  83. 83. 4 Arab- Israeli Conflict, 1948 - 1995
  84. 84. 4 Civil War in Lebanon In the 1970s, the Arab-Israeli conflict fueled tensions in nearby Lebanon. • The Muslim population began to increase, disturbing the balance among Maronites (a Christian sect) and Sunni and Shiite Muslims. This led to unrest. • Palestinian refugees entering Lebanon from occupied territories strained resources. • PLO guerrillas in refugee camps in Lebanon crossed into Israel to attack civilian and military targets. In 1975, Lebanon was plunged into seemingly endless civil war. • Christian and Muslim militias battled for control of Beirut, the capital city. • Israel invaded the south, while Syria occupied eastern Lebanon. By 1990, Lebanese leaders finally restored some measure of order.
  85. 85. 4 Wars in the Persian Gulf Border disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitious rulers fed tensions along the Persian Gulf. In 1980, Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran. • The resulting war dragged on for eight years, ending in a stalemate. For both nations, the human and economic toll was enormous. In 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil-rich nation of Kuwait. • In the Gulf War, the United States organized a coalition of United Nations/American, European, and Arab powers to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
  86. 86. 4 Wars in the Persian Gulf, 1980 – 1991
  87. 87. Africa (1945–Present)
  88. 88. Chapter 36: Africa (1945–Present) Section 1: Achieving Independence Section 2: Programs for Development Section 3: Three Nations: A Closer Look Section 4: Struggles in Southern Africa
  89. 89. 1 Achieving Independence • How did colonialism contribute to a growing spirit of nationalism? • What routes to freedom did Ghana, Kenya, and Algeria follow? • How did the Cold War affect Africa?
  90. 90. 1 The Colonial Legacy Western imperialism had a complex and contradictory impact on Africa. Some changes brought real gains. Others had a destructive effect on African life that is felt down to the present. • After liberation, the pattern of economic dependence established during the colonial period continued. • During the colonial period, Europeans undermined Africa’s traditional political system. • Colonial doctors addressed some diseases, such as yellow fever, smallpox, and malaria. Colonial governments did not emphasize general health care, however. • At independence, African nations inherited borders drawn by colonial powers. These borders often caused immense problems.
  91. 91. 1 A Growing Spirit of Nationalism In 1945, the rising tide of nationalism was sweeping over European colonial empires. Around the world, liberation would follow this tide. Impact of The Global Nationalist World War II Setting Leaders Japanese victories in Asia After the war, most Most were western shattered the West’s Europeans had had their fill educated. reputation as an of fighting. unbeatable force. Leaders organized In response to growing political parties, which Africans who fought for demands for independence, published newspapers, the Allies resented the Britain and France held rallies, and discrimination and introduced political reforms mobilized support for second-class status they that would lead to independence. returned to at home. independence.
  92. 92. 1 Routes to Freedom During the great liberation, each African nation had its own leaders and its own story. GHANA KENYA ALGERIA Kwame Nkrumah tried Before World War II, Jomo Muslim Algerian to win independence for Kenyatta became a nationalists used guerrilla the British trading spokesman for the Kikuyu, warfare to win colony Gold Coast. He who had been displaced by independence from France. organized strikes and white settlers. During eight years of boycotts. Radical leaders turned to fighting, hundreds of Nkrumah was guerrilla warfare. thousands of Algerians, and imprisoned. The British imprisoned thousands of French, were In 1957, Gold Coast won Kenyatta and killed or killed. independence. imprisoned thousands of Kikuyu. In 1962, Algeria won Nkrumah named the new country Ghana, independence. after the ancient West In 1963, Kenya won its African empire. independence.
  93. 93. 1 The Cold War and Africa African nations emerged into a world dominated by rival blocs led by the United States and the Soviet Union. • By supplying arms to rival governments, the superpowers boosted the power of the military in many countries and contributed to instability. • Cold War rivalries affected local conflicts within Africa. The Soviet Union and the United States supported rival groups in the liberation struggles. • Weapons supplied by the superpowers enabled rival clans, militias, or guerrilla forces to spread violence across many lands.
