Isabella of Castille• Isabella I (1451-1504), queen of Castile, called la Catolica ("the Catholic"), and a sponsor of the voyages of Christopher Columbus. She was the daughter of John II of Castile and Leon by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 Princess Isabella married Ferdinand of Aragon, known also as Ferdinand V, the Catholic. On the death of her brother, Henry IV, Isabella and Ferdinand jointly succeeded (1474) to the throne of Castile and León. Isabellas succession was contested, however, by Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of Henrys daughter Juana la Beltraneja. Alfonso attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later Ferdinand succeeded to the throne of Aragón. This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spains future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Joanna the Mad, who was the mother of Charles V, king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Isabella and her husband (known together as "the Catholic kings") are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the Reconquista of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbuss voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain.
Chris and Izzy• Isabella and Ferdinand proceeded with their plans to unify all of Spain by continuing a long-standing but stalled effort to expel the Moors (Muslims) who held parts of Spain. In 1492, the Muslim Kingdom of Granada fell to Isabella and Ferdinand, thus completing the Reconquista.• That same year, all Jews in Spain who refused to convert to Christianity were expelled by royal edict.• Also in 1492, Isabella was convinced by Christopher Columbus to sponsor his voyage of discovery. The lasting effects of this were many: by the traditions of the time, when Columbus discovered lands in the New World, they were given to Castile. Isabella took a special interest in the Native Americans of the new lands; when some were brought back to Spain as slaves she insisted they be returned and freed, and her will expressed her wish that the "Indians" be treated with justice and fairness.
Did Columbus Really Discover America?Christopher Columbus is given credit for discovering the New World, butwas he really the first person to step foot in this new land. What about theNative Americas? What about Leif Eriksson? Or what about AmericusVespucius?Approximately 20,000 years ago the first Native Americans came over aland bridge between Asia and North America. This bridge was over 1,000miles wide. In 1492 about one million American Indians lived in the UnitedStates and Canada and about 20 million million Indians lived in SouthAmerica.In 1000 A. D. sailors from Norway called Vikings traveled from Iceland toGreenland. They were lead by Eric the Red. Eric the Red founded a colonyon Greenland. Later his son, Leif Eriksson, lead a group to Newfoundland inCanada. Unfortunately no maps were made of these travels. However in1965 a Viking map dated 1440 was found. The Viking map showed parts ofnortheastern Canada.About the same time Columbus was making his third voyage anotherexplorer sailed for North America. His name was Americus Vespucius.Vespucius made maps of his travels. A German school teacher whowas writing a new geography book found these maps. The school teachercalled the New World America in honor of Vespucius.
Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. Living by theMediterranean Sea he longed to be a sailor.He began sailing on Italian ships at the age of 14. When Columbus was 25 he wassailing on a ship headed for England. A group of French pirates attacked his ship.Columbus was hurt, but managed to grab onto somefloating wood and make his way to shore.Columbus opened a shop that sold maps and books for sailors. There he became amapmaker and began reading books. He read a book written by Marco Polo.Columbus was fascinated by Polos book. After reading this book Columbus wassure he could reach the Indies by traveling west. He wanted to go to the Indies toget jewels and spices.Columbus asked King John II of Portugal for three ships to try out his idea oftraveling west to reach the East. The king refused to give him the ships. Columbustried going to other kings in France and England. They would not give him theships. Finally Columbus went to the king and queen of Spain; King Ferdinand andQueen Isabella. He asked them for money to try out his idea of traveling west toreach the East. Queen Isabella refused Columbus at first. Later King Ferdinand andQueen Isabella gave Columbus three ships, a crew of about ninety men, and somemoney. The three ships were the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María.
• On August 2, 1492 the voyage began. The trip was not easy. Columbuss crew was afraid of the unknown seas. They believed monsters were in the waters. Some thought the world was flat, and that their ships were sailing too far from the shore and would fall off the end of the earth. On September 1, 1492 Columbuss ships passed an active volcano on the island of Teneriffe. They also reported seeing a bolt of fire fall from the heavens into the sea. The men took these as a bad signs.
Chris’s First Landfall• Watlings Island has been the favored landfall theory for most of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1926, Fr. Chysostom Schreiner convinced the Bahamian parliament to officially renamed Watlings Island as "San Salvador, or Watlings Island," and you will see the island called San Salvador on most maps today.• There have been many different routes proposed for Columbus starting from Watlings, beginning with the theories of A.B. Becher in 1856 and J.B. Murdock in 1884. But the most widely held view has been that championed by Samuel Elliot Morison in 1940. Since then, a number of people (notably Mauricio Obregon and William Dunwoody) have tinkered with the route in order to try and resolve some of the problems listed below. The Murdock-Morison identifications: Island I = Watlings; Island II = Rum Cay; Island III = Long Island; Island IV = Crooked Island. Dunwoody substitutes Fortune Island as Island IV, a notable improvement.• If the problem list below seems longer than some other theories, that may be just because Ive studied this theory in greater detail than some others. Active support for the Watlings theory collapsed in the spring of 1996, after the Leagues-versus-Miles dispute was resolved in favor of leagues.
Why We Are Not Called Columbia • A Florentine explorer named Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) claimed to have made four Atlantic voyages between 1497 and 1504, although only two have been confirmed. Following the 1501 voyage, Vespucci coined the phrase Mundus Novus—New World—to describe the region. The name stuck. Then, in 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller published an account of Vespucci’s voyages. It was Waldseemuller who used a Latinized form of Vespucci’s first name to label the region that Amerigo had explored. • Another theory is that the Viking/Scandinavian combination of land + Eric and a feminine ending = Amt + Eric + a is how we got the name.
Martin Waldseemuller was a cartographer who lived from ~1475 to 1522.Waldseemuller is particularly famous for the map he created in 1507. Thismap was the first to label the American continent "America," a name themapmaker used to honor Amerigo Vespucci. As you probably realize, thisname persists even today.Martin Waldseemuller is also famous for his 1507 map because it shows anuncannily accurate Pacific coast of South America. At the time of itspublication, no Westerner was known to have visited the Pacific side of thiscontinent, and much speculation has centered on how Waldseemullercould have so accurately drawn the coast.
Arawaks/Taino Natives• Without having to go into prehistoric time, we can safely say that the first inhabitants of the Antilles were The Arawaks. Just prior to 1,000 AD they were expelled from the Lesser Antilles by the Caribs, a people originating, like them, from the lower Orinoco region. Short, copper colored, having black and straight hair, the Arawaks, due to their early arrival in the region, were by the time of Columbus arrival, peaceful and sedentary. Living from agriculture, hunting and fishing, they grew a soft variety of corn and sweet potatoes. They also knew how to make casava bread using an elaborate process to leach out the poisonous juice of this root. They hunted little mammals or lizards with sticks, and birds with stones. They had domesticated a breed of dog, which they used for hunting and occasionally as food. Since the sea providing them with a great bounty, they had therefore developed much more efficient ways of fishing and navigating. The proximity of the island favoring sight navigation they did not embark in long sea faring expeditions as Polynesians will in the Pacific Ocean. If they lived in round dwellings, there also existed rectangular houses, with porches, reserved for dignitaries.• Their art of weaving was highly developed and the cotton hammock in which they slept was one of the few long lasting contributions they made to European culture. They made good baskets and agricultural tools; and sometimes sculpted wooden seats. Their pottery was extremely refined and of real artistic value; even though they ignored the potters wheel, like all pre-Columbian American Indians. Their clothing was limited to a short skirt for women; it cut, color and way of wrapping indicating their social class and age. Men and women wore ornaments, usually composed of strips of cotton tied up above their knees and around their upper arms. At their feasts they danced to the sound of flutes and drums. They played a game, somewhat similar to soccer, except that the raw rubber ball had to be tossed with the head, shoulder, elbow or most professionally, by the knee.• Their minstrels, called Sambas, sang comical or sad stories, of war and/or peace times. The Arawaks were "animists", which means that they believed in the inner connection of the two worlds (the visible and the invisible one) and in the existence and survival of the soul in the environment (tree, rivers, etc.). They adored the sun, the moon, the stars and the springs, and the Butuous, their respected priests and medicine men are, according to Metraux, the ancestors of present-day Haitis "docteurs-papier or (Docteur-Feuilles)."
