Chapters 18 22 nb

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Chapters 18 22 nb

  1. 1. The World Since 1945: An Overview (1945–Present)
  2. 2. The World Since 1945: An Overview (1945–present)Section 1: The Changing Political ClimateSection 2: Global Economic TrendsSection 3: Changing Patterns of Life
  3. 3. 1The Changing Political Climate• How did the end of colonialism and the Cold War shape the world?• How did new nations try to form stable governments?• What role have world organizations played?• What enduring issues face the world today?
  4. 4. The Cold War and the End of ColonialismIn the postwar decades, the colonial empires built by thewestern powers crumbled.In Asia and Africa, people demanded and won freedoms.Between 1950 and 1980, more than 50 new nations emerged inAfrica alone.The new nations emerged in a world dominated and divided bythe Cold War. Each of the superpowers, the United States andthe Soviet Union, wanted new countries to adopt its ideology, orsystem of thought or belief—either capitalism or socialism.
  5. 5. The Great Liberation and the Cold 1 War, 1945 – 1990
  6. 6. 1 How Did New Nations Seek Stability?After winning independence, new nations had high hopes for thefuture. Still, they faced immense problems.New nations wrote constitutions modeled on westerndemocracies.Most were unable to sustain democratic rule.As problems multiplied, military or authoritarian leaders oftentook control. They imposed order by building one-partydictatorships.Despite setbacks, in the 1980s and 1990s democracy did makeprogress in some African, Asian, and Latin American nations.
  7. 7. 1 The Role of World OrganizationsInternational organizations deal with issues of global concern.The UN was set up as a forum for settling world disputes. Itsresponsibilities have expanded greatly since 1945. UN agenciesprovide services for millions of people worldwide.Many nations formed regional groups to promote trade or meetcommon needs. Examples include the European Union and theNorth American Free Trade Association.The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) play alarge role in the world economy. WHO is the World HealthOrganization. NGOs swoop in to help in many crisis areas.Other types of nongovernmental organizations have forged valuableglobal networks. Examples include the International OlympicCommittee and the International Red Cross.
  8. 8. A family in Indonesia tries to make their way to shelter after tsunamis destroyedtheir village in 2004.Aid organizations like CARE (logo above) worked to bring relief to the devastatedregion.NGO’s= non-government organizations, like Greenpeace, Oxfam, AmnestyInternational, International Red Cross/Red Crescent, Doctors Without Borders, etc.
  9. 9. G-20 majoreconomies
  10. 10. Costs of Globalization •Loss and weakening of state/governmental sovereignty •Pressure to conform to global norms (business, law, culture, etc..) •Increased demands for autonomy (freedom?) within state borders •More vulnerable to actions/choices of other nations •Need to be more sensitive to decisions within the state •Problems once containable now spread to other nations more easily (crime, drugs, disease, pollution, terrorism, economic crisis) •Resources (land, capital, people) more easily exploited in developing states •More pressure to compete globally •Rapid raise in costs of urbanization and industrialization (pollution, crime, economic stratification, erosion of traditional culture) •"Americanization" or "Westernization" of culture and politics; emphasis on homogeneity (McWorld)Thomas Friedman
  11. 11. Benefits of Globalization•Interdependence leads to more cooperation on largerproblems•Reduction in barriers to trade, investment, and capital(human and physical) makes economic transactionseasier, more efficient and more profitable•Rapid economic growth•Consumers gain more access to wider array of products andreduced costs•Creation of regional and global institutions to cope withregional or global issues•Spread of democracy and human rights•Empowerment of non-state actors•New avenues for political access, redress and voice•Creating a sense of global citizenship Thomas Friedman
  12. 12. Global Issues Many issues pose a challenge to world peace. DEADLY WEAPONS HUMAN RIGHTS Since the United States exploded Human rights include “the right two atomic bombs in to life, liberty, and security of 1945, nations have poured person.” Human rights resources into building nuclear abuses, including torture and weapons. arbitrary arrest, occur around Weapons of Mass Destruction-- the world. WMDsTHE QUESTION OF INTERVENTION TERRORISM Since the 1960s, incidents of Does the world community have a terrorism have increased duty to step in to end human rights around the world. abuses? How can it intervene when the UN Charter forbids any action that violates the independence of a member nation?
  13. 13. Immigration IssuesAn Illegal CrossingEach year tens of thousands of illegalimmigrants, like this family, risk their lives to crossthe border between Mexico and the UnitedStates. What factors lead people to risk their livesin illegal border crossing?Why do signs like the one above fail to deter manymigrants?
  14. 14. 1 Section 1 AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end of a) World War II. b) European colonial empires. c) the Cold War. d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created to promote tradeand meet common needs? a) the European Union b) the International Red Cross c) the International Olympic Committee d) the UN
  15. 15. 1 Section 1 AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end of a) World War II. b) European colonial empires. c) the Cold War. d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created to promote tradeand meet common needs? a) the European Union b) the International Red Cross c) the International Olympic Committee d) the UN
  16. 16. 2 Global Economic Trends• In what ways are the global North and South economically interdependent?• Why have developing nations had trouble reaching their goals?• How is economic development linked to the environment?
  17. 17. 2 The Global North and South An economic gulf divides the world into two spheres — the relatively rich nations of the global North and the relatively poor nations of the global South. GLOBAL NORTH GLOBAL SOUTHIt includes the industrial nations of It refers to the developing world.Europe and North America, as well The South has 75 percent of theas Japan and Australia. world’s population and much ofAlthough pockets of poverty its natural resources.exist, the standard of living is While some nations have enjoyedgenerally high. strong growth, overall the globalMost people are literate, earn South remains underdevelopedadequate wages, and have basic and poor.health services. For most people, life is a dailyMost nations have basically struggle for survival.capitalist economies.
  18. 18. 2 Economic InterdependenceRich and poor nations are linked by many economic ties.•The nations of the global North control much of the world’scapital, trade, and technology.•The global North depends on low-paid workers in developingstates to produce manufactured goods as inexpensively as possible.In an interdependent world, events in one country can affectpeople everywhere.EXAMPLE: In 1973, a political crisis led the oil-rich nations of theMiddle East to halt oil exports and raise oil prices. These actionssent economic shock waves around the world.
  19. 19. 2 Obstacles to DevelopmentWhy have many developing nations been unable to makeprogress toward modernization? GEOGRAPHY Lack of natural resources, difficult climates, uncertain rainfall, and lack of good farmland have been obstacles for some nations. POPULATION AND POVERTY In the developing world, rapid population growth is linked to poverty. ECONOMIC POLICIES Many new nations saw socialism, rather than capitalism, as a way to modernize quickly. In the long run, socialism blocked economic growth. ECONOMIC DEPENDENCE Most new nations remained dependent on their former colonial rulers. POLITICAL INSTABILITY Political unrest often hindered economic development.
  20. 20. 2Health Statistics of Selected Countries, 1999
  21. 21. Rising Populations Strain ResourcesNow, across the developing world, many people are caught in a cycle of poverty. The UNestimates that 35,000 children die each day from starvation, disease, and other effects ofpoverty. Because of malnutrition and the lack of good schools, millions of people are proneto disease and unable to earn a good living. They and their children remain poor andcannot escape this tragic cycle.
  22. 22. 2 Development and the EnvironmentEconomic development has taken a heavy toll on theenvironment. Modern industry and agriculture havegobbled up natural resources and polluted much of theworld’s water, air, and soil.•Strip mining destroyed much land.•Chemical pesticides and fertilizers harmed the soil and water.•Gases from factories produced acid rain.•The emission of gases into the upper atmosphere has causedglobal warming, the increase in world temperatures. Rich nations consume most of the world’s resources and produce much of its pollution. At the same time, they have led the campaign to protect the environment.