  94. 94. 2 Programs for Development • What were barriers to unity and stability in Africa? • What economic choices did African nations make? • What critical issues affect African nations today? • How has modernization affected patterns of life?
  95. 95. 2 Barriers to Unity and Stability • Once freedom was won, many Africans felt their first loyalty to their own ethnic group, not to a national government. • Civil wars, some of which were rooted in colonial history, erupted in many new nations. • Faced with divisions that threatened national unity, many early leaders turned to a one-party system. • When bad government led to unrest, the military often seized power.
  96. 96. 2 Economic Choices SOCIALISM OR CAPITALISM CASH CROPS OR FOOD Governments pushed to grow more cash Many new nations chose socialism. crops for export. Some nations set up mixed economies, As a result, countries that once fed their with both private and state-run people from their own land had to import enterprises. food. URBAN OR RURAL NEEDS THE DEBT CRISIS Many governments kept food prices Lenders required developing nations to artificially low to satisfy poor city people. make tough economic reforms before As a result, farmers used their land for extending new loans. export crops or produced only for themselves. In the short term, these reforms increased Many governments neglected rural unemployment and led to higher prices the development in favor of industrial projects. poor could not pay.
  97. 97. 2 Critical Issues DROUGHT AND FAMINE POPULATION In the 1970s and 1980s, EXPLOSION prolonged drought contributed to famine in parts of Africa. The rising population put a staggering burden on Africa’s developing economies. AIDS The AIDS epidemic spread rapidly across parts of Africa. DEFORESTATION In 1998, it was estimated that more Once forests were cleared, than 21 million people were heavy rains washed nutrients infected with the virus. from the soil and destroyed its fertility.
  98. 98. 2 Population Population Pyramids Pyramids Kenya Ages Males Females Ages 60-79 60-79 40-59 40-59 20-39 20-39 0-19 0-19 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of male population Percentage of female population Nigeria Ages Males Females Ages 60-79 60-79 40-59 40-59 20-39 20-39 0-19 0-19 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of male population Percentage of female population South Africa Ages Males Females Ages 60-79 60-79 40-59 40-59 20-39 20-39 0-19 0-19 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
  99. 99. 2 Desertification in Africa Desertification is the spread of desert areas. Overgrazing and farming remove topsoil and speed up the process of desertification.
  100. 100. 2 Old and New Patterns In Africa, as elsewhere, modernization disrupted old ways. URBANIZATION WOMEN Urbanization contributed to the As men moved to cities, rural women took on development of a larger national the sole responsibility of providing for their identity. children. However, it weakened traditional Most constitutions promised women cultures and undermined ethnic and generous rights. In reality, most women’s kinship ties. lives continued to be ruled by traditional laws. CHRISTIANITY ISLAMIC REVIVAL Christianity has grown since its Messages of reform based on Islamic introduction to Africa centuries ago. traditions and the call for social justice were welcomed by many Islamic Africans. Christian churches often combine Christian and traditional African beliefs. In some areas, it stimulated deeper religious commitment.
  101. 101. 3 Three Nations: A Closer Look • What were some pressures for change in Nigeria? • What effects did dictatorship have on the Congo? • What was the outcome of Tanzania’s experiment in socialism?
  102. 102. 3 Pressures for Change in Nigeria At independence, Nigeria drew up a constitution to protect various regional interests. The system did not work and ethnic rivalries increased. When Ibo leaders declared the independent state of Biafra, civil war broke out. By the time Biafra surrendered, almost a million people had died. During the 1970s oil boom, Nigeria set up industries and borrowed heavily from the West. Between 1960 and 1985, rural people flooded to the cities. While the cities grew, Nigeria ignored its farmers. Once a food exporter, Nigeria began importing expensive grain. When oil prices fell, the economy almost collapsed. During Nigeria’s debt crisis in the 1980s, General Ibrahim Babangida imposed harsh economic reforms to restore economic stability. In 1993, elections were held, but Babangida and his military successors set aside election results and cracked down on critics.