ArawaksThe Arawaks believed in eternal life for the virtuous. In Hispaniola they situated their "heaven" in aremote part of the island, where the elected would go to rest and eat the delicious Haitian "apricot."Very little is known abut their political organization. Substantial kingdoms existed and their Kings - theCaciques- exerted absolute power on their subjects.The quiet and peaceful Arawaks have totally disappeared from the surface of the Earth. Thiswas accomplished in a very short time after the arrival of the Europeans. Aside from theanimals imported by the Europeans (in particular the pigs) which left free to roamdevastated the tuberous crop of the Arawaks, many were killed in the defensive wars theyundertook to preserve their freedom. Others, after being ruthlessly enslaved and submittedto a meager diet of cassava and sweet potatoes, died from malnutrition and overwork in themines or plantations. Finally, the rest of them died after contracting European diseases fromwhich they were not immune. Their disappearance was so swift and the need for cheap andable labor was so great that 30 years after Columbus landing the massive deportation ofAfricans had started. The American Indian societies of the West Indies were too ill prepared tomassively support the shock of contact with Europeans. Due to various diseasesand an obstinate repression they swiftly faded away. Today, traces of theircontribution can still by found in a few techniques for refining the cassava, in someculinary methods and recipes, in a few terms in the various Creoles, and in some ofthe syncretic relationships in traditional religion and beliefs.
The Natives Strike Back! • Picture of Indians massacring priests—great propaganda for future opportunities to subjugate and slaughter.
1st century AD Chinese invent the first compass.120 AD Ptolemy creates the first flat map of the world982 Eric the Red discovers Greenland1002 Leif Erickson discovers North America.1271- 1295 Marco Polo goes to China.1450 Prince Henry the Navigator builds school for sailors.1487 Bartholomeu Dias discovers the southern tip of Africa.1492 Columbus sails to the New World.1497 John Cabot discovers Newfoundland while he searches for the Northwest Passage1502 Amerigo Vespucci returns from his explorations of the New World. American continents named after him by German mapmaker.1513 .Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovers the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean. Juan Ponce de Leon searches for the Fountain of Youth in Florida.1519 – 1522 Ferdinand Magellan and his crew sail around the world.1521 Hernando Cortez defeats the Aztec Empire.1533 Francisco Pizarro defeats the Inca Empire1534 Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes1539 – 1542 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon.1577 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world.
Explorers to the New World1539 – 1542 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States.1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon.1577 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world.1673 Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River.1682 Rene-Robert de La Salle explores the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
ExplorersDate Explorer Nationality AchievementAround Leif Ericson Norse First European to reach North American Mainland10001271- Marco Polo Italian Traveled to the Far East, to what was known then as Cathay1295 or China-Made men want to travel there through his book1394- Prince Henry Portuguese Created navigation school in Sagres, Portugal Explored the1460 western African coastline1487- Bartholomeu Portuguese First European to round the Cape of Good Hope1488 Dias1492- Christopher Italian Made 4 voyages to West Indies and Caribbean Islands1504 Columbus1497- Amerigo Italian Sailed to West Indies and South America1503 Vespucci1497- John Cabot Italian Explored the shores of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and1498 Labrador1498 Vasco Da Portuguese First to travel to West Indies around Africa Gama1513 Vasco de Spanish Led expedition across Panama and found the Pacific Ocean Balboa1513 Juan Ponce Spanish Explored Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth de Leon
1520-1521 Ferdinand Portuguese Commanded first globe circling voyage Magellan1519-1521 Hernando Cortez Spanish Conquered Aztecs in Mexico1523 Giovanni da Italian Searched for a Northwest Passage Verranzano1523-1535 Francisco Pizarro Spanish Conquered Peru1534-1542 Jacques Cartier French Traveled St. Lawrence River1539-1541 Hernando De Soto Spanish Explored American Southeast-Discovered the Mississippi River1540-1542 Francisco Spanish Explored American Southwest Vazquez de Coronado1577-1580 Sir Frances Drake English First English to sail around the world-Defeated the Spanish Armada- Claimed California for England1603-1616 Samuel de French Explored eastern coast of North America and Champlain the coast of the St. Lawrence River to Lake Huron-Reached Lake Champlain1609-1611 Henry Hudson English Explored Hudson Bay, Hudson River, and Hudson Strait1672 Marquette and French Explored Northern Mississippi River Louis Joliet1682 Robert LaSalle French Traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed it for France
Treaty of • Upon returning to Spain in 1493 after his first voyage, Christopher Columbus contacted Pope Alexander VI (a Tordesillas Spaniard by birth) to report his discoveries. Acting as the great European arbiter of the day, the pope then issued a bull (decree) that divided the New World lands between Spain and Papal Line Portugal by establishing a north-south line of demarcation 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. Undiscovered non-of Demarcation Christian lands to the west of the line were to be Spanish possessions and those to the east belonged to Portugal. 1494 • News of this decision was not warmly greeted by the Portuguese, who argued that previous agreements conflicted with the popes decision. • In the spring of 1494, representatives of Spain and Portugal met in the Spanish town of Tordesillas and negotiated a mutually satisfactory solution to their dispute. • The pope granted his official recognition of this agreement in 1506. Spain and Portugal, with a few exceptions, remained loyal to the terms of the treaty; the Portuguese would expand deep into Brazil beyond the demarcation line, but Spain did not object. The natives of these regions, needless to say, were not consulted about the assignment of their homelands to others and competing powers in Europe totally ignored the line. • For years following 1494, the Spanish lamented their consent to the treaty, convinced that they had received the short end of the stick. Their initial discoveries in the New World yielded little mineral wealth, but much disease and discomfort. Their evaluation of this bargain with Portugal changed dramatically in the 1520s as the riches from Aztec Mexico began to be exploited.
Bermuda Bound• The Sea Venture was the flagship of a nine-ship convoy of 500 new settlers. By July, the ships had reached the West Indies where they were struck by a hurricane. The Sea Venture ran aground on a reef off the Bermudas, but the entire company of 150 safely reached shore in the ships boats.• The colonists found Bermuda to be a hospitable place with sufficient food. In the following months, two smaller ships were built from cedar trees and salvage. By May 1610 the two ships, aptly named the Patience and the Deliverance, were ready. The ships reached the Chesapeake Bay after ten days sailing.• While on Bermuda, John Rolfes wife had given birth to a daughter who was christened Bermuda, but the child died there. Rolfes wife also died, probably soon after they reached Virginia.
Spanish Settlements• Two men called Viceroys ruled the Spanish empire in the New World for the king of Spain. Each controlled one area. One Viceroy controlled for the Kingdom of New Spain. This included Mexico, the islands of the West Indies, and North America. The other Viceroy controlled the Kingdom of Peru. This also included Panama and the Spanish land in South America. The Viceroys made sure the kings laws were followed and taxes were collected. They had little authority on their own; all important matters had to be referred to the King/Queen. The concept of local government did not exist.• Conquistadors were usually second-born sons of nobility who had the ambition and education, but no titles, lands, or wealth. They were seasoned soldiers from the Reconquista and convinced that their way of life was superior to all others. They believed in “the Cross or the Sword” and were soldiers and leaders who helped take over the land from the Indians. They treated the Indians like slaves.• Missionaries were Catholic priests. They built missions throughout Spanish territory. The missions were built like forts because the Indians often attacked them. Many Indians lived on large farms owned by the Spanish. They were enslaved and converted to Christianity in the encomienda system. The large farms were called haciendas.• The first cattle, horses, and cowboys were started by the Spanish, not to mention excellent CA wines, planted from Spanish grapes.
Spanish Conquest of the New World• The Spanish brought the new crops of sugar cane, coffee, and cereal grains to the New World.• The Indians introduced the Spanish to tobacco, potatoes, co rn, chocolate from cacao beans, and squash.
Balboa was the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean from crossing the Isthmus of Panama.