  23. 23. http://www.phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_guided_tours/&filename=WH07A01871.swf&w=760&h=460 A Risky Situation Vials of the bacteria that cause plague were left improperly secured in Kazakhstan by Soviet scientists.
  24. 24. Ending Child Labor RUGMARK, an organizationthat works to end child labor, sponsors theeducation of South Asian students like this girl.The RUGMARK label on her sleeve also appearson carpets and rugs that were made withoutchild labor. What effect might labels like thisone have on people’s buying habits?Nike sweatshopin China. Often it is slave labor/children who pick the beans for your chocolate--and for minimal wages, if they are paid at all.
  25. 25. A Dangerous Leader New YorkCity police stand near a “Wanted”poster in 2001. An Arab manholds up a poster supporting binLaden.How do views like the one thisman expresses threaten theUnited States’ security?
  26. 26. Wars in Afghanistan and IraqOsama bin Laden and other al Qaeda leaders were living in Afghanistan in 2001.The government of that country, an Islamic fundamentalist group calledthe Taliban, refused to surrender the terrorists. The United States responded byattacking Afghanistan. With the help of Afghani warlords who opposed the Talibanand the use of military bases in neighboring Pakistan, American forces quicklyoverthrew the Taliban and drove the al Qaeda operatives into hiding or flight. BinLaden, however, remained at large.Two years after the war in Afghanistan, President Bush asked Congress to declarewar on Iraq, arguing that Saddam was secretly producing WMDs. Because noWMDs were found, the war was bitterly debated among Americans and aroundthe world. However, most in the global community welcomed the holding of freedemocratic elections in Iraq in early 2005, hoping that a democratic Iraq mightpositively influence the largely authoritarian Middle East.
  27. 27. Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin LadenArabic: (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011)was a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leaderof the terrorist organization a l-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attackson the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civiliantargets.Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigations list of FBI TenMost Wanted Fugitives.Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization had been major targets of theUnited States War on Terror. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders werebelieved to be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistans FederallyAdministered Tribal Areas. Navy SEALs took him out.
  28. 28. New Security Measures Take Shape Over the years that followed September 11, the United States made increasing security a top priority. It strengthened and reorganized its intelligence services. The government created a new Department of Homeland Security and instituted more rigorous security measures at airports and public buildings. A long-term effort was launched to find out how terrorist groups were funded, with the goal of cutting off terrorists’ money supply and thus limiting terrorist activity.A Risky SituationVials of the bacteria that causeplague were left improperlysecured in Kazakhstan by Sovietscientists.
  29. 29. Important Industrialized Regions
  30. 30. Influential Technology of the Twentieth Century
  31. 31. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhich of the following is true? a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’s population. b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’s population. c) Most nations in the Global North have basically socialist economies. d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a high standard of living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 was a) Angola. b) Japan. c) the United States. d) Guatemala.
  32. 32. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhich of the following is true? a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’s population. b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’s population. c) Most nations in the Global North have basically socialist economies. d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a high standard of living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 was a) Angola. b) Japan. c) the United States. d) Guatemala.
  33. 33. 3 Changing Patterns of Life• How are new ways of life replacing old ways?• How has modernization affected the lives of women?• What are the benefits and limits of modern science and technology?• What forces have shaped a new global culture?
  34. 34. How Are New Ways of Life Replacing 3 Old Ways?UrbanizationSince 1945, people in the developing world have flockedto the cities to find jobs and escape rural poverty.In the cities, the extended family of rural villages is giving way tothe nuclear family.WesternizationIn cities, people frequently adopt western fashions and ideas.Village LifeWesternization and technology are transforming villages.Changes such as roads, clinics, and television can enrich life, butthey also weaken traditional cultures.
  35. 35. 3New Rights and Roles for WomenAfter 1945, women’s movements brought changes toboth western and developing nations. By 1950, women had won the right to vote in many countries. A small number of women won elected office. In the industrialized world, more and more women worked outside the home. By the 1970s, the feminist movement sought greater access for women to jobs and promotions, equal pay for equal work, and an end to sexual harassment on the job. In emerging nations, women worked actively in nationalist struggles. HOWEVER……New roles for women raised difficult social issues. Working women had to balance jobs with child rearing and household work.
  36. 36. Science and Technology 3 Since 1945, technology has transformed human life and thought. BENEFITS DRAWBACKSThe computer brought an Technology has not been able toinformation revolution. solve such basic problems as hunger or poverty.Technology has improved life forpeople everywhere. Technology widened the gap between the global North andMedical advances have wiped South.out some diseases andprevented others. Technology has threatened many kinds of jobs. For example, oneNew technology increased food computer can process thousandsproduction for the world’s of telephone calls that were oncegrowing population. handled by human operators.
  37. 37. Important Industrialized Regions
  38. 38. Influential Technology of the Twentieth Century
  39. 39. 3 A New Global CultureModern communication technology has put peopleeverywhere in touch and has helped create a new globalculture. • The driving force behind this global culture has been the United States. American fashions, products, and entertainment have captured the world’s imagination. • The western world has also been influenced by nonwestern traditions and culture. • In the last 100 years, the western world has gained a new appreciation for the arts of other civilizations.
  40. 40. 3 Section 3 AssessmentWhich of the following was true of women in 1950? a) Many women were elected to public office. b) Women had won the right to vote in many countries. c) The feminist movement had ensured women equal pay for equal work. d) Women were working outside the home while men had taken over traditional household duties.Benefits of the technology age include all of the following except a) increased food production. b) an information revolution. c) the prevention of some diseases. d) an end to hunger and poverty.
  41. 41. 3 Section 3 AssessmentWhich of the following was true of women in 1950? a) Many women were elected to public office. b) Women had won the right to vote in many countries. c) The feminist movement had ensured women equal pay for equal work. d) Women were working outside the home while men had taken over traditional household duties.Benefits of the technology age include all of the following except a) increased food production. b) an information revolution. c) the prevention of some diseases. d) an end to hunger and poverty.
  42. 42. Europe and North America (1945–Present)
  43. 43. Europe and North America (1945–Present)Section 1: The Western World: An OverviewSection 2: The Western European DemocraciesSection 3: North American ProsperitySection 4: The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a SuperpowerSection 5: A New Era in Eastern Europe
  44. 44. 1The Western World: An Overview • What issues troubled Europe after the Cold War? • How have recent economic and political trends affected the West? • How has Europe moved toward greater unity? • How have social trends changed the West?
  45. 45. In a speech at Harvard University in June 1947, U.S. Secretary of StateGeorge Marshall made the case for the Marshall Plan, a United Statesassistance program for Western Europe.“Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but againsthunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival ofa working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of . . .conditions in which free institutions can exist.”
  46. 46. 1 Europe After the Cold War• Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe turned to the West for loans and investments to build capitalist economies.• Ethnic clashes, especially in the Balkans, created conflicts that threatened European peace.• The nuclear peril, although reduced, still remained.• NATO faced the debate as to whether it should become Europe’s peacekeeper and protector of human rights.
  47. 47. 1 Economic and Political TrendsPostwar governments in France, Italy, and Germany adopted manypolicies favored by the left. THE WELFARE THE OIL SHOCK ECONOMIC STATE SHIFTS After 1945, governments In 1973, OPEC cut oil The West faced growing extended the welfare production and raised competition from other state. prices. parts of the Governments took on a The higher prices caused world, causing many larger role in national inflation and slowed factories to close. economies. economic growth. Economies changed when Conservatives In 1979, OPEC again raised most new jobs were condemned the drift prices, triggering a severe created in service from the free enterprise recession, in which industries. system toward socialism. business slowed and The gap between the rich unemployment rates rose. and the poor grew.