  103. 103. 3 Dictatorship in Congo After World War II, Belgium was determined to keep the Congo and did nothing to prepare the colony for freedom. In 1960, Belgium suddenly rushed the Congo to independence. With some 200 ethnic groups and no sense of unity, the new nation quickly split apart. Civil war raged for almost three years. In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko seized power and renamed the country Zaire. For the next 30 years, Mobutu built an increasingly brutal dictatorship. In the late 1990s, ethnic violence in neighboring countries spilled into Zaire. Mobutu was at last overthrown. Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuing violence.
  104. 104. 3 Tanzania’s Experiment in Socialism Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, sought to improve rural life, build a classless society, and create a self-reliant economy. To carry out his programs, Nyerere embraced “African socialism.” Nyerere claimed that this system was based on African village traditions of cooperation and shared responsibility. Under African socialism, rural farmers were encouraged to live in large villages and farm the land collectively.Under this arrangement, Nyerere believed farm output would increase. Nyerere’s experiment did not work as planned. Many families had to be forcibly moved to the village collectives, farm output did not rise, and high oil prices, inflation, and a bloated bureaucracy plunged Tanzania into debt. Nyerere’s successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi moved Tanzania toward a market economy. These moves brought some improvement.
  105. 105. 4 Struggles in Southern Africa • What challenges faced Zimbabwe? • How did the long struggle to end apartheid lead to a new South Africa? • How did the Cold War affect nations of southern Africa?
  106. 106. 4 What Challenges Faced Zimbabwe? In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe. The new nation faced severe challenges after years of war: • International sanctions had damaged the economy. • Droughts had caused problems. • Recovery was slowed by a power struggle between nationalist leaders, Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo. • When Mugabe prevailed and became president, he called for a one-party system and tolerated little opposition. • In 2000, tensions over land ownership led to renewed violence.
  107. 107. 4 South Africa’s Long Struggle APARTHEID BLACK RESISTANCE TOWARD REFORM In 1910, South Africa From the beginning, black In the late 1980s, won self-rule from South Africans protested President F. W. de Klerk Britain. Over the next apartheid. In 1912, the African abandoned apartheid, decades, the white National Congress (ANC) was lifted the ban on the minority government set up to oppose white ANC, and freed Mandela. imposed apartheid, a domination. Nelson Mandela In 1994, Mandela was system of racial laws mobilized young South elected president in which separated the Africans to take part in acts of South Africa’s first civil disobedience against races and kept the multiracial elections. apartheid laws. As protests black majority in a Mandela welcomed continued, government subordinate position. longtime political foes violence increased. into his government.
  108. 108. 4 Other Nations of Southern Africa NAMIBIA PORTUGUESE COLONIES: Angola & Mozambique Instead of preparing the territory for Portugal was unwilling to relinquish its independence, South Africa backed the colonies in Angola and Mozambique. oppressive regime run by the white In 1975,after fifteen years of fighting, minority. Angola and Mozambique won By the 1960s, the Southwest African independence. People’s Organization (SWAPO) turned to After independence, bitter civil wars armed struggle to win independence. raged, fueled by Cold War rivalries. The struggle became part of the Cold The United States and South Africa saw War, with the Soviet Union and Cuba the struggles in southern Africa as a lending their support to the threat because some of the liberation independence movement. leaders were socialists. When the Cold War ended, Namibia was The end of the Cold War helped stop the finally able to win independence. conflict.
  109. 109. 4 Outlook and Gains Despite many setbacks, African nations have made progress. EDUCATION HEALTH CARE As governments set up more schools, Most African nations sought to improve literacy rates rose. health care and created family planning Universities trained a new generation of programs. leaders. Governments recognized the profound A few countries promoted higher effect population growth had on education for women. standards of living. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY CULTURE Africa has enormous In literature, film, and the arts, potential for growth. Africans made major contributions to global culture. With free-market reforms, countries such as Ghana enjoyed economic growth.
  110. 110. Latin America (1945–Present)
  111. 111. Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin America Section 2: Latin America, the United States, and the World Section 3: Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil
  112. 112. 1 Forces Shaping Modern Latin America • Why is Latin America a culturally diverse region? • What conditions contributed to unrest in Latin American countries? • What forces shaped political, economic, and social patterns in Latin America?