Montezuma• Montezuma or Moctezuma [mok–] , 1480?–1520, Aztec emperor (c.1502– 1520). He is sometimes called Montezuma II to distinguish him from Montezuma I (ruled 1440–69), who carried on conquests around Tenochtitlán. His reign was marked by incessant warfare, and his despotic rule caused grave unrest. When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico he was thus able to gain native allies, notably in the province of the Tlaxcala. Montezuma, believing the Spanish to be descendants of the god Quetzalcoatl, tried to persuade them to leave by offering rich gifts. That failing, he received them in his splendid court at Tenochtitlán in Nov., 1519. Cortés later seized him as a hostage and attempted to govern through him. In June, 1520, the Aztec rose against the Spanish. Montezuma was killed, although whether by the Spanish or the Aztec is not certain. His successor died a few months later and was replaced by Cuauhtémoc. Montezumas name is linked by a legend to fabulous treasures that the Spanish appropriated and presumably lost at sea.
Chocolate When the Spaniards, under Hernán Cortés, arrived in 1519, the Aztec civilization was at its height. However, many subject Indian groups, rebellious against Aztec rule, were only too willing to join the Spanish. Initially, the invaders were aided by the fact that the Aztec believed them to be descendants of the god Quetzalcoatl. Montezuma, the last of the independent Aztec rulers, received Cortés, who made him prisoner and attempted to rule through him. The Aztec revolted, Montezuma was killed, and Tenochtitlán was razed (1521). Cuauhtémoc, last of the emperors, was murdered (1525), and• "The divine drink, which builds up the Spanish proceeded to subjugate resistance and fights fatigue. Mexico. A cup of this precious drink [cocoa] permits a man to walk for a whole day without food." Montezuma II (1502-1520)
Guns, Horse s, and DiseaseAlthough Spanish conquistadors only numbered in the hundredsas compared to millions of Native Americans, they had manyadvantages. Their guns and cannons were superior to the NativeAmericans’ arrows and spears, and European metal armorprovided them with better protection. They also had horses, whichnot only were useful in battle and in carrying supplies, but alsofrightened the Native Americans, who had never seen a horse.
Most importantly, an invisibleinvader—disease—helped theconquistadors take control of theTaínos and other NativeAmericans. Europeansunknowingly carried diseasessuch as smallpox, measles, andinfluenza to which NativeAmericans had no immunity, orresistance. These diseases spread rapidly and wiped out village after village. As a result, the Native American population of the Caribbean islands declined by as much as 90 percent in the 1500s. Millions of Native Americans died from disease as Europeans made their way inland.
La Malinche (c. 1496 or c. 1505 – c. 1529, somesources give 1550-1551), known also asMalintzin, Malinalli or Doña Marina, wasa Nahua woman from the Mexican GulfCoast, who played a role in the Spanish conquestof Mexico, acting as interpreter, advisor, loverand intermediary for Hernán Cortés. She wasone of twenty slaves given to Cortés by thenatives of Tabasco in 1519. Later she becamea mistress to Cortés and gave birth to his firstson, Martín, who is considered one of the firstMestizos (people of mixedEuropean and indigenous American ancestry).Her relationship to Cortés gave birth to Martin -arguably a mestizo and criollo, those whoeventually resented Spain for not allowing themany ruling position just because they were bornin America.
A Layered SocietySpanish colonial society was made up of distinct social classes. At the top werepeninsulares ,people born in Spain. (The term peninsular referred to the Iberian Peninsula,on which Spain is located.) Peninsulares filled the highest positions in both colonialgovernments and the Catholic Church. Next came creoles, American-born descendants ofSpanish settlers. Creoles owned most of the plantations, ranches, and mines.Lower social groups reflected the mixing of populations. They included mestizos, people ofNative American and European descent, and mulattoes, people of African and Europeandescent. Native Americans and people of African descent formed the lowest social classes.
Pizarro conquers the Incas• Atahualpa sensed that his Spanish captors were greedy and offered a room full of gold as ransom, or payment for his release. Pizarro agreed, and the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and artwork from all over the empire. The Spanish ordered the Incas to melt everything down into gold bars. Pizarro received word about the capture and killing of Huáscar. He put Atahualpa on trial for treason for his brothers murder and for plotting against the Spanish. Treason is working against ones own country or government. Atahualpa was found guilty and was executed on August 29, 1533. With the death of its leader, the Inca Empire soon fell.
St. Augustine, Europe’s oldest permanent settlement in North America• On August 28, the Feast Day of Saint Augustine, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles first sighted the coast of Florida. Twelve days later, on September 8, he stepped ashore, planted the Spanish flag into the sandy soil and, with soldiers and settlers who had traveled with him and Timicuans who greeted his arrival watching, Menendez founded a new city and named it St. Augustine. The year was 1565. From that day until today, the City of St. Augustine has continued to survive and thrive, making it the longest continually inhabited European founded city in the United States, or more commonly called the "Nation’s Oldest City." The Castillo de San Marcos, built 1672-1695, served primarily as an outpost of the Spanish Empire, guarding St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, and also protecting the sea route for treasure ships returning to Spain.
St. Augustine• The mainland of the North American continent was first sighted by the Spanish explorer and treasure hunter Don Juan Ponce de Leon on Easter, March 27, 1513. He claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, meaning "Land of Flowers". Between 1513 and 1563 the government of Spain launched six expeditions to settle Florida, but all failed. the French succeeded in establishing a fort and colony on the St. Johns River in 1564 and, in doing so, threatened Spains treasure fleets which sailed along Floridas shoreline returning to Spain. As a result of this incursion into Florida, King Phillip II named Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Spains most experienced admiral, as governor of Florida, instructing him to explore and to colonize the territory. Menendez was also instructed to drive out any pirates or settlers from other nations, should they be found there.• When Menendez arrived off the coast of Florida, it was August 28, 1565, the Feast Day of St. Augustine. Eleven days later, he and his 600 soldiers and settlers came ashore at the site of the Timucuan Indian village of Seloy with banners flying and trumpets sounding. He hastily fortified the fledgling village and named it St. Augustine.• Utilizing brilliant military maneuvers, Menendez destroyed the French garrison on the St. Johns River and, with the help of a hurricane, also defeated the French fleet. With the coast of Florida firmly in Spanish hands, he then set to work building the town, establishing missions to the Indians for the Church, and exploring the land.• Thus, St. Augustine was founded forty-two years before the English colony at Jamestown, Virginia, and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts - making it the oldest permanent European settlement on the North American continent.
The encomienda system was used in themines as well as on plantations. By the1540s, tons of silver from the Potosíregion of Peru and Bolivia filled Spanishtreasure ships.Year after year, thousands of NativeAmericans were forced to extract the richore from dangerous shafts deep insidethe Andes Mountains. As thousands ofIndians died from the terrible conditions,they were replaced by thousands more. A 1584 drawing of slaves laboring at the Potosí silver mine, Bolivia A few bold priests, like Bartolomé de Las Casas condemned the evils of the encomienda system. In vivid reports to Spain, Las Casas detailed the horrors that Spanish rule had brought to Native Americans and pleaded with the king to end the abuse.
Bartholomeo de las Casas• Bartholomew de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1474. He was a young man of wealth and social position when Columbus returned in 1492 from the New World, bringing a captive Indian as a trophy. The young de Las Casas took his law degree at the University of Salamanca, where the Dominicans were already wrestling with the problems of social injustice brought about by the conquest. In 1502 he accompanied his father to Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic and Haiti). A typical young Spanish grandee, with a large amount of property on the island of Hispaniola, Bartolomew was atypically kind to the Native People who were slaves on his plantation. However the thought of slavery never really bothered him. It seemed at the time an eminently sensible method of colonizing a new land, and for many years while injustice flared on all sides, he paid little attention to the social injustice of the colonial system.• In 1510, the Order of Preachers arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. From almost the beginning they began to preach against the entire system of slavery. The Spanish colonists were amazed, then angry and finally began to work at ways of having the Dominicans removed. They banned together and sent petitions to the King requesting that the friars be sent home. Bartholomew de Las Casas was one of the colonists who heard Father Anthony Montesinos preach against slavery. While at that time he was not prepared to give up his slaves, he did realize with greater clarity the injustices he and the other Spaniards were committing against the Native People. After a time of prayerful reflection he gave the responsibility of running his plantation to a friend and expressed a desire to become a priest. Consequently he was the first priest to celebrate his first Mass in Hispaniola.• Soon after his ordination he was assigned as chaplain to the army invading Cuba. Despite the promises made to him assuring a fair use of force; he witnessed a horrible massacre of the Native People. Totally disillusioned, he sailed for Spain the next year, and in 1515 he presented the case of the Native People to the Council of the Indies. For two years de Las Casas pleaded the cause of the conquered people and asked that the king stop the senseless violence. King Ferdinand, wishing to avoid the entire situation, sent de Las Casas back to Hispaniola with the title "Protector of the Indians" and with a great many laws to rectify the matter. It soon became clear to Bartholomew that laws without backing were futile words. So in less than a year, de Las Casas was sailing back to Spain to ask for support for the laws he had been given. After consulting with Charles the V, de Las Casas realized that King Ferdinand had no intention of forcing the colonialist to obey.