  48. 48. 1 Welfare- StateSpendingin Britain, 1975 – 1980
  49. 49. 1 Toward European Unity• In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg — set up the European Coal and Steel Community. This agency set prices and regulated the coal and steel industries of member states.• In 1957, the same six nations formed the European Community (EC) or Common Market. Its goal was free trade. It also set up the European Parliament.• In 1973, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted to the Common Market.• In the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market expanded and took on the name European Union (EU). The EU pushed for complete economic unity and greater political unity.
  50. 50. European Union• In Europe, the Maastricht Treaty, which succeeded the Treaty of Rome and called for the creation of a union (and hence the change in name from European Community to European Union), created a monetary union and has the ultimate goal of creating a political union, with member countries switch adopting a common currency and a common central bank. A monetary union represents the fourth level of integration among politically independent countries.• The European Union (EU) consists of fifteen countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). On January 1, 1999, the eleven countries of the so-called euro-zone (excluding EU members Denmark, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) embarked on a venture that created the worlds second-largest economic zone, after the United States. The seeds for the euro were sown three decades ago. In 1969, Pierre Werner, a former prime minister of Luxembourg, was asked to chair a think-tank on how an European monetary union (EMU) could be achieved by 1980. The Werner Report, published in October 1970, outlined a three-phase plan that was very similar to the blueprint ultimately adopted in the Maastricht Treaty, signed on February 7, 1992. Like the Maastricht Treaty, the plan envisioned the replacement of local currencies by a single currency. However, the EMU was put on hold following the monetary chaos created by the first oil crisis. The next step on the path to monetary union was the creation of the European monetary system (EMS) in the late 1970s. Except for the United Kingdom, all member states of the European Union joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), which determined bilateral currency exchange rates. Currencies of the, by then, nine member states could still fluctuate, but movements were limited to a margin of 2.25 percent. The EMS also led to the European currency unit (ecu)—in some sense the predecessor of the euro. Note the ecu
  51. 51. 1EuropeanUnion, 195 7 – 2000
  52. 52. Social Trends Social change speeded up after 1945. SOCIAL CLASSES ETHNIC DIVERSITYClass lines blurred as prosperity spread. Since the 1950s, many immigrants fromMore and more people joined the former colonies in Asia, Africa, and themiddle class. Caribbean had settled in Europe.Most people faced greater Some Europeans resented the newcomers. Many immigrants faced discrimination andopportunities. segregation. WOMEN FAMILY LIFE Western families had fewerWomen in the West made progress children than in the past.toward legal and economic equality. Children stayed in school longer.Women narrowed the gender gap in The divorce rate climbed.hiring, promotion, and pay.
  53. 53. 1 Migrationto Western Europe
  54. 54. 1 Section 1 AssessmentWhen OPEC raised oil prices, European economies a) thrived. b) restructured so as not to be dependent on OPEC oil. c) slowed. d) were unaffected.Which of the following was an original member of the European Union? a) Britain b) Spain c) Finland d) West Germany
  55. 55. 1 Section 1 AssessmentWhen OPEC raised oil prices, European economies a) thrived. b) restructured so as not to be dependent on OPEC oil. c) slowed. d) were unaffected.Which of the following was an original member of the European Union? a) Britain b) Spain c) Finland d) West Germany
  56. 56. 2 The Western European Democracies• How did Britain’s policies change after World War II?• How did French power and prosperity revive?• How did Germany reunify?• What problems have other democratic nations faced?
  57. 57. 2 Britain: Changing Policies POST WORLD WAR II 1970s 1990s THE Voters elected the Voters elected the Voters elected the Labour party and Conservative party Labour party, whichWELFARE created the and reduced social pledged to follow a STATE welfare state. welfare programs. “third way” between the traditional right and left. Britain gave upWORLD global leadership British Britain joined the ROLE to the United Common Market. nationalism States, but led some remained a leader leaders to in the UN and reject greater NATO. European unity.
  58. 58. Building the Welfare State In the postwar decades, Europeans worked to secure their economic prosperity. From the 1950s through the 1970s, European nations expanded social benefits to their citizens. During this time, many European nations also moved toward greater economic cooperation. Many European political parties, and particularly those representing workers, wanted to extend the welfare state. A welfare state is a country with a market economy but with increased government responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people. The welfare state had its roots in the late 1800s. During that period, Germany, Britain, and other nationsLimiting the Welfare State had set up basic old-age pensions and unemployment insurance.In 1979, British voters turned to the Conservative Party, which denounced the welfarestate as costly and inefficient. The Conservatives were led by Margaret Thatcher.Thatcher’s government reduced social welfare programs and returned government-owned industries to private control. Faced with soaring costs, other European nationsalso moved to limit social welfare benefits and to privatize state-owned businesses duringthe 1980s and 1990s.
  59. 59. Northern Ireland’s Northern Ireland’s difficulties began when Ireland won independence in 1922. Six Troubles northern counties, which had a Protestant majority, voted to remain part of Britain as Northern Ireland. Minority Catholics in Northern Ireland faced economic and political discrimination. Many Catholics demanded civil rights and unification with the rest of Ireland, which had a Catholic majority. Beginning in the 1960s, extremists on both sides turned to violence and terrorism. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) attacked Protestants, and armed Protestant militias targeted Catholics. Peace talks dragged on for years. Finally, in 1998, Protestants and Catholics signed a peace accord, known as the Good Friday Agreement. However, lasting peace was threatened by distrust on both sides, occasional acts of violence, and the IRA’s reluctance to turn over weapons.
  60. 60. 2France: Revival and ProsperityFrance emerged from World War II greatly weakened.The Fourth Republic, set up in 1946, was ineffective. Bloody colonial wars inAlgeria and Vietnam drained and demoralized the country.In 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the Fifth Republic. He made peace with Algeriaand gave up other French colonies and worked to restore French prestige andpower.In the 1980s, French socialists, led by Francois Mitterand, won power as a globalrecession hit. The economic crisis forced Mitterand to encourage the growth ofprivate business.In 1995, Jacques Chirac took a very conservative approach and cut governmentspending. Over the years, France has built the fourth largest economy in theworld.Sarkozy is currently the President of France.
  61. 61. Nicolas Sarkozy • Nicolas Sarkozy was elected President of France in 2007, taking office on 16 May 2007. Sarkozy heads the Union Pour un Mouvement Populaire ("Union for a Popular Movement," or UMP) and is known as a high-energy, blunt- talking conservative whose favorite issues include immigration reform, jobs, law and order, and French national identity. Sarkozy was only 28 when he became mayor of the well-to-do suburb Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1983; he won national acclaim in 1993 after schoolchildren in Neuilly were taken hostage by a man calling himself the Human Bomb, and SarkozyBorn: 28 January 1955 negotiated directly with the man for their release. In 2002 he was installedBirthplace: Paris, France as Frances minister of the interior, and became known for his hard-lineBest known approach to crime among inner-city youth. He was made finance minister inas: President of France 2004, and the same year took over leadership of the UMP, the party of then-Since 2007- President Jacques Chirac. He succeeded Chirac in 2007, defeating Socialist candidate Ségolene Royal in national elections to win a six-year term as president. • Extra credit: Sarkozys name is pronounced SAR-ko-zee... His nickname is "Sarko"... The name of the "Human Bomb" kidnapper was Eric Schmitt; he was killed in a police raid that ended the incident... As a conservative, Sarkozy has sometimes been compared with ultra-rightist French politician Jean Marie Le Pen... Sarkozy has been married thrice: to the former Marie-Dominique Culioli from 1982-96, to model Cécilia Ciganer- Albeniz from 1996 to 2007 (the couple were divorced five months after Sarkozy took office as president), and to model Carla Bruni on 2 February 2008.