  113. 113. 1 Why Is Latin America a Diverse Region? Conquest • After 1492, Europeans imposed their civilization on Native Americans. Immigration • Since the late 1800s, immigrants from Europe and Asia have contributed to the diversity. Intermarriage • As Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans mingled, they created new cultures.
  114. 114. 1 Ethnic Diversity in Latin America
  115. 115. 1 Sources of Unrest • A growing gulf between the rich and the poor fueled discontent in the postwar era. • A population explosion contributed to poverty. • Pressure on the land contributed to a great migration that sent millions of peasants to the cities.
  116. 116. 1 Political Forces in Latin America Most Latin American states had constitutions modeled on those of France and the United States. Yet, real democracy seemed difficult to achieve in nations plagued by poverty and inequality. • Conflict between conservatives and reformers contributed to political instability in many nations. • Military leaders held power in many Latin American nations. • During the 1960s and 1970s, guerrillas and urban terrorists battled repressive governments in many Latin American countries. • By the mid-1980s, inflation, debt, and growing protests led repressive leaders to step aside. • A number of countries held elections to replace military governments with civilian governments. • Heavy debt burden and economic slowdowns have threatened the success of elected rulers, putting the stability of democratic governments in the region in doubt.
  117. 117. 1 Economic Development By the 1960s, Latin America faced growing competition from African and Asian nations. To reduce dependence on imported goods, many governments encouraged the development of local industries. This policy, called import substitution, had mixed success. Over the past 60 years, large areas of land were opened up to farming. Much of the best farmland belonged to agribusiness. Commercial agriculture increased the need to import food. In the 1980s, the region was rocked by economic crisis. In the 1990s, free trade organizations, such as NAFTA, opened Latin American economies to larger markets. The mutual support and expanded markets of these organizations did bring some economic growth in the years around 2000.
  118. 118. 1 Changing Social Patterns In Latin America, as elsewhere, urbanization brought social upheaval. URBANIZATION WOMEN RELIGION City life weakened the Upper-class women had The Catholic Church has extended family. access to education and remained a powerful careers. force. The struggle to make a During the 1960s and living caused some Rural women often faced 1970s, the Church families to fall apart. hardship and poverty. crusaded for social justice and an end to In large cities, thousands Women struggled to win poverty. This movement of abandoned or change. became known as runaway children roamed liberation theology. the streets.
  119. 119. 2 Latin America, the United States, and the World • How did communist rule affect Cuba? • What policies did the United States follow in Latin America? • What global issues have linked Latin America to other regions in the world?
  120. 120. Communism in Cuba 2 In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communist state. Castro: • nationalized foreign-owned sugar plantations and other businesses • put most land under government control • distributed land to peasants Effects of communist rule: Castro imposed harsh authoritarian rule. Conditions for the poor improved, basic health care was provided for all, the literacy rate increased, and equality for women was promoted. Critics were jailed or silenced and hundreds of thousands fled to the United States. When the Cold War ended, Soviet aid disappeared, and Cuba’s economy collapsed.
  121. 121. 2 The United States and Latin America • The United States was the leading investor and trading partner for most nations in Latin America. • During the Cold War, the United States intervened repeatedly in Latin America to protect its interests and to prevent the spread of communism. • The United States saw itself as the defender of democracy and capitalism and the source of humanitarian aid. Many Latin Americans, however, resented living under the shadow of the “colossus of the north.” • Latin American nations and the United States worked together in the Organization of American States (OAS). The organization was formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights.
  122. 122. 2 Regional and Global Issues REGIONAL TIES THE DRUG WARS Regional trading blocs gained Drug cartels in Latin America began exportin importance in the 1990s. Such groups ever-larger quantities of cocaine and other created larger markets by lowering drugs. trade barriers among neighboring In the 1980s, the United States declared a countries. “war on drugs,” pressing Latin American Examples: NAFTA, Mercosur governments to cooperate with these efforts DEVELOPMENT VS ENVIRONMENT MIGRATION Developing nations insisted Poverty, civil war, and repressive that they needed to exploit governments caused Latin American their land and other resources immigration to the United States to if they wanted economic increase rapidly after the 1970s. growth. This came at the expense of the environment. Pressure increased in the United States to halt illegal immigration.