• More disheartened, Bartholomew returned to Hispaniola and in 1522, freed his own slaves and requested entrance into the Dominican Order. He received the habit. He spent the next eight years of his life praying, reflecting and writing. Of the many works that he accomplished in his life, his writings have had the greatest impact on subsequent generations.• Since traffic in slavery was then a common practice through out the world, de Las Casas at first endorsed the importing of Africans slaves to the colonies, but quickly repented of his decision. He again confessed this mistake as a sin on his deathbed.• The intelligentsia of Europe maintained the legitimacy of the inhuman slave traffic and strove to negate the influence of de Las Casas. Undaunted by almost universal opposition, the intrepid liberator crossed the Atlantic fourteen times to persuade the Spanish Cortes to enact humanitarian laws for the peaceful civilization and conversion of the Native People. He was admired and supported in his efforts by the Emperor Charles V and by the Dominican professors at the University of Salamanca. Chiefly through his efforts the famous New Laws were enacted in 1542-43.• In 1544 de Las Casas was appointed bishop of the Mexican province of Chiapas. But he was so frustrated by the powerful landholders that he retired in Spain in 1547.• Bartholomew de Las Casas spent the remaining years of his life in retirement at the convent of Our Lady of Athocha in Madrid. Rarely speaking anymore, he spent his days writing. At the age of ninety he wrote his last defense of the Native People, explaining the rights of personal property of non-Christians. He died in 1566, not realizing his hopes of true equality and humanitarian treatment of the Native People.
Prayer to Bartholomew de Las CasasRighteous God, You filled Bartholomew with a zeal for justice for the Native People of the New World. Help us to be people of justice,ready to defend the rights of the poor, neglected and displaced peoples of our world.Give us Your grace so that we may create a New World Order of peace and justice for all. We ask this prayer through our Lord Jesus Christ Your Son, our Lord,who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God forever and ever. Amen
Spanish Terms• Primogeniture—first born son inherits everything• Encomienda system—fort/mission/school/slave factory— converted enslaved natives to work on ranches/haciendas• Conquistador—Spanish soldier/adventurer/knight, but usually the younger sons• Hildago—young Spanish nobleman• Black robes—Jesuit priests who accompanied the conquistadors, set up missions, converted the natives• Peninsulare—Spanish born in Spain (Iberia)• Mestizo—mixed parents—Sp. and Native or African• Creole—pure Spanish parents, but born in the Americas• Vaquero—Spanish man on horseback who tends cattle
CABEZA DE VACA• IN 1528, CABEZA DE VACA AND THE CREW OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION WERE SHIPWRECKED ALONG THE UPPER TEXAS COAST. THEY FOUND THEMSELVES AMONG THE KARANKAWAS OR RELATED PEOPLES , AND DE VACA CHRONICLED HIS EXPERIENCES.• In 1534, Cabeza de Vaca, Alonzo de Castillo, Andres Dorantes and his black Moroccan servant, Esteban, fled from the Native Americans. They wandered across Texas and Mexico for two years until a Spanish patrol found them and took them to Mexico City in 1536.
CABRILLO, JUAN RODRIGUEZ Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (? -1543) was a Spanish or Portuguese explorer (his nationality is uncertain). Cabrillo was the first European explorer of the Californian coast. In 1542, he sailed from Acapulco to southern California, claiming California for King Charles I of Spain. Cabrillo named San Diego Bay and Santa Barbara. He died on San Miguel Island (in the Santa Barbara Channel) after a fight with Indians, from complications resulting from a broken leg. On 23 November 1542, the little fleet limped back to "San Salvador" (Santa Catalina Island) to overwinter and make repairs. There, around Christmas Eve, Cabrillo stepped out of his boat and splintered his shin when he stumbled on a jagged rock. The injury developed gangrene andJoão Rodrigues Cabrilho he died on 3 January 1543.
He named Santa Barbara and San Diego, but he missed Monterrey Bay, San FranciscoBay, and Golden Gate Bay.
Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784)• Father Junipero Serra (Miguel Jose Serra) was one of the most important Spanish missionaries in the New World. Born in Majorca on November 24, 1713, he joined the Franciscan Order at the age of 16. He soon gained prominence as an eloquent preacher and eventually became a professor of theology. His dream was to become a missionary to America. He arrived in Mexico City in 1750 to begin this new life.• In 1769 he established a mission at the present site of San Diego, California, the first of a number that would include San Antonio, San Buenaventura, San Carlos, San Francisco de Assisi, San Gabriel, San Juan Capistrano, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Clara. This was a herculean task considering that Father Serra was already in his fifties and suffered from a chronic ulcerated condition in one leg. Serra was ascetic and uncompromising in his zeal to convert the Indians to Christianity and to make his missions self sufficient. Inhabitants built their own homes, spun wool for garments, and pursued careers as masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, and millers; thousands of barrels of grain were kept in reserve supply, and herds of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine were maintained.• The ulcerated condition of Serras leg eventually spread to his chest. At the age of 71, aware of his deterioration, he made a final visit to his missions. The well-known and beloved missionary died in Monterey, California, on
Serra founded the following missions:• LOWER CALIFORNIA Serra was president of the following missions. • UPPER CALIFORNIA (all founded by the Jesuits) Serra was responsible for the 1. 1697 - Nuestra Señora de Loreto founding of the first nine missions. 2. 1699 - San Francisco Xavier 1) 1769 - San Diego de Alcalá 3. 1705 - Santa Rosalía de Mulegé 2) 1770 - San Carlos Borromeo 4. 1708 - San José de Comondú 3) 1771 - San Antonio de Padua 5. 1720 - La Purísima Concepción de 4) 1771 - San Gabriel Arcángel . . . . . . . .María Cadegomó 5) 1772 - San Luís Obispo de 6. 1720 - Nuestra Señora de Tolosa Guadalupe 6) 1776 - San Francisco de Asís 7. 1721 - Santiago de las Coras 7) 1776 - San Juan Capistrano 8. 1721 - Nuestra Señora de los 8) 1777 - Santa Clara de Asís Dolores 9) 1782 - San Buenaventura 9. 1728 - San Ignacio 10. 1730 - San José del Cabo 11. 1733 - Todos Santos 12. 1737 - San Luís Gonzaga 13. 1752 - Santa Gertrudis 14. 1762 - San Francisco de Borja 15. 1767 - Santa María de Los Angeles
Pope’ or Popay • SANTA FE, N.M. - The year 2005 is quickly becoming the Year of Popay. The leader of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 is the subject of a new book, Popay: Leader of the First American Revolution, written by Pueblo members and leaders, while a marble tribute will soon honor Popay in the National Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol in Washington.Photo courtesy Clear LightPublishing/Marcia Keegan -- HermanAgoyo and Joe S. Sando, editors ofPopay: Leader of the First AmericanRevolution (Clear Light Publishing,2005), stand in front of the statue ofPopay that will represent New Mexico inthe National Statuary Hall in Washington,D.C.