  62. 62. 2How Did Germany Reunify? • In 1969, West German chancellor Willy Brandt tried to ease tensions with East Germany. • In 1989, as Soviet communism declined, Germany was able to move toward reunification. Without Soviet backing, East German leaders were ousted. People from both Germanys tore down the Berlin Wall. • In 1990, German votes approved reunification.
  63. 63. Wartime Destruction in Germany Berlin and other German cities suffered seriouswartime damage. In this photo, civilians walk through the rubble left by wartimebombing in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945. What challenges would residents of a cityface after such heavy destruction?
  64. 64. The Iron Curtain Divides Germany While the Berlin Wall divided the city of Berlin, a much longer series of concrete walls, barbed wire, and watchtowers ran along the border between East and West Germany, forming part of the Iron Curtain. Why might East Germany have built a fortified border such as this?West Germany’s “Economic Miracle”Early in the Cold War, the United States rushed aid to its former enemy through the MarshallPlan and other programs. It wanted to strengthen West Germany against communist EasternEurope. From 1949 to 1963, Konrad Adenauer was West Germany’s chancellor, or primeminister. He guided the rebuilding of cities, factories, and trade. Because many of its oldfactories had been destroyed, Germany built a modern and highly productive industrial base.Despite high taxes to pay for the recovery, West Germans created a booming industrialeconomy.
  65. 65. 2 Other Democratic Nations ITALY SPAINPolitical divisions and regional Spain was economically underdevelopeddifferences led to instability. with a large peasant population.Corruption, financial scandals, and theMafia added to the instability. When Francisco Franco finally died, SpainDespite these problems, Italy made adopted a democratic government.economic gains and ranked as a leading The Spanish economy grew rapidly.industrial nation. PORTUGAL GREECEPortugal was economicallyunderdeveloped with a large peasant In 1967, military rulers came to power.population.When the authoritarian government Greece and Turkey almost went to war overfinally collapsed, Portugal adopted a Cyprus.democratic government.Portugal’s economy grew rapidly. In 1975, Greece returned to democratic rule.
  66. 66. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhich French leader set up the Fifth Republic? a) Jacques Chirac b) Francois Mitterand c) Charles de Gaulle d) NapoleonWhich nations almost went to war over Cyprus? a) Turkey and Spain b) Italy and Turkey c) Greece and Portugal d) Turkey and Greece
  67. 67. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhich French leader set up the Fifth Republic? a) Jacques Chirac b) Francois Mitterand c) Charles de Gaulle d) NapoleonWhich nations almost went to war over Cyprus? a) Turkey and Spain b) Italy and Turkey c) Greece and Portugal d) Turkey and Greece
  68. 68. 3North American Prosperity• What actions has the United States taken as a global superpower?• What developments have shaped the economy, government, and society of the United States?• What issues has Canada faced in recent years?
  69. 69. 3 The United States: A Global SuperpowerThe United States built bases overseas and organized military alliances fromEurope to Southeast Asia.The United States provided economic aid to help Europe rebuild and toassist emerging nations.The United States became involved in the Korean and Vietnam wars inhopes of preventing the spread of communism.As conflicts erupted in various regions, the United States tried to resolvesome of them:• In 1991, it led a multinational force against Iraqi invaders of Kuwait.• It provided peacekeeping forces to end bloody civil wars in Bosnia and Kosovo.
  70. 70. 3 American Economy and Government ECONOMY GOVERNMENTIn the postwar decades, American During the 1960s, the governmentbusinesses expanded into markets expanded social programs to helparound the globe. the poor and disadvantaged.American industries faced In the 1980s, conservativescompetition from Asian and other challenged the growth ofnations. government and reduced spendingThe government’s role in the on social programs. At the sameeconomy grew. time, military spending increased. America entered the twenty-firstIn the 1980s, government spending century enjoyingand tax cuts greatly increased thenational budget deficit. peace, prosperity, and unrivaled military power.In the 1990s, the economy
  71. 71. Levittown—little pink houses for you andme— @$9,000!Little boxes on the hillside,Little boxes made of ticky tacky,Little boxes on the hillside,Little boxes all the same.Theres a green one and a pink oneAnd a blue one and a yellow one,And theyre all made out of ticky tackyAnd they all look just the same.
  72. 72. 3 Civil Rights and SocietyDuring the 1950s and 1960s, many social changestook place. Some were linked to the civil rightsmovement that set out to end discrimination andensure equal rights for all Americans. • Many states denied equality to various minority groups. They faced legal segregation, or separation, in education and housing, and discrimination in jobs and voting. • By 1956, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement. King organized boycotts and led peaceful marches to end segregation in the United States. • Congress outlawed segregation. Despite this, racial prejudice survived and poverty and unemployment still plagued many African Americans.
  73. 73. 3 What Issues Has Canada Faced in Recent Years?• Since the 1950s, Canada has become increasingly diverse, with newcomers from Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean.• Quebec’s French-speaking people demanded more autonomy within Canada. Some Canadians favored separatism. • Many Canadians have resented the cultural domination of their neighbor, the United States. • Economic competition with the United States led to the creation of the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA). • Canada and the United States agreed to work together for a common solution to the problem of pollution.
  74. 74. Canada• Medical Marijuana is legalized in 2001• and Gay Marriage is legalized in 2005.• Prime Minister Stephen Harper• Inuit homeland given and named Nunavut , which means “Our Land”. It is the top, middle island area closest to Greenland.
  75. 75. 3 Section 3 AssessmentDuring the 1980s, social programs in the United States were a) expanded. b) reduced. c) left unchanged. d) completely eliminated.Economic competition between Canada and the United States led to thecreation of a) NAFTA. b) an independent Quebec. c) the UN. d) the European Union.
  76. 76. 3 Section 3 AssessmentDuring the 1980s, social programs in the United States were a) expanded. b) reduced. c) left unchanged. d) completely eliminated.Economic competition between Canada and the United States led to thecreation of a) NAFTA. b) an independent Quebec. c) the UN. d) the European Union.
  77. 77. The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a 4 Superpower• What ideas guided Soviet political, economic, and foreign policy?• Why did the Soviet Union collapse?• What problems have Russia and the other republics faced since the fall of the Soviet Union?
  78. 78. Soviet Nuclear Missiles Every year on May 1, the Soviet Uniondemonstrated its military strength, including nuclear weaponry, in aparade through Moscow’s Red Square.Why might the Soviet Union have wanted to show off its nuclearmight?
  79. 79. 4 Soviet Government and Economy GOVERNMENT ECONOMYKhrushchev pursued a policy of de- Collectivized agriculture remainedStalinization and sought a thaw in the unproductive.Cold War. The Soviet Union could not match theBrezhnev suppressed dissidents, people free-market economies of the West inwho spoke out against the government. producing consumer goods. People spent hours waiting on line toThe Soviet Union rebuilt its shattered buy food and other goods.industries. Because workers had lifetime jobCitizens enjoyed benefits such as low security, they had little incentive torent, cheap bread, free health care, and produce better-quality goods.day care for children.
  80. 80. 4 Soviet Foreign Policy EASTERN DEVELOPING EUROPE UNITED STATES WORLDStalin and his The Soviet Union Soviet-Americansuccessors asserted sought allies among relations swung backSoviet control over the developing and forth betweenEastern Europe. nations. confrontation and détente.Khrushchev set up the The Soviets offeredWarsaw Pact to military and economicsuppress dissent aid in order to win andwithin Eastern Europe. keep allies.
