Chapter 7 The French Revolution


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Chapter 7 The French Revolution

  1. 1. Chapter 7The French Revolution And Napoleon (1789–1815)
  2. 2. Camille Desmoulins and French Revolution banner
  3. 3. The French Revolutions Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité
  4. 4. The NationalAssembly laterissues the assignatas currency to helppay thegovernment’sdebts.
  5. 5. The French Revolution• The French Revolution is one of the most important events in modern history. It was more radical than either the English or American Revolutions, and had a far greater impact on 19th century Europe. The unthinkable fall of the Bourbons resonated throughout Europe, sparking a series of revolutions which rallied behind liberalism and nationalism. The major socialist revolutions of the twentieth century in Russia, China and Cuba were inspired the French example.
  6. 6. 1On the Eve of the Revolution• What was the social structure of the old regime?• Why did France face economic troubles in 1789?• Why did Louis XVI call the Estates General?• Why did a Paris crowd storm the Bastille?
  7. 7. The Three Estates • Before the revolution the French people were divided into 3 groups: the 1st estate consisted of the clergy, the second estate of the nobility and the third estate of the bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants. Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation. • The first estate, the clergy, consisted of rich and poor. There were very wealthy abbots, members of the aristocracy who lived in luxury off of wealthy church lands, and poor parish priests, who• The third estate, the common people, was lived much like the peasants. by far the largest group of people in France. • The second estate, the nobility, Everyone who was not a member of the first inherited their titles and their wealth or second estates was a member of the came from the land. Some members of third. It included the wealthy merchants whose wealth rivaled that of the nobility, the the nobility had little money, but had all doctors and lawyers, the shopkeepers, the the privileges of noble rank. However, urban poor, and the peasants who worked most enjoyed both privileges and the land. Obviously, a very diverse group. wealth.
  8. 8. The Old Regime 1 Under the ancien regime, or old order, everyone in France belonged to one of three classes. FIRST SECOND THIRD ESTATE ESTATE ESTATEThe CLERGY The NOBILITY The BOURGEOISIE and PEASANTSEnjoyed enormous Owned land but had Peasants were 90 percentwealth and privilege little money income of French populationOwned about 10percent of land, Hated absolutism Resented privilege of firstcollected tithes, and and second estatespaid no taxes Feared losing Burdened by taxes traditional privilege, Many earned miserableProvided some especially exemptionsocial services wages and faced hunger from taxes and even starvation
  9. 9. Cartoon 1789 - Collection BanqueNationale de Paris (Paris: EditionsHervas, 1988) In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at the chests and asks "where is the tax money?" The financial minister, Necker, looks on and says "the money was there last time I looked." The nobles and clergy are sneaking out the door carrying sacks of money, saying "We have it." What did the nobility want? With the exception of a few liberals, the nobility wanted greater political influence for themselves but nothing for the third estate. The King attempted to solve the financial crisis by removing some of the nobles tax exemptions. However, the nobility saw themselves as special, with better blood, and entitled to all of their class privileges. The Parlement, a judicial organization controlled by the nobility, invoked its powers to block the Kings move. He was forced reluctantly to call a meeting of the Estates General in 1788.
  10. 10. 1 Economic Troubles• Economic woes added to the social unrest and heightened tension• For years, the French government had engaged in deficit spending that is, a government’s spending more money than it takes in.• Louis XIV had left France deeply in debt. Recent wars, a general rise in costs in the 1700s, and the lavish court were incredibly costly. To bridge the gap between income and expenses, the government borrowed more and more money.• FAMINE!!! Bad harvests in the late 1780s sent food prices soaring and brought hunger to poorer peasants and city dwellers.
  11. 11. The King and Queen of France lived in luxury and splendor at the magnificent Palace of Versaillesoutside of Paris. The government of France, however, was bankrupt and was facing a seriousfinancial crisis. The crisis came about primarily because of an inefficient and unfair tax structure,outdated medieval bureaucratic institutions, and a drained treasury which was the result of aidingthe Americans during the American Revolution, long wars with England, and overspending.
  12. 12. ―Nothing in his life became him like the leaving it. ‖Playing Dress-Up Marie Antoinette spentmillions on her clothing and jewels and setfashion trends throughout France and Europe.This painting (top) was painted by her friendand portraitist, Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun Louis XVI taken by angry Mob DuringWhy did the French common people resentMarie Antoinette? French Revolution
  13. 13. 1The Meeting of the Estates General France’s economic crisis worsened, bread riots spread, and nobles denounced royal tyranny. ? Louis XVI summoned the Estates General. The Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly and invited delegates from the other two estates to help them write a constitution. When reform-minded clergy and nobles joined the Assembly, Louis grudgingly accepted it.
  14. 14. The meeting of the Estates-General May 5, 1789 Seating— Left = radical Center = moderate Right = conservative When the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles. The third estate, dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery and finally the clergy dressed in full regalia. The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head, rather than by order. (Since there were far more delegates from the third estate, this plan would give them a majority). The King refused to grant their request. The third estate refused to budge.