• In the 17th century, Spain maintained New Mexico as a Franciscan enclave dedicated to converting its indigenous peoples to Christianity. In 1599 a rebellion in Ácoma was brutally suppressed by Juan de Oñate. The actions of the Spaniards shocked all of the pueblos and were not forgotten. Tensions increased among the Spanish soldiers seeking wealth, the priests needing wealth to build churches, and the Indians who had to produce the wealth. The Real Scoop• Between 1644 and 1675 the Indians repeatedly rebelled against the better-armed and better-organized Spaniards, but these uprisings were quickly suppressed. In the1660s and 1670s drought and unusually high temperatures made life increasingly difficult for both the Indians and Spaniards. Spaniards seized Indian possessions and crops.• A decade of isolated unrest culminated in the unification of most pueblos and other communities against the Spaniards.• In 1680 the charismatic Tewa leader Popé coordinated a successful rebellion against the Spaniards, known as The Great Pueblo Revolt. Throughout the upper Rio Grande basin north of El Paso to Taos, Tewa, Tiwa, Hopi, Zuni and other Keresan-speaking pueblos, and even the non-pueblo Apaches simultaneously rose up against the Spanish.• The Spaniards who were able to escape fled to Santa Fe where they were besieged by a combined army of various tribes armed with Spanish weapons. After several days, the Spaniards broke through the siege and fled south to El Paso.• The Pueblo rebellion effectively ended Spanish rule in New Mexico for the next 12 years. However, Popé died and the de facto confederation of the pueblos fell apart. Since there were no Spanish troops to offer protection, the traditional enemies of the pueblos, the Apache and Navajo, launched their attacks. The succeeding Spanish governor of the territory, Diego de Vargas Zapata y Luján Ponce de León (ca. 1643-1704), began a successful military and political reconquest in 1692. The Spanish will win since disease decimated the pueblos. Pope will win the battle and lose the war.
Spanish Place Names• Hispanic the first Europeans to explore what isto Coast The Spanish were among Heritage from Coast now the United States, and the first to found a permanent settlement here (St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565). From Alaskas Madre de Dios Island to Mexico, Maine, the United States is dotted with Spanish place names. Here are a few.• Alamo: "poplar." This tall softwood tree gave its name to a number of U.S. places, including the memorable chapel-fort in Texas and the town of Los Alamos in New Mexico, where atomic bombs were produced.• Alcatraz Island (California): from álcatraces, pelican. A sizable pelican population once lived on this rocky island in the San Francisco Bay.• Boca Raton (Florida): from boca de ratónes, a Spanish term applied to nearby inlets. It translates as "mouth of the mouse" (not "rat," which is rata) and may refer to the jagged rocks at these inlets. It has also been suggested that ratónes was a term used for the pirates who might hide in such a place.• California: The state was named for a mythical land described in a popular Spanish novel from around 1500, Las sergas de Esplandián (The exploits of Esplandián) by Garcia Ordóñez de Montalvo.• Cape Canaveral (Florida): from cañaveral, canebrake. The promontory NASA made famous takes its name from the thickets of cane that grow in sandy areas.• Colorado: "reddish." The state is named for the reddish color of mud found in the Colorado River.• El Paso (Texas): "passage." The border city of El Paso lies at a small gap between the Rockies and the Juarez Mountains of Mexico. This narrow passage has made the city a hub for both north-south and east-west travel.• Florida: "flowery." Some say that Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon named the land for the Spanish term for Easter, Pascua de Florida (Flowery Feast), because he first saw the land during the Easter season. Others believe he named it for the areas lush flowers.• Fresno (California): "ash tree." The central Californian city and county are named for their abundant ash trees.
• La Brea (California): "tar." The tar pits in this famous part of Los Angeles have yielded amazing fossils for more than 100 years.• Las Cruces (New Mexico): "crosses." The city is named for the burial ground of some 40 travelers who were killed by Apaches in 1830.• Las Vegas (Nevada): "meadows." Before casinos and neon lights defined Las Vegas, the area was noteworthy as a desert oasis with artesian springs.• Los Angeles (California): "angels." In 1781 Spanish settlers founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciúncula (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula). It became known as La Ciudad de los Angeles (City of Angels), and then just as Los Angeles.• Los Gatos (California): "cats." At the time this western California city was founded, many wildcats roamed the area.• Montana: from montaña, mountain. Representative James M. Ashley of Ohio suggested using the Spanish word in honor of the territorys mountainous western part.• Nevada: "snow-covered." The mountains in this western state are often capped with snow.• San Antonio (Texas): "Saint Anthony" (of Padua). On the feast day of St. Anthony in 1691, Spanish explorers found and named the eponymous river. Later the name was given to the city, which was founded in 1718.• San Francisco (California): "Saint Francis" (of Assisi). The city by the bay was once a Mexican village named Yerba Buena (Good Grass). In 1846, during the Mexican War, Commodore John Sloat captured and renamed the settlement for its San Francisco de Asís mission (better known as Mission Dolores), which was founded in 1776.• Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Colorado and New Mexico): "blood of Christ." This mountain range was named for the red glow cast on it by the setting sun.• Santa Fe (New Mexico): "holy faith." Spanish settlers founded this oldest U.S. capital nearly 400 years ago, as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (The Royal City of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis).
Spanish Words in English• Others,such as tuna, which comes from the Spanish atún,are variations of the original. Other food words are of American Indian origin, but came into English via Spanish. Tomato,for instance, is derived from the Spanish tomate,a corruption of the Nahuatl word tomatl. Chocolate comes from the Nahuatl word xocolatl. Potato comes from papa, meaning white potato in the Inca language, Quechua; and batata, sweet potato in the Taino Indian language of the Caribbean. Banana, on the other hand, entered Spanish from the West African languages of Wolof, Mandingo, and Fulani.• Animal Names A number of animal words went directly from Indian languages into Spanish and then English.Puma originated in Quechua, while jaguar comes from yaguar, a word of the Guarani who live in what is now Paraguay, and iguana is a modification of iwana, used by the Arawak and Carib of the West Indies.• Riding Through the Desert When Americans began exploring the Southwest in the early 19th century they encountered an established Mexican culture, which has provided English with many everyday words. Some involve horseback riding, including rodeo, lasso, and lariat, since the horse was a key part of frontier life for both Mexicans and Americans. Ranch , a common English word today, hails from the Mexican Spanish ranch, meaning ranch, settlement, or meat ration.• In fact, our whole idea of a cowboy derives from the Spanish—cattle and horses were introduced to the New World via the conquistadors—mustangs, saddles, stirrups, boots, lariats, guitars, chaps, and even the ten gallon hat.
• Sailing the Spanish Main Hurricane, tobacco,and hammock came to English from the Caribbean. In the 17th and 18th centuries American and English traders plied the ports of the West Indies and South America. Weather often required extended stays in these ports, acquainting the English speakers with Spanish culture. In addition, buccaneers in search of treasure sailed "the Spanish Main," the South American mainland from the Orinoco River in present-day Venezuela to Panama. It is likely they also acquired many Spanish words now used in English.• Common Words with Spanish Origins Alligator - el lagarto , the lizard Booby - bobo, silly or selfish, from the Latin for stammering, balbus Bronco - meaning wild or rough Cafeteria - cafetería , a coffee shop Cargo - cargar , to load Cigar, Cigarette - cigarro Comrade - camarada, old Spanish for barracks company or roommate Guerrilla - a small raiding party or fighting force Hoosegow - from juzgado, a tribunal or courtroom, past participle of juzgar, to judge Mustang - mestengo or mesteño , a stray animal Patio - courtyard in Spanish Peccadillo - a form of pecado, to sin Renegade - renegado, deserter or outlaw Savvy - saber, to know Tornado - tornar, to turn, tronada, thunderstorm Vamoose - vamos, lets go . Words with the same meaning in both languages include aficionado , armada, barracuda, mosquito, tobacco, and vanilla .
The Mythical Northwest PassageAt that time the Europeans believed everything in the north was covered by ice and it was not until the 1490s, whenJohn Cabot proposed that there must exist a direct way to the Orient via the Northwest Passage, that the Europeansinterest in the far north was peaked. It was during the 16th century that Europe began to investigate the possibility of apassage in the Northwest that would offer a safer sea route to the Orient than those which lay exposed to possibleSpanish or Portuguese attack, such as the areas of Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. This search was to continuefor over 300 years, during which time explorers would brave the harsh climate and treacherous ice conditions of theNorth. Some men would lose their lives due to starvation, scurvy, attack by Inuit or even their fellow crew in anattempt to find a way through the maze of ice and islands.