  81. 81. Collapse of the Soviet Union: Cause 4 and Effect Long-Term Immediate Effects Causes CausesLow output of crops Soviet Union breaks War with Afghanistanand consumer goods up into 15 republics Food and fuel Russian republicCold War led to high approves a new shortagesmilitary spending constitution Demonstrations in theEthnic and nationalist Changeover to Baltic statesmovements market economy in Gorbachev’s rise to RussiaDenial of rights and Cold War ends powerfreedoms War in Chechnya
  82. 82. 4 Problems in The Russian Republic• The changeover to a market economy caused unemployment to soar and prices to skyrocket.• Criminals flourished, and gangs preyed on the new business class. In Russian slang, protection is called krysha (literally the roof). ...• In 1998, Russia defaulted, or failed to make payments, on much of its foreign debt.• The value of Russia’s currency collapsed. People lost their savings and their jobs.• Minorities within Russia sought greater autonomy or independence.
  83. 83. 4 The Other Republics• The new nations faced unrest, corruption, and political divisions.• In some countries, authoritarian rulers gained power.• Ethnic conflict erupted in republics with a mix of national groups.• Other conflicts arose over border disputes.• The new nations endured hard times as they switched to market economies.
  84. 84. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWho pursued a policy of de-Stalinization? a) Brezhnev b) Khrushchev c) Stalin d) YeltsinWhich of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union? a) war with Afghanistan b) the end of the Cold War c) Gorbachev’s rise to power d) food and fuel shortages
  85. 85. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWho pursued a policy of de-Stalinization? a) Brezhnev b) Khrushchev c) Stalin d) YeltsinWhich of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union? a) war with Afghanistan b) the end of the Cold War c) Gorbachev’s rise to power d) food and fuel shortages
  86. 86. 5 A New Era in Eastern Europe• How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet domination and strive for democracy?• What were the effects of the fall of communism?• What were the causes and effects of civil war in Yugoslavia?
  87. 87. Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe 1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much of Eastern Europe. 1949 Most Eastern European countries are under communist rule. 1956 Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact and ends one- party rule; Soviet troops crush Hungarian uprising. 1968 Czechoslovakia introduces reforms; Soviets use force to restore communist dictatorship. 1980 Polish government, under Soviet pressure, cracks down on trade union movement and arrests its leaders.
  88. 88. 5Fall of Communist GovernmentsEastern European countries withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and requested that Soviet troops leave.Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments and free-market economies.The many changes contributed to rising inflation, high unemployment, and crime waves.Consumer goods became more plentiful, but many people could not afford them.Former communists were sometimes returned to office when people became disillusioned with reform.In the 1990s, Eastern European nations looked to the West for aid.Ethnic tension arose is some areas.
  89. 89. DefendingLithuania’sIndependenceThe Crumbling Soviet UnionThis cartoon shows Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachevwith an egg-shaped head sitting on a wall markedwith the national symbol of the Soviet Union.The cartoon draws on the nursery rhymeHumpty Dumpty.What does the cartoon suggest about the state of the Soviet Union underGorbachev?What does it imply about Gorbachev’s future?How does this cartoon communicate ideas without using any words?
  90. 90. Soviets Have Their Own “Vietnam” in AfghanistanIn 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in a long war in Afghanistan, an Islamiccountry just south of the Soviet Union. A Soviet-supported Afghan government had triedto modernize the nation. Its policies included social reforms and land redistribution thatwould reduce the power of regional landlords. Afghan landlords—who commandedarmed men as warlords—and Muslim conservatives charged that both policiesthreatened Islamic tradition. When these warlords took up arms against thegovernment, Soviet troops moved in.Battling mujahedin or Muslim religious warriors, in the mountains ofAfghanistan, however, proved as difficult as fighting guerrillas in the jungles of Vietnamhad been for Americans. By the mid-1980s, the American government began to smugglemodern weaponry to the mujahedin. The Soviets had years of heavy casualties, highcosts, and few successes. Like America’s Vietnam War, the struggle in Afghanistanprovoked a crisis in morale for the Soviets at home.
  91. 91. In 2000, Vladimir Putin was elected president in Russia’s secondfree election. Putin projected toughness andcompetence, promising to end corruption and build Russia into astrong market economy. He also secured Russia a consulting statuswith NATO. However, Putin repeatedly came under fire forincreasing the power of the central government at the expense ofpeople’s civil liberties. The international community began toquestion his policies, concerned that he was becoming moreautocratic than democratic. Protesting Putin Demonstrators gather in Moscow in 2004 to protest Putin’s policies. What point do you think the protesters were making by holding up photos likening Putin to Adolf Hitler?
  92. 92. DmitryMedvedev & Putin In 2000, Vladimir Putin was elected Medvedev president in Russia’s second free current election. Putin projected toughness and President of the competence, promising to end Russian corruption and build Russia into a strong Federation. He market economy. He also secured Russia won the a consulting status with NATO. presidential election held However, Putin repeatedly came on 2 March under fire for increasing the power of 2008 the central government at the expense of people’s civil liberties. The international community began to question his policies, concerned that he was becoming more autocratic than democratic. Protesting Putin Demonstrators gather in Moscow in 2004 to protest Putin’s policies. What point do you think the protesters were making by holding up photos likening Putin to Adolf Hitler?
  93. 93. Poland Embraces SolidarityPoland led the way in the new surge of resistance that shattered the Soviet satellite empire. In1980, economic hardships ignited strikes by shipyard workers. Led by Lech Walesa , theyorganized Solidarity, an independent labor union. It won millions of members and demandedpolitical as well as economic change.Under pressure from the Soviet Union, the Polish government outlawed the union and arrestedits leaders, including Walesa. Still, unrest continued. Walesa became a national hero, and thePolish government eventually released him from prison. Pope John Paul II visited Poland, metwith Solidarity leaders, and criticized communist policies. The pope was the former KarolWojtyla, archbishop of the Polish city of Cracow.
  94. 94. The dissolution ofCzechoslovakia, which took effecton 1 January 1993, was an eventthat saw the self-determinedseparation of the federal stateof Czechoslovakia. The CzechRepublic and Slovakia, entitieswhich had arisen in 1969 withinthe framework of Czechoslovakfederalization, became immediatesubjects of the international law in1993. It is sometimes known asthe Velvet Divorce, a reference tothe bloodless Velvet Revolution of1989 that led to the end of therule of the Communist Party ofCzechoslovakia and the formationof a democratic government.
  95. 95. 5New Nations in Eastern Europe
  96. 96. 5 Civil War in Yugoslavia CAUSES EFFECTSYugoslavia consisted of a broad Tens of thousands of Bosnianmixture of ethnic and religious Muslims were killed in a campaigngroups. of ethnic cleansing.Tito had silenced nationalist and The Balkan region remainedreligious unrest for decades. When unstable.he died, nationalism tore Yugoslavia New nations needed massive aidapart. to rebuild.Communism fell. Large numbers of refugees remained in temporary shelter forFour of the six republics declared years after the war.independence. Ethnic feuds were hard to contain.
  97. 97. A boy dodging sniper fire to get water, Sarajevo, Bosnia, 1993
  98. 98. Zlata Filipovic was 11 years old in1992 when she began a diary abouther life in war-torn Sarajevo, thecapital of Bosnia. Here is an excerpt: “Today a shell fell on the park in front of my house, the park where I used to play and sit with my girlfriends. A lot of people were hurt . . . AND NINA IS DEAD . . . She was such a sweet, nice little girl.” —Zlata Filipovic, Zlata’s DiaryBosnia is just one of the nations thathave faced ethnic, religious, ornational conflicts in recent decades.
  99. 99. Grozny in RuinsGrozny, the capital of Chechnya, lay in ruins in 2000 after Russian troopswon a battle for control of the city.