  123. 123. 3 Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean • What conditions have changed and what conditions have remained the same in Mexico? • Why did Central American countries suffer civil wars? • What were the causes of Haiti’s political and economic struggles?
  124. 124. 3 Continuity and Change in Mexico After the Mexican Revolution, government officials became committed to improving conditions for the poor. At the end of the 1900s, however, Mexico remained a disturbing mix of poverty and prosperity. Since the Mexican Revolution, a single party — the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) — dominated Mexican politics. In the 1990s, the PRI began to lose its monopoly on power. In the 1930s, the Mexican government distributed millions of acres of land to peasants. Over the years, as economic conditions worsened, many peasants migrated to towns and cities. The population of Mexico City mushroomed from 1.5 million in 1940 to about 20 million in 1995.
  125. 125. 3 War and Peace in Central America In Central America, unrest threatened and discontent grew. Fearing the spread of communism, the United States intervened repeatedly in the region. NICARAGUA GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR In 1979, revolutionaries Fearing communist During a vicious civil war, called Sandinistas ousted influence, the United right-wing death squads the ruling Somoza family. States helped oust slaughtered anyone Guatemala’s reformist thought to sympathize Fearing that Nicaragua government in 1954. with the leftists. would become socialist, While the military regained The United States pressed the United States secretly power, decades of civil war for reform, but at the same backed the “contras” in a ensued, during which the time provided weapons long civil war against the government routinely and other aid to help the Sandinistas. tortured and murdered military battle rebel critics. guerrillas.
  126. 126. 3 The Impact of Hurricane Mitch Hurricane Mitch dealt a devastating social and economic blow to Central America, whose nations were just recovering from decades of civil war.
  127. 127. 3 Struggle in Haiti POLITICAL ECONOMIC STRUGGLES STRUGGLES Haiti endured brutal dictatorial Haiti is the poorest state in the rule from 1957 until 1986. Western Hemisphere, lacking A succession of military leaders adequate roads, electricity, and then ruled the nation until other services. 1990. The weakness of the government In 1990, in its first free discouraged foreign investment. elections, Jean-Bertrand A skewed distribution of wealth Aristide was chosen as put most of the productive land in president. the hands of one or two percent Aristide was overthrown by a of the citizens. military coup, but restored to Hit by earthquake recently, and power by the United States. world compassion moved in to help.
  128. 128. 4 Focus on Argentina and Brazil • What challenges has democracy faced in Argentina? • How did Brazil’s government change in recent times? • Why did Brazil’s “economic miracle” have limited success?
  129. 129. 4 From Dictatorship to Democracy in Argentina From 1946 to 1955, the authoritarian government of Juan Perón stifled opposition. In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup. For two decades, the military was in and out of power. In 1973, Perón returned to power. When he died the next year, his second wife, Isabel Perón, became president. When she faced economic and political crises, the military took over. To combat leftist guerrillas, the army waged a “dirty war,” torturing and murdering as many as 20,000 people. In 1983, an elected government restored democracy. Despite some setbacks, democratic rule survived.
  130. 130. 4 Economic Activity in Argentina
  131. 131. 4 Government in Brazil Between 1930 and 1945, dictator Getúlio Vargas allied himself with the working poor. In 1945, the military overthrew Vargas. The military allowed elected presidents to rule for the next 20 years. In the mid-1980s, the military eased their grip on power. Brazilians voted directly for a president for the first time in 29 years. In 1964, economic problems and fear of communism led the military to take over again.
  132. 132. 4 Urbanization in Brazil
  133. 133. 4 Brazil’s Economic Miracle Beginning in the 1930s, Brazil diversified its economy and, for a time, chalked up impressive growth. Brazil’s prosperity enriched only a few. To most Brazilians, it brought little or no benefit. In the 1980s, Brazil faced a host of economic problems — from inflation to a staggering debt. One of the greatest economic problems was the unequal distribution of land. In the 1990s, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, provided strong leadership for Brazil. His policies promoted rapid economic growth and helped limit inflation. He promised to distribute land to 300,000 families.

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