• 1587 (August)--"War" with Roanoke. Almost immediately upon landing, an Englishmen was killed by an Indian. However, the Croatoan, on a nearby island, made overtures of peace towards the colonists. • Manteo specifically dealt with the English. The rest of the Croatoan, perhaps hearing of the abuses the Roanoke suffered, did not want to become too close to the settlers - they wanted to be on good terms but not made into servants. • Manteo told the English that the Roanoke had killed Grenvilles fifteen soldiers. In August, the colonists, in retaliation, attacked what they thought was a Roanoke village on the island. However, the Roanoke had abandoned the village, and it had been repopulated by the friendly Croatoan. Many Indians were killed before the English were finally stopped. • Manteo had his work cut out for him maintaining friendly relations between his village and the colonists.Sir Walter Raleigh
Lost Colony• Just after the colonists left, supply ships from Raleigh and then the long-awaited Grenville arrived, now too late. Grenville left fifteen soldiers to watch over the abandoned colony. These fifteen soldiers would never be seen again.• 1587 (July)--Roanoke 2: The Lost Colony. Raleigh once again organized an expedition to colonize America, two years after his first failure. This time he recruited 150 people, including women and families, and notably experienced farmers and less soldiers. However, they came just as ill-equipped and just as hostile toward the native populations.• Although the second expedition had planned to settle farther in the bay, they ended up settling at the original site of the first colony. The fifteen soldiers that had been left there were not to be found; one body was recovered, but no sign of the others was ever discovered.
Captain John Smith• Virginians know that Captain John Smith was one of the first American heroes. But because he was a proud and boastful man, it is difficult to know which parts of his life are fact and which are fiction. What many people may not know is that Smiths adventures started even before Jamestown. Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. He began his travels by joining volunteers in France who were fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, he set off for the Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship. In 1600 he joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks in the "Long War." A valiant soldier, he was promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary. He was fighting in Transylvania two years later in 1602. There he was wounded in battle, captured, and sold as a slave to a Turk. This Turk then sent Smith as a gift to his sweetheart in Istanbul. According to Smith, this girl fell in love with him and sent him to her brother to get training for Turkish imperial service. Smith reportedly escaped by murdering the brother and returned to Transylvania by fleeing through Russia and Poland. After being released from service and receiving a large reward, he traveled all through Europe and Northern Africa. He returned to England in the winter of 1604-05.
Colin Farrell as Capt. John Smith• Here begins Captain John Smiths American adventures. Apparently restless in England, Smith became actively involved with plans to colonize Virginia for profit by the Virginia Company, which had been granted a charter from King James I. After setting sail on December 20, 1606, this famous expedition finally reached Virginia in April 1607 after enduring a lengthy voyage of over four months in three tiny ships. When the sealed box that listed the names of the seven council members who were to govern the colony was opened, Smiths name was on the list. On May 13, 1607 the settlers landed at Jamestown ready to begin the task of surviving in a new environment. The harsh winter, lack of fresh water, and the spread of disease made life in Jamestown difficult for the settlers. Attacks by the native Algonquian Indians made life almost impossible. The Indians, hoping that the settlers would give up and leave, raided their camps, stealing pistols, gunpowder, and other necessary supplies. John Smith became leader of the colonists and did his best to fight off the Indians.• In December 1607, he and some companions were ambushed by Indian deer hunters. After killing the other Englishmen with him, the Indians carried Smith back to their powerful chief, Powhatan, to decide his fate. Powhatan was apparently greatly impressed by Smiths self-confidence as well as such mystical instruments as an ivory and glass pocket compass he carried with him. Smith was questioned about his colony and then made to take part in some sort of ritual or trial, after which, in keeping with an Indian custom, he was made a subordinate chief in the tribe.
Pocahon tas • Powhatans daughter, Pocahontas - a nickname which means "my favorite daughter, or mischievous one" and not her real name (her real name was Matoaka, or little down feather from the Canada geese that winter on the Chesapeake) - told the leader of the colony, John Smith, of her fathers agenda; history would remember her as "saving" the colonists from a trap. • The story of Pocahontas saving John Smith may possibly be legend; however, legend follows history in the next saga. After negotiations were broken off, Pocahontas was taken prisoner by the colonists as a bargaining chip for the return of white prisoners Chief Powhatan had. Later, she married John Rolfe, a white settler and established a peace between the Powhatan and the Virginia settlers.
Pocahontas• Unfortunately, relations with the Powhatans worsened. Necessary trading still continued, but hostilities became more open. While before she had been allowed to come and go almost at will, Pocahontas visits to the fort became much less frequent. In October 1609, John Smith was badly injured by a gunpowder explosion and was forced to return to England. When Pocahontas next came to visit the fort, she was told that her friend Smith was dead.• Pocahontas apparently married an Indian "pryvate Captayne" named Kocoum in 1610. She lived in Potomac country among Indians, but her relationship with the Englishmen was not over. When an energetic and resourceful member of the Jamestown settlement, Captain Samuel Argall, learned where she was, he devised a plan to kidnap her and hold her for ransom. With the help of Japazaws, lesser chief of the Patowomeck Indians, Argall lured Pocahontas onto his ship. When told she would not be allowed to leave, she “began to be exceeding pensive and discontented," but she eventually became calmer and even accustomed to her captivity. Argall sent word to Powhatan that he would return his beloved daughter only when the chief had returned to him the English prisoners he held, the arms and tolls that the Indians had stolen, and also some corn. After some time Powhatan sent part of the ransom and asked that they treat his daughter well. Argall returned to Jamestown in April 1613 with Pocahontas. She eventually moved to a new settlement, Henrico, which was under the leadership of Sir Thomas Dale. It was here that she began her education in the Christian Faith, and that she met a successful tobacco planter named John Rolfe in July 1613. Pocahontas was allowed relative freedom within the settlement, and she began to enjoy her role in the relations between the colony and her people. After almost a year of captivity, Dale brought 150 armed men and Pocahontas into Powhatan’s territory to obtain her entire ransom. Attacked by the Indians, the Englishmen burned many houses, destroyed villages, and killed several Indian men. Pocahontas was finally sent ashore where she was reunited with two of her brothers, whom she told that she was treated well and that she was in love with the Englishman John Rolfe and wanted to marry him. Powhatan gave his consent to this , and the Englishmen departed, delighted at the prospect of the “peace-making” marriage, although they didn’t receive the full ransom.• John Rolfe was a very religious man who agonized for many weeks over the decision to marry a "strange wife," a heathen Indian. He finally decided to marry Pocahontas after she had been converted to Christianity, "for the good of the plantation, the honor of our country, for the glory of God, for mine own salvation ..." Pocahontas was baptized, christened Rebecca, and later married John Rolfe on April 5, 1614. A general peace and a spirit of goodwill between the English and the Indians resulted from this marriage.
Baptism of Pocahontas at Jamestown, Virginia, 1613 John G. Chapman
The Dutch - Counterbalance Fort Orange Henry Hudson• 1608--Henry Hudson. Henry Hudson, a Dutch explorer, came to the New World in 1608 and explored the interior of the continent, along what would be named the Hudson River.• 17th century--The Dutch. In the mid-17th century, the Dutch arrived in the New World. They built Fort Orange (modern-day Albany) and settled along the Hudson river. They were there purely for profit, not for any settlement or missionary reasons. Meanwhile, around this time, the Mohawks, part of the Iroquois confederacy, came into conflict with the Mohicans, not a part of the Confederacy, to their east. The Mohawks forced the smaller tribe even further east towards the Hudson. It was a small conflict, but it had large repercussions; because of it, the Mohawks encountered the Dutch. The Dutch then became allies to the Iroquois and provided the counterbalance to the French in the region.• 1639--Dutch Government Forbids Gun Sales. By 1639, the government in the Netherlands had passed a law forbidding the sale of guns to American Indians. The complaints of Indian attacks from settlers prompted legislation from many European countries banning firearm sale from their companies. However, many private traders by this time had come to the area and had no qualms about selling guns to willing buyers. The Iroquois had an estimated 400 guns by the 1640s.
The Spanish Main—the main route theSpanish treasure galleons back to Spain!