  100. 100. Ethnic, nationalist, and religious tensions tore Yugoslavia apart during the1990s. Before 1991, Yugoslavia was multiethnic, or made up of several ethnicgroups. These groups included Serbs, Montenegrins, and Macedonians, whowere Orthodox Christians; Croats and Slovenes, who were Roman Catholics;and the mostly Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians. A majority of Yugoslavians—including the Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, and Bosniaks—all spoke the samelanguage, Serbo-Croatian, but these groups had different religions.Albanians, Slovenes, and Macedonians spoke minority languages.Yugoslavia was made up of six republics, similar to states in the United States.These were Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (often known asBosnia for short), Montenegro, and Macedonia. Each republic had a dominantethnic group but also was home to ethnic minorities. Serbs formed themajority in Serbia but were an important ethnic minority in several of theother republics. Serbs dominated Yugoslavia, which was held together andcontrolled by its Communist Party.
  101. 101. Former Yugoslavia in 2005
  102. 102. The Fight for KosovoAs Bosnia reached a tense peace, a crisisbroke out in the Serbian province ofKosovo. Ethnic Albanians made up about 90percent of Kosovo’s population. The rest of thepopulation was mostly Serbian. In 1989, Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic (an extreme Serbian nationalist, had begun oppressing Kosovar Albanians. Peaceful protests led to more repression. In the mid-1990s, a small guerrilla army of ethnic Albanians began to respond with armed attacks on Serbian targets. Milosevic, however, rejected international peace efforts. In 1999, NATO launched air strikes against Serbia. Yugoslav forces attempted ethnic cleansing of Albanian civilians. However, NATO air strikes eventually forced Yugoslavia to withdraw its forces from Kosovo. UN and NATO forces restored peace. As Kosovo rebuilt, tensions remained high between ethnic Albanians and Serbs living there. Although Kosovo remained part of Serbia in theory, the region was under UN control after 1999. The majority ethnic Albanians sought independence, while ethnic Serbs wanted
  103. 103. Conflicts in Former Yugoslavia
  104. 104. 5 Section 5 AssessmentWhat happened when Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact? a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’s independence. b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising. c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew. d) Hungary was permitted to install a democratic government.Which of the following was not a former territory of Yugoslavia? a) Slovenia b) Croatia c) Bulgaria d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
  105. 105. 5 Section 5 AssessmentWhat happened when Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact? a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’s independence. b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising. c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew. d) Hungary was permitted to install a democratic government.Which of the following was not a former territory of Yugoslavia? a) Slovenia b) Croatia c) Bulgaria d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
  106. 106. East Asia and Southeast Asia (1945–Present)
  107. 107. East Asia and Southeast Asia (1945–Present)Section 1: Japan Becomes an Economic SuperpowerSection 2: From Revolution to Reform in ChinaSection 3: The Asian TigersSection 4: Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim
  108. 108. 1 Japan Becomes an Economic Superpower• What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic miracle?• How did Japan interact economically and politically with other nations?• How are patterns of life changing in Japan?
  109. 109. 1Recovery and Economic Miracle In 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japan to recover and produce an economic miracle? • Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to high technology. • While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology. • Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force. • Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. • Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large military force.
  110. 110. Peace Comes to Japan A 1945 poster printed by a Japanese bank encourages people to “make a bright future for Japan.”Land Reform Benefits Japanese FarmersJapan’s postwar land reform redistributed land from wealthy landlords to small farmerssuch as the ones in this photo. How would ownership of land benefit farmers?
  111. 111. In 1952, the United States ended the occupation and signed a peace treaty with Japan. Still, the two nations kept close ties. American military forces maintained bases in Japan, which in turn was protected by American nuclear weapons. The two countries were also trading partners, eventually competing with each other in the global economy.Japan’s Economic MiracleBy the 1970s and 1980s, Japan prospered by manufacturing products to be soldoverseas, such as the televisions being assembled in this photo.
  112. 112. 1 Japanese Motor VehicleExports, 19 97
  113. 113. 1 Economic and Political Interaction• The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on the world market. In response to the economic challenge the oil crisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-producing nations of the Middle East.• Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memories of World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartime actions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some public regrets for the destruction of the war years.• For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics. More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japan ranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid.
  114. 114. 1 Changing Patterns of Life• In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression. Many workers lost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment, and confidence was undermined.• In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s dominant political party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded politicians broke with the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power.• Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped apartments.• While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them in subordinate positions in the workplace.• For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours. Many younger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy themselves. Some older Japanese worry that the old work ethic is weakening.
  115. 115. The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai
  116. 116. Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko Tsunami A deadly 8.9 earthquake struck Japan, one of the largest earthquakes in the history of Japan. A massive 23-foot tsunami also hit the coast killing hundreds, leveling homes, and sweeping away cars and boats. 200 to 300 bodies were found in the northeastern coastal city of Sendai, according to the AP.
  117. 117. 1 Section 1 AssessmentWhich of the following contributed to Japan’s economic recovery? a) Japan was industrializing for the first time. b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize the economy. c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force. d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motor vehicles it produced to a) Britain. b) Germany. c) Saudi Arabia. d) the United States.
  118. 118. 1 Section 1 AssessmentWhich of the following contributed to Japan’s economic recovery? a) Japan was industrializing for the first time. b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize the economy. c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force. d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motor vehicles it produced to a) Britain. b) Germany. c) Saudi Arabia. d) the United States.
  119. 119. 2From Revolution to Reform in China• What were the effects of communist policies in China?• What challenges did China face during the Cold War?• How did calls for political reform lead to repression?• What challenges face China today?
  120. 120. 2 Communist PoliciesAlthough some reforms did result in more access to education and greaterequality, people in China paid a heavy cost for Mao’s programs. During the1950s and 1960s, two efforts in particular led to economic disaster andtremendous loss of life.In the “Great Leap Forward,” Mao urged people to make a superhuman effortto increase farm output.• Food output slowed and backyard industries turned out low- quality, useless goods.• A terrible famine occurred. Between 1959 and 1961, up to 30 million Chinese starved to death. The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to purge China of “bourgeois” tendencies. • The Cultural Revolution convulsed China. Schools and factories closed. The economy slowed, and civil war threatened.
  121. 121. How the Communists WonMao’s Communists triumphed for several reasons. Maohad won the support of China’s huge peasantpopulation. Peasants had long suffered from brutallandlords and crushing taxes. The Communistsredistributed land to poor peasants and endedoppression by landlords.While support for the Communists grew, theNationalists lost popularity. Nationalist policies had ledto widespread economic hardship. Many Chinesepeople also resented corruption in Jiang’s governmentand the government’s reliance on support fromWestern “imperialist” powers. They hoped that theCommunists would build a new China and end foreigndomination.Widespread support for the Communists in thecountryside helped them to capture rail lines andsurround Nationalist-held cities. One afteranother, these cities fell, and Mao’s People’s LiberationArmy emerged victorious. After their victory againstthe Nationalists, the Communists conquered Tibet in1950. In 1959, Tibet’s most revered religiousleader, the Dalai Lama, was forced to flee the country.
  122. 122. During the mid-1950s, divisions arose within the Communist party in China. In response, Mao Zedong (1893–1976) launched a campaign under the slogan “Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred thoughts contend.” Mao hoped that by offering people the opportunity to openly express their views he would gain more support. When people began to criticize the Communist party, however, Mao ended the campaign. Of the nearly 550,000 Chinese who had spoken out, thousands were executed and hundreds of thousands were exiled to the countryside to “rectify their thinking through labor.” What methods did Mao use to keep power for himself?The Great Leap Forward FailsFrom 1958 to 1960, Mao led a program known as the GreatLeap Forward. He urged people to make a superhuman effortto increase farm and industrial output. In an attempt to makeagriculture more efficient, he created communes. A typicalcommune brought together several villages, thousands of acresof land, and up to 25,000 people. Rural communes set upsmall-scale “backyard” industries to produce steel and otherproducts.