  15. 15. The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) The Estates General met separately at the Kingsinsistence. The Third Estate established the National Assembly, but was locked out of theirregular meeting place at Versailles. They moved to the indoor tennis court. On June 20, 1789,the Tennis Court Oath was taken. They pledged not to leave until France had a newConstitution. The king gave in and told the First and Second Estates to join them.
  16. 16. October 5,1789- Paris women invaded Versaillesdemanding bread…‖Let them eat cake,‖ said MarieAntoinette. It is a fictitious quote, but the myth persists. Women march to the palace.
  17. 17. The French Plague European rulers, nobles, and clergy (such as, from left, Catherine the Great of Russia, the Pope, Emperor Leopold II of Prussia, and George III of England) feared the revolution in France would spread to their countries. Many émigrés fueled the flames with their How does the tales of attacks by thecartoonist portray the revolutionary government. ―plague?‖ Why were European rulers against revolutionary ideas coming into their countries?
  18. 18. Causes and Effects of the French 4 Revolution Long-Term Causes Immediate CausesCorrupt, inconsistent, and insensitive Huge government debtleadership Poor harvests and rising price of breadProsperous members of Third Estate Failure of Louis XVI to accept financial reformsresent privileges of First and Second Tennis Court Oath/Formation of Nationalestates AssemblySpread of Enlightenment ideas The Storming of Bastille Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Declaration of the Rights of Man and Napoleon gains power the Citizen adopted Napoleonic Code established France adopts its first written constitution French public schools set up Monarchy abolished French conquests spread nationalism Revolutionary France fights coalition of European powers Revolutions occur in Europe and Latin The Reign of Terror America
  19. 19. Storming of the 1 BastilleOn July 14, 1789, more than800 Parisians gathered outsidethe Bastille, a medieval fortressused as a prison. Theydemanded weapons believed tobe stored there.The commander of the Bastille opened fire on thecrowd, and a battle ensued, in which many peoplewere killed.The storming of the Bastille quickly became a symbol of theFrench Revolution, a blow to tyranny. Today, the French stillcelebrate July 14 as Bastille Day.
  20. 20. The Conquerors of the Bastille before the Hotel de Ville, painted by Paul Delaroche.
  21. 21. ―Men will not be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the lastpriest.‖ –Denis Diderot
  22. 22. Parisians storm the Bastille on July 14, 1789. French revolutionary mob.
  23. 23. Sans-culotte, 1792 In Paris and other cities, working-class men and women, called sans-culottes, pushed the revolution into more radical action. They were called sans- culottes, which means ―without breeches,‖ because they wore long trousers instead of the fancy knee breeches that upper-class men wore. By 1791, many sans-culottes demanded a republic, or government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch. Within the Legislative Assembly, several hostile factions competed for power. The sans-culottes found support among radicals in the Legislative Assembly, especially the Jacobins. A revolutionary political club, the Jacobins were mostly middle- class lawyers or intellectuals. They used pamphleteers and sympathetic newspaper editors to advance the republican cause. Opposing the radicals were moderate reformers and political officials who wanted no more reforms at all.
  24. 24. The tricolor cockade on a tricorn hat, the symbol of the RevolutionCitizen Sam Neill
  25. 25. LafayetteWhen he returned to France in 1781, Lafayette was famous -- a heroof two worlds. He received many honors, was made commander ofthe Paris National Guard (1781-91), and became active in politics inFrance. In late 1784, he returned briefly to the United States to visitGeorge Washington at Mount Vernon.
  26. 26. • Back in France in 1788, Lafayette was called to the Assembly of Notables to respond to the fiscal crisis.• Lafayette proposed a meeting of the French Estates-General, where representatives from the three traditional classes of French society — the clergy, the nobility and the commoners — met.• He served as vice president of the resulting body and presented a draft of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.• Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the French (Garde nationale) National Guard in response to violence leading up to the French Revolution.• During the Revolution, Lafayette attempted to maintain order, for which he ultimately was persecuted by the Jacobins.• In 1791, as the radical factions in the Revolution grew in power, Lafayette tried to flee to the United States through the Dutch Republic. He was captured by Austrians and served nearly five years in prison.• Lafayette returned to France after Bonaparte freed him from an Austrian prison in 1797.
  27. 27. • Returning to France, Lafayette tried, but was unable to influence a more moderate course in the French revolution. When France was attacked by the European coalition, Lafayette was given command of the French Revolution Army of the Center in 1792. As with other noblemen who still served the Revolution, Lafayette had cause to fear the Jacobin factions that had taken control of French politics, and he fled to Belgium. However, the Austrians considered Lafayette a cause of the anti-monarchial revolt in France and imprisoned him (one year at Magdeburg, and four years at Olmutz). He was freed by Napoleon in September 1797. While he acknowledged Bonapartes position, Lafayette declined to accept any role inLafayette the Emperors regime and refused the Legion dHonor.
  28. 28. Lafayette• After Napoleon, Lafayette remained active, but continuously lost influence in French politics. For a time he was an elected member of the Chamber of Deputies. However, his political philosophy was too simplistic for the complexities that faced France. He was not destined to contribute as much to France as he did to the United States in those nations respective quests for political freedom. His significant legacy has been as a symbol for a tradition of continuing French and American alliances.