Blackbeard• Edward Teach, alias Blackbeard, "more than any other, can be called North Carolinas own pirate, although he was not a native of the colony... As is the case with all pirates, his origin is obscure. His name originally, it seems was Edward Drummond, and he began his career as an honest seaman, sailing out of his home port of Bristol, England. He is seldom known by that name, for after he became a pirate he began calling himself Edward Teach, sometimes spelled in the records as Thatch, Tache, or even Tatch. Yet it was as Blackbeard that he was, and still is , known, and it was under this name that the people of his generation knew him, a swaggering, merciless brute." -- Hugh F. Rankin. Queen Annes Revenge• Blackbeards Queen Annes Revenge? The Underwater Archaeology Unit (UAU) of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources in association with the private research firm Intersal, Inc., has conducted three major expeditions to a wreck believed to be the remains of the Queen Annes Revenge, Blackbeards flagship, which sank at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina in 1718. Following five years of intense study, archaeologists have made great strides toward understanding the sites origin and significance. The site includes A General History of Blackbeard, the Queen Annes Revenge and the Adventure; reports of the excavations, 1997-2003; and a guide to the artifacts uncovered. Updated!
Captain Jack Sparrow crosses paths with a woman from his past (Penélope Cruz), andhes not sure if its love—or if shes a ruthless con artist whos using him to find thefabled Fountain of Youth. When she forces him aboard the Queen Annes Revenge, theship of the formidable pirate Blackbeard (Ian McShane), Jack finds himself on anunexpected adventure in which he doesnt know who to fear more: Blackbeard or thewoman from his past.Orlando and Keira apparently aren’t in this one
The Spanish Main—the main route theSpanish treasure galleons back to Spain!
Mayflower• 1620--Plymouth. The Pilgrim Puritans left the Netherlands for America to set up an ideal society based on their own way of living. They had no "American" visions of religious freedom; they were there to create their own Puritan society, to build their "citty on a hill." They had no intentions of making allies with the Indians or becoming involved in their politics. And thus the New England colony differed from every other expedition to America - they were not there for economic profit but solely to settle.• Because they were a religious group, the Puritans at Plymouth brought a strict set of tenements with them, a devoutly pious way of life that they were not about to change or stray from. They were well-educated, hard-working, and thought of themselves as very moral. Above all, they were homogenous; thus, they became more stable than most European colonies.• The Puritans notably brought women with them; they came as families ready to set up a village, whereas earlier military and economic expeditions were mainly composed of men. The Puritans had nearly equal men-to-women, bringing 17 married couples, plus their children. Again, this made them more stable than other colonies. It is also depictive of the Puritan removal from the Indians; Spanish conquistadors and French fur traders had children with Indian women, but with the settlers in New England, there would be no such extensive mingling.• Not all the settlers at Plymouth were Puritans. However, the Puritans, with their strict way of life, dominated the social structure.• 1620 (September 16)--Mayflower Departs. The Puritans in the Netherlands, under the leadership of Captain Miles Standish, bought passage on the Mayflower, an expedition to the New World by a London company. Of the 102 people on the ship, only one- third were Puritans, 17 families total. The rest were other interested colonists, and the ships crew.• 1620 (November 21)--Mayflower Compact. The Mayflower was heading for Virginia, to set up shop near the other English colonies. However, they were hit by a storm in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and arrived, in November, after nine and half weeks at sea, on the shores of Massachusetts.• Because of the non-Puritans in the group, the Puritans pushed for drawing up a plan of government before they got off the ship, to ensure the liberty of Puritans once on land. The men met in a ships cabin and wrote the Mayflower Compact.
Cape Cod • They scouted the area for some weeks before deciding on the right location.
John Alden & Priscilla Mullen • John Alden joined the Mayflower in England. At the time, he was about 21 years old. William Bradford writes that he "was hired for a cooper, at South-Hampton, where the ship victuled; and being a hopefull yong man, was much desired, but left to his owne liking to go or stay when he came here; but he stayed, and maryed here." John Alden was a cooper, or barrel-maker, by trade. John Alden married Priscilla Mullins, also of the Mayflower. The date of their marriage is not known. They were probably married by 1623 since Priscilla is not listed separately in the 1623 Division of Land. By the 1627 Division of Cattle, they were married and had two children, Elizabeth and John.John Alden met PriscillaMullins when they The legend of the rivalry between Miles Standish and John Alden forwere passengers on the the hand of Priscilla Mullins was first published in Rev. Timothy AldensMayflower. Their 1814 Collection of American Epitaphs and Inscriptions. The story wasmarriage, believed to popularized in the poem, The Courtship of Miles Standish, published bybe the second to take Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1858.place in Plymouth • "Why dont you speak for yourself, John?"Colony, was theinspiration for Henry • John and Priscilla Mullins Alden had 10 children : Elizabeth, John,Wadsworth Joseph, Sarah, Jonathan, Ruth, Rebecca, Mary, Priscilla, and David.Longfellows poem,"The Courtship ofMyles Standish."
The Widowed Land• Colonists DO NOT Encounter "Wilderness." Because of the decimation of Indians, the earliest colonists had "widowed land" on which to settle - clearings in forests, previously tilled land - ready and waiting for them. They did not appear on a harsh and wild coast and dig into virgin wilderness; they found abandoned Indian camps and empty villages, cleared out mainly because of disease. This fact in the early colonies is often overlooked, but it is immensely important that the early colonists found the area like this. It would have been so much harder to cut back thick forests or clear hard, woodsy land for farming; perhaps the early colonies would not have made it in the face of such challenges.•
The Mayflower Compact• "In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty- fourth. Anno Domini, 1620."Forty-one men signed the document.
BEER AND THE MAYFLOWER Did a thirst for beer… play a role in the colonizing of America? The Mayflower is headed for Virginia… but ends up putting ashore at Plymouth rock. One Pilgrims diary explains why: "We could not take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer. "Yes- the Pilgrims made port because they ran out of beer (then considered an essential and a healthy part of everyones daily diet)! Once ashore, they promptly erected a brew-house… and got to work brewing up a new batch to slake their thirsts.So Plymouth, Massachusetts ended up becoming the historic home of the pilgrims… because they needed to make a beer run!
A 19th century painting by William Halsall of the ship Mayflower at anchor in Plymouth harbor.
Plimoth• The region they landed on was on Cape Cod, modern-day Provincetown, Massachusetts. A party went onshore to explore. They found a field where Indians had buried corn for the winter, and immediately took it for themselves. However, there was no drinkable water near by and the ground was very rocky.• The ships captain knew of another bay nearby that had been settled by the Patuxet but now was depopulated. It had been scouted by English explorers from Virginia and was already called "Plymouth" on the maps. (It had gotten the name Plymouth almost 30 years earlier, from the 16-year old Prince Charles of England; Charles had been presented with a map of the New World made by the explorer John Smith and he took it upon himself to rename capes and rivers and landmarks with English names.) The captain took the Mayflower there.• 1620 (December 11)--Landing on Plymouth. The Mayflower landed at Plymouth on December 11 1620. Again, a scouting ship went ashore and this time deemed the deserted Patuxet village as suitable.
•Samoset greeting The Pilgrims Get colonists at Plymouth Help• 1620-1621 (winter)--Puritans Dying. The Puritan Pilgrims and the non-Puritans created Plymouth Plantation on the cleared site where Squantos village had been. They landed in the middle of winter and only managed to build rough dirt shelters before the weather turned. The Pilgrims themselves were fairly unprepared for the rigors of starting a colony. There were not many farmers or skilled workers among them; on the ships manifest appear two tailors, a printer, a hatter, and several merchants, among other trades. The ones who had owned land in England most likely had not worked it themselves, and even hunting was a skill they lacked, as in England it was considered a sport for the rich. Their European-wheat failed to take hold in the American soil. Even the corn they had stolen from the Indians at Cape Cod was not doing well; they did not know how to cultivate it. Forty-eight colonists died that season. The settlers, scared that the Indians might see the high death toll as a sign of weakness in the colony, buried their dead at night.• 1621 (spring)--Squanto & Samoset Help Plymouth. The Indians, though, did see the weakness of the colony. Squanto and Samoset came across the people living on the very land where Squantos village had been in spring of 1621. They took interest and observed how poorly Plymouth was doing. Finally, they decided to enter the village to help the settlers; Samoset went in first and, to the amazement of the settlers, greeted them with an English, "Welcome."• Squanto eventually moved into Plymouth Plantation, spending several monthsteaching the settlers how to build wigwams out of wood branches, how to plantcorn properly with fish for fertilization, how to dig for clams, and how to tapmaple trees, among other skills.The Wampanoag also gave food - it was part of their religious beliefs to givecharity to those in need and the English settlers were definitely in need.• 1621 (March 21)--Treaty with Plymouth. Massasoit, chief to the Wampanoagcame to Plymouth to negotiate in the spring of 1621, and the two sides signed atreaty to keep the peace between the two communities. Squanto wasinstrumental in facilitating the peace, translating the proceedings.The treaty was never broken. Squanto teaching skills
The First Thanksgiving• 1621 (fall)--First Thanksgiving.• By harvest time of 1621, the English settlers had a lot to be thankful for. Because of Squanto, they had warm homes, a newly built church, and a plentiful corn harvest that would last through the winter.• The English settlers celebrated with a feast, as was common practice at harvest time in both European and Indian cultures. They used the feast as an opportunity to negotiate with the Wampanoag, hoping to obtain signed rights to the land. They invited the Wampanoag to the three-day feast with the intention of winning them over.• They had invited just Squanto, Samoset, and Massasoit plus their families, not realizing the size of Indian families; 91 Indians arrived for the celebration. The English women did not eat at the feast; it was their custom to wait on the men and then eat later, so the English women stood behind the eaters during the meal. The Indians had no such custom, and the Indian women sat at the table.• This "first thanksgiving" was nothing remarkable; it was based on long-standing traditions of feasting after the harvest and the friendliness between the two groups was not as pure or wholesome as popular images make it seem but for political wheedling.