  123. 123. What do these images suggest about freedom of speech and freedom of thought during the Cultural Revolution in China?Promoting the Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution poster above shows soldiers holding “little red books” and urgesthem to “destroy all enemies.” The photo to the left shows Chinese soldiers waving their“little red books” during this same period.
  124. 124. 2 China and the Cold War RELATIONS WITH THE SOVIET RELATIONS WITH THE UNION UNITED STATESStalin sent economic aid andtechnical experts to China, but At first, the United Stateshe and Mao disagreed on refused to recognize themany issues. People’s Republic of China andChina and the Soviet Union for years tried to isolate China.competed for influence in Slowly, relations improved.developing nations.By 1960, border disputes and In 1979, the United States setclashes over ideology led the up formal diplomatic relationsSoviets to withdraw all aid and with China.advisers from China.
  125. 125. Communism and Democracy in China• Massive, pervasive policies of economic and cultural engineering – Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) – Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)• Both huge failures• Deng Xiaopeng (1904-1997) comes to power in 1981, moderates Maoism• Tiananmen Square pro-democracy rallies ruthlessly subdued, 1989
  126. 126. 2 Tiananmen SquareThe crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders were determined tomaintain control. To them, order was more important than political freedom. By the late 1980s, some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom and economic reform. In 1989, thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square and called for democracy. Tank Man The government sent in troops and tanks. Thousands of demonstrators were killed or wounded.
  127. 127. 2 Challenges China Faces TodayChina’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure fromtrading partners such as the United States. Copyright laws, Internetstuff…Population growth strained the economy and posed a challenge forthe future. Male children preferred under one child law.Hong Kong’s fate in ten years…China still claims Taiwan. Usingmore and more energy and resources in industrialization.Many state-run industries were inefficient, but could not be closedwithout risking high unemployment and economic chaos.Inequalities between rich and poor urban and rural Chinesecontinued to grow.As communist ideology weakened, government corruption becamea growing problem.Hu Jintao is ruler now
  128. 128. China Builds on Deng’s ReformsGorbachev had urged the leaders of other communist states to consider both political andeconomic changes. Leaders of the People’s Republic of China accelerated the compromiseswith capitalism that Deng Xiaoping had introduced in the 1980s. The result was an amazingeconomic boom, including double-digit growth rates for more than a decade.China’s Communist Party, however, undertook no political reforms. Watching communistpower unravel in Eastern Europe, China’s leaders worked to preserve one-party Communistrule—and their own power. Chinese workers assemble electronic parts.
  129. 129. Limiting a Huge PopulationChina’s population, now more than1.3 billion, is the largest in the world.In the 1980s, the government’s one-child policy, which limited urbanfamilies to a single child, aimed tokeep population growth from hurtingeconomic development. Ruralfamilies were allowed two children.However, these measures workedbetter in urban areas than in ruralareas. Rural families who wantedmore than two children to help onthe farm often just paid fines. Evenso, population growth slowed overallafter 1980.
  130. 130. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhen did the United States set up formal diplomatic relations with China? a) 1945 b) 1995 c) 1979 d) 1950The demonstrators who occupied Tiananmen Square were calling for a) increased farm output. b) the strengthening of communism. c) a purging of bourgeois tendencies. d) democracy.
  131. 131. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhen did the United States set up formal diplomatic relations with China? a) 1945 b) 1995 c) 1979 d) 1950The demonstrators who occupied Tiananmen Square were calling for a) increased farm output. b) the strengthening of communism. c) a purging of bourgeois tendencies. d) democracy.
  132. 132. 3 The Asian Tigers• How has China influenced Taiwan and Hong Kong?• How did Singapore modernize?• Why has Korea remained divided for more than 50 years?
  133. 133. 3 Asian TigersThe term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, HongKong, Singapore, and South Korea.• All four are small Asian lands that became “newly industrialized countries” by the 1980s.• They are known for their aggressive economic growth.• Although they differ in important ways, all followed similarroads to modernization after 1945.• All four were influenced by China.• In each, the Confucian ethic shaped attitudes about work.• All four had stable governments that invested in education.
  134. 134. The Asian Tigers and JapanFor decades, Japan dominated the Asian Pacific Rim. This small island nationrebuilt itself after World War II to become an economicpowerhouse, modernizing and excelling at Western economics while at thesame time preserving its own traditions. By the 1990s, however, Japan beganto suffer from a long economic downturn.In the meantime, Japan’s neighbors—including Taiwan, HongKong, Singapore, and South Korea—surged ahead. Although they differ interms of culture and history, all had quickly modernized and industrialized bythe 1980s. All four were influenced to some degree by China and itsConfucian traditions of education, loyalty, and consensus. Each stressededucation as a means to increase worker productivity.Because of their economic success, they earned nicknames such as the“Asian tigers” or the “four tigers.” The Asian tigers first focused on lightindustries such as textiles. As their economies grew, the tigers concentratedon making higher-priced exports, such as electronics, for developed nations.Their extraordinary growth was due in part to low wages, long hours, andother worker sacrifices.
  135. 135. 3 Taiwan and Hong KongBoth Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links to China. TAIWAN HONG KONG Britain won Hong Kong from ChinaTaiwan was ruled by China until after the Opium War.1895, when it fell to Japan. Hong Kong’s prosperity was basedThe Japanese built some largely on trade and light industry.industry, providing a foundation for Hong Kong also became a worldlater growth. financial center.Taiwan first set up light industries Hong Kong’s amazing growth was dueand later, developed heavy industry. in part to its location on China’sAfter the Cold War, Taiwanese doorstep.businesses invested in companies In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kong toon the Chinese mainland. China.
  136. 136. 3How Did Singapore Modernize?During his 30 years in power, Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew:• supported a free-market economy• attracted foreign capital by keeping labor costs low• expanded Singapore’s seaport into one of the world’s busiest harbors• welcomed skilled immigrants• insisted on education for all of Singapore’s people• encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, and tourism• followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hard work and saving money
  137. 137. 3 The Two KoreasAfter World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea alongthe 38th parallel.Before long, North Korea became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. TheUnited States backed noncommunist South Korea.In 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea. The war turned into a stalemate.In 1953, both sides signed an armistice, or end to fighting. The armistice hasheld for 50 years, but no peace treaty has ever been negotiated.
  138. 138. 3 Korean War,1950 – 1953
  139. 139. A Divided NationKorea was an independent kingdom until Japan conquered it in the early twentiethcentury. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Soviet and American forces agreed to divideKorea temporarily along the 38th parallel of latitude. However, North Korea, ruled by thedictator Kim Il Sung, became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. In South Korea, theUnited States backed the dictatorial—but noncommunist—leader, Syngman Rhee.
  140. 140. Winter Battle Scene in KoreaU.S. soldiers rest after winning a battle for a snowy hill in Korea, February 1951.Based on the photograph, what advantage did these soldiers gain by winningcontrol of this hill?
  141. 141. North Korea Digs In Under Kim Il Sung, the command economy increased output for a time in North Korea. However, in the late 1960s, economic growth slowed. Kim’s emphasis on self-reliance kept North Korea isolated and poor. The Kim Il Sung government built a personality cult around Kim, who was constantly glorified as the “Great Leader” in propaganda. Even after its Soviet Kim Jong Il and Chinese allies undertook economic reforms in the 1980s, North Korea clung to hard-line communism. Kim Jong Un at left front, Kim Jong Il at right frontSouth Korea RecoversAfter the war, South Korea slowly rebuilt its economy. By the mid-1960s,South Korea’s economy had leapt ahead. After decades of dictatorship andmilitary rule, a prosperous middle class and fierce student protests pushedthe government to hold direct elections in 1987. These elections began asuccessful transition to democracy. Despite the bloody Korean War, mostSouth Koreans during the Cold War years wanted to see their ancientnation reunited, as did many North Koreans. All Koreans shared the samehistory, language, and traditions. For many, this meant more than Cold Wardifferences.
  142. 142. 3 Section 3 Assessment“Asian tigers” refer to all of the following except a) Singapore. b) Taiwan. c) North Korea. d) South Korea.Which of the following correctly describes the Korean War? a) The United States backed the noncommunist north while the Soviet Union backed the communist south. b) The United States backed the communist north while the Soviet Union backed the noncommunist south. c) The United States backed the noncommunist south while the Soviet Union backed the communist north. d) The United States backed the communist south while the Soviet Union backed the noncommunist north.
  143. 143. 3 Section 3 Assessment“Asian tigers” refer to all of the following except a) Singapore. b) Taiwan. c) North Korea. d) South Korea.Which of the following correctly describes the Korean War? a) The United States backed the noncommunist north while the Soviet Union backed the communist south. b) The United States backed the communist north while the Soviet Union backed the noncommunist south. c) The United States backed the noncommunist south while the Soviet Union backed the communist north. d) The United States backed the communist south while the Soviet Union backed the noncommunist north.
  144. 144. 4 Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim• How did war affect Vietnam and Cambodia?• What challenges faced the Philippines and the developing nations of Southeast Asia?• Why is the Pacific Rim a vital region?
  145. 145. 4 War in Vietnam and CambodiaIn mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle toreapart the region once known as French Indochina. VIETNAM CAMBODIA During the Vietnam War, fighting Communists fought against non- spilled over into neighboring communists supported by the Cambodia. In 1970, the United States United States for control of bombed and then invaded Cambodia. Vietnam. When the United States left, After the United States withdrew communist guerrillas called Khmer from the war, the North Rouge, led by Pol Pot, slaughtered Vietnamese reunited the country more than a million Cambodians. under communist rule. In 1979, Vietnam invaded and The communist victors imposed occupied Cambodia. They left in 1992, harsh rule in the south. but troubles still abound: • King: Norodom Sihamoni (2004) ballet Vietnam had to rebuild a land dancer and choreographer destroyed by war. • Prime Minister: Hun Sen (1998) who has tried coup after coup
  146. 146. 4 VietnamWar, 1968 – 1975
  147. 147. Tragedy in Cambodia During the Vietnam War, fighting had spilled over into neighboring Cambodia. In 1970, the United States bombed North Vietnamese supply routes in Cambodia and then briefly invaded the country. Afterwards, the Khmer Rouge ,a force of Cambodian communist guerrillas, gained ground in "Haing Ngor: Cambodia. Finally, in 1975, the Khmer Rouge overthrew the A Cambodian Cambodian government. Odyssey. Led by the brutal dictator Pol Pot the Khmer Rouge unleashed a reign of terror. To destroy all Western influences, they drove people from the cities and forced them to work in the fields. They slaughtered, starved, or worked to death more than a million Cambodians, about a third of the population. In the end, it took a Vietnamese invasion in 1979 to drive Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge back into the jungle. Vietnam imposed an authoritarian government on Cambodia, but they at least ended the genocide.Haing S. Ngor won his Supporting Oscar in 1984 for playing Dith Pran, a journalistsassistant trapped in Cambodia during the civil war. His real life was even scarier than that.
  148. 148. Why might people choose to flee across the Fleeing Communist Controlopen ocean in a small boat like this one? These South Vietnamese refugees are fleeing their country after communist forces took control in April 1975. Refugees who fled in small boats like this one were known as “boat people.” Vietnam Under the Communists In the newly reunited Vietnam, the communist victors imposed a harsh rule of their own on the south. Hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese fled their country, most in small boats. Many of these “boat people” drowned. Survivors landed in refugee camps in neighboring countries. Eventually, some settled in the United States. Meanwhile, Vietnam had to rebuild a land destroyed by war. Recovery was slow due to a lack of resources and an American- led embargo, or blockage of trade. For years, the country remained mired in poverty.
  149. 149. 4 The PhilippinesIn 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50years of American rule.In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcospromised reform but became a dictator.In 1986, the people of the Philippines forced Marcos to leavein what was called the “people power” revolution.Corazón Aquino became president and restored the fragiledemocracy.Challenges:• The country enjoyed economic growth during the 1990s, but many people remained poor.• Government corruption and guerrilla wars threatened the nation’s stability.• The Philippines experienced rapid urbanization.• Natural disasters caused setbacks.• Many enterprising Filipinos left the country.
  150. 150. Like Indonesia, the Philippines is a group of islands with a diversity of ethnic groups.Catholics are the predominant religious group, but there is a Muslim minority in the south.In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom peacefully after almost 50 years of American rule.The United States, however, continued to influence the country through military andeconomic aid.Marcos Becomes a DictatorAlthough the Filipino constitution set up a democratic government, a wealthy elitecontrolled politics and the economy. The peasant majority was poor. For a time, thegovernment battled Huks , local Communists with strong peasant support. FerdinandMarcos, elected president in 1965, abandoned democracy. He became a dictator andcracked down on basic freedoms. He even had Benigno Aquino, a popular rival, murdered.Filipinos Demand DemocracyWhen Marcos finally held elections in 1986, voters elected Corazon Aquino, widow of theslain Benigno. Marcos tried to deny the results, but the people of Manila helddemonstrations that forced him to resign during the “people power” revolution. UnderAquino and her successors, this fragile democracy struggled to survive. The economy grewduring the 1990s but then slowed. Poverty persisted. Another corrupt president, JosephEstrada, tried to cling to power. Once again, in 2001, popular protests forced him fromoffice. As urbanization increased, unrest grew in crowded slum neighborhoods.
  151. 151. 4 Developing Nations of Southeast AsiaSoutheast Asian nations faced many problems after independence.They lacked experience in self-government.They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts.Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent. MYANMAR INDONESIA Geography posed an obstacle to For years, repressive military rulers unity in Indonesia. battled rebel ethnic minorities. They isolated the country and Under authoritarian rule, imposed state socialism. Indonesia made great economic progress. In 1990, the government held The 1997 Asian financial crisis led elections. The opposition party to riots against the government. won, but the military rejected the election results. A new government was elected and faced many problems.
  152. 152. Myanmar SuffersBritain granted independence to its former colony of Burma in 1948. Burma was renamedMyanmar in 1989. Ethnic tensions have plagued Myanmar. The majority, Burmans, havedominated other ethnic groups. The military government has limited foreign trade, andliving standards remain low.Under mounting foreign pressure, elections were held in 1990. A party opposed tomilitary rule won. It was led by Aung San Suu Kyi, whose father had helped Burma winindependence. The military rejected the election results and jailed, killed, or exiled manyopponents. Suu Kyi was held under house arrest. In 1995, Suu Kyi won the Nobel PeacePrize for her “nonviolent struggle for democracy and human rights,” but she remained aprisoner in her own country. Aung San Suu Kyi 1945–, is a Burmese political leader; grad. Oxford Univ. The daughter of assassinated (1947) nationalist general U Aung San, who is regarded as the founder of modern Myanmar, Aung San Suu Kyi was released in November after spending most of the past 20 years under house arrest in Myanmar (AFP/File, Soe Than Win)
  153. 153. Sukarno, Indonesia’s first president Flag of the Southeast Asian nation of Malaysia

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