  29. 29. Lafayette• Lafayette continued to maintain strong ties with his associates of the American Revolution. He made an extensive visit to the United States in 1824-25. He returned to France with barrels of American soil, which was placed around his casket. He and his wife, Adrienne de Noailles, are buried in Le Jardin de Picpus cemetery, Paris.• Since after World War I, an American flag has been at his grave site. It remained there, undisturbed, during the German occupation in World War II.
  30. 30. 1Section 1 Assessment Which class made up 98 percent of the population of France in 1789? a) the First Estate b) the Second Estate c) the Third Estate d) the First and Second estates combined Which of the following was not a cause of France’s economic troubles? a) deficit spending b) bad harvests c) overspending by Louis XIV d) increased wages for peasant workers
  31. 31. 1Section 1 Assessment Which class made up 98 percent of the population of France in 1789? a) the First Estate b) the Second Estate c) the Third Estate d) the First and Second estates combined Which of the following was not a cause of France’s economic troubles? a) deficit spending b) bad harvests c) overspending by Louis XIV d) increased wages for peasant workers
  32. 32. 2Creating a New France • How did popular revolts contribute to the French Revolution? • What moderate reforms did the National Assembly enact? • How did foreign reaction to the revolution help lead to war?
  33. 33. 2 Popular Revolts The political crisis of 1789 coincided with the worst famine in memory. Starving peasants roamed the countryside or flocked to the towns. Even people with jobs had to spend most of their income on bread.In such desperate times, rumors ran wildand set off what was later called the―Great Fear.‖A radical group called the ParisCommune replaced the royalistgovernment of Paris. Various factions, orsmall groups, competed for power.In the countryside, peasants attacked thehomes and manors of nobles.
  34. 34. 2
  35. 35. Foreign Reaction 2Events in France stirred debate all over Europe.• Supporters of the Enlightenment applauded the reforms of the National Assembly. They saw the French experiment as the dawn of a new age for justice and equality.• European rulers and nobles denounced the French Revolution.• In 1791, the monarchs of Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pilnitz, in which they threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy.• Revolutionaries in France took the threat seriously and prepared for war.
  36. 36. 2Section 2 Assessment Which of the following was a reform of the National Assembly? a) compensating peasants for lands seized by the Church b) calling for taxes to be levied according to Estate c) supporting labor unions d) ending feudalism Who issued the Declaration of Pilnitz? a) the peasants of France b) the monarchs of Austria and Prussia c) the Second Estate d) revolutionaries in France
  37. 37. 2Section 2 Assessment Which of the following was a reform of the National Assembly? a) compensating peasants for lands seized by the Church b) calling for taxes to be levied according to Estate c) supporting labor unions d) ending feudalism Who issued the Declaration of Pilnitz? a) the peasants of France b) the monarchs of Austria and Prussia c) the Second Estate d) revolutionaries in France
  38. 38. On the Execution of a King On January 21, 1793, King Louis XVI of France was executed by order of the National Convention. Reaction to this event was both loud and variedMarie Antoinette transported throughout Europe. Theby cart to the guillotine excerpts below present two different views on this event.
  39. 39. Radical Days 3 • Why did radicals abolish the monarchy? • How did the excesses of the Convention lead to the Directory? • What impact did the revolution have on women and daily life?
  40. 40. The GuillotineAlthough the guillotines fame dates from its extensiveuse during the Reign of Terror of the FrenchRevolution, the first guillotine-like instrument wasused as early as 1307. It may have been used earlierbut the first solid evidence is its use in Ireland in 1307.It was not used much until it became the officialinstrument of execution for the French revolution. Itwas named for Dr. Guillotin, who proposed that such amachine be used for official executions. It was actuallyconstructed by others, though his name was foreverassociated with the machine.It was adopted because it was an egalitarian andhumanitarian form of capital punishment. Previouslythe form of execution depended in part on a personsclass. A noble might merit a quick blow from theheadsmans axe (the custom was to offer a tip to theexecutioner to ensure a swift death), but if you were acommoner, you might suffer the torture of a drawingand quartering or some equally painful death.
  41. 41. Some have speculated that these very virtues made it easier and more efficient to use it as an instrument to kill in large numbers. Would Maximilien Robespierre and his followers have been so quick to remove those citizens who failed to measure up in order to create his perfect "republic of virtue" if it were not so efficient and humane? It certainly would have been more difficult. In spite of its efficiency, an execution by guillotine was still a sickening spectacle. When the head was severed, blood poured from the body as the heart continued to pump. When it was used frequently (as it was during the revolution), the stench from the place of execution was horrible. There is also some evidence to suggest that the head retained some life for a moment after the head was severed and so the death might not be as quick as has been supposed.Although the guillotine is most closely associated withthe French, the Nazis guillotined more people than werekilled during the French Revolution. Hitler considered it ademeaning form of punishment and used it for politicalexecutions. 