ThanksgivingAs was their custom, the Indians brought food, and it was a good thing they did because the settlers were not prepared to feed so many. The English settlers provided wild ducks and fried corn bread; the Wampanoag brought venison, boiled pumpkin, fish, lobster, berries, and plums. Famous depictions of the "first Thanksgiving" show the Wampanoag in the background or sitting lower than the colonists, connoting them as uncivilized and also, inaccurately, as the receivers of white bounty. Also, note the headdress in the black and white picture - Wampanoag did not wear these.
Many representations of King Philip’s War Metacom (King Philip) 1675-1676 Conflict over land were not isolated to just Virginia. Two years after Bacons Rebellion, in 1675, tension over territory erupted in New England. The Wampanoag had a last show of strength in response to the white invaders. Under the leadership of Metacom, also known as Philip during proceedings with whites, the Wampanoag began to attack the settlements in Massachusetts, south of Plymouth.• Metacom had become chief in 1662 when his brother, the current chief, had been killed while a prisoner at Plymouth. In the intervening years, Metacom had built no good relationship with the settlers. Then, in 1675, the mediator between Metacom and Plymouth, Sassamon was killed by whites. It was the spark leading to conflict.
• 1675 (June 24)--Swansea Attacked. After several outlying settlements were raided and King Philips War burned by Wampanoag in June 1675, the village of Swansea was attacked on June 24. The Wampanoag burned all the houses and• Whats in a Name. The conflict has been recorded by slaughtered all of the men from the white historians as "King Philips War" even though garrison. They decapitated the slain, placed Metacom was not a king and it was not a war. Metacom their heads and hands on poles, and then was chief of a particular clan, not over all the Indians in planted the poles along the river. The the area. It was not a war, but a series of skirmishes, of Wampanoag continued to strike across New attacks from both sides, as the Indians fought to control England throughout the next fifteen months, the continuing influx of English in their territory and the attacking settlements and convoys and garrisons English fought for subordination of the Indians. in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. The Narragansett, once allies of• The conflict was called his war, in a way, to pass the the white settlers, joined the Wampanoag - they blame, or at least remove the English from it. The name also had enough of white encroachment. Some itself portrays the struggle as a fight of the English for New England Indians like the Mohegan sided their land, assuming the settlers right to the territory, all and fought with the settlers. The fighting tactics in accordance with the mythology surrounding the of the Indians - guerilla warfare - was so creation of the United States. effective, it would be adopted by the settlers in 100 years, in the American Revolution. The white settlers responded with an increase in garrisons and military fortification. Soldiers were installed to protect settlements, and armies were sent out to route the Indians. The armies in turn attacked Indian settlements. • In white villages, the Christianized Indians who lived among the whites were sent to internment camps or to outlying islands on the coast, to keep them from joining the war. • It was a large and bloody conflict on both sides. Over 1,000 settlers were killed (or 5% of the total settler population) and thousands of Indians died, some who were not even involved in the conflict.
Mary Rowlandson • 1676 (February 10)--Mary Rowlandson Captured. It was during King Philips war that Mary Rowlandson was captured by a band of Nipmunk. After she was returned home, she wrote a famous account of her ordeal called The Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, which became the forerunner of a popular genre of English literature in the 17th century, captivity narratives. Indian captive narratives serve a directly political purpose, and can be seen as a kind of political propaganda.The captivity narratives also usually refer to the religious contrast between the Christian captiveand the pagan Indians. Mary Rowlandsons captivity story, for instance, was published in 1682 witha subtitle that included her name as "Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, a Ministers Wife in New England."That edition also included "A Sermon on the Possibility of Gods Forsaking a People that have beennear and dear to him, Preached by Mr. Joseph Rowlandson, Husband to the said Mrs. Rowlandson,It being his Last Sermon." The captivity narratives served to define piety and womens properdevotion to their religion, and to give a religious message about the value of faith in times ofadversity. (After all, if these women could maintain their faith in such extreme circumstances,shouldnt the reader maintain her or his faith in less challenging times?)
The End of Metacom• 1676 (May 13)--Turners Falls Massacre. Around 150 soldiers set out after a raid on their cattle and came across a village of Narragansett camped at Turners Falls in Massachusetts. It was not a war party but a village with women and children who had been displaced by the war. The soldiers attacked at night and slaughtered the village. On their retreat, the soldiers were in turn massacred by Narragansett reinforcements.• 1676--Narragansett Decimated. The settlers almost completely wiped out the Narragansett by 1676. The Wampanoag, seeing the devastation, withdrew from their attacks, taking refuge in forests.• 1676 (August 12)--Metacom Dies. Metacom’s wife, Wootoonanushka and his son were taken captive and sold into slavery in the West Indies. He declares that he is already dead. A white commander Benjamin Church formed a search party specifically to hunt out Metacom (King Philip). In late summer 1676, on August 12, the party caught the elusive chief deep in a Massachusetts forest. A Peoria native claimed to have killed the king. Metacom was beheaded and quartered; his head was placed on a pole at Plymouth, where it was kept for over 20 years. Metacoms death marked what the white settlers perceived as the end of the war.• Because of the conflict, 50 English villages were abandoned. The Indians that sided with Metacom were sold into slavery. King Philips War had major and lasting repercussions in New England; autonomy for Indians was officially over. The settlers now set out to control the entire area and not co-exist in any way with the native people.
Salem Witch TrialsIncrease Mather (1639-1723) Mather, an influential Boston minister and father of Cotton Mather, is credited with being a force for moderation throughout the Salem witchcraft trials and helping bring them to an end with the circulation of his Cases of Conscience on October 3, 1692. Increase Mather has drawn fire from some historians of the period for his hesitancy to take a firm stand against the trials and executions early in the summer of 1692. However, Mathers unique role as leading minister, President of Harvard College, and confidant of Governor William Phips placed him in the precarious position of contesting the witchcraft trials while supporting the judges. While his actions in 1692 were often self-contradictory, he was, according to Kenneth Murdock regarded as "an ally and leader of those whom we see as the most liberal of his time."
The French settled along the St. Lawrence and theMississippi Rivers. Most of the people living inthese outposts were men. They spent their time Frenchgoing up and down the river in canoes trapping ortrading their furs. The beaver was the main tradefur. SettlementsA few people got rich on the beaver fur trades.Unfortunately they were not the trappers. Theone who made money were the men who boughtthe furs from the trappers.In the summer the trappers lived alone or in pairsin the woods. In the winter these trappers withthe Indians. They usually lived with theAlgonquians or the Huron. Because the Frenchhelped the Algonquians and Huron, they becameenemies with the Iroquois who were enemieswith the Algonquians and Huron. Many Frenchsettlers were killed by the Iroquois.The French king controlled his empire in America.The king ruled the area through the RoyalGovernor. Men under the Royal Governor werecalled seigniors. The seigniors controlled largepieces of land. In this hierarchy the lowest groupof people were called habitants. They were theworkers.The law stated that all furs, lumber, and fish fromthe French colonies could be traded only withFrance or other French colonies. This kept themoney between the French colonies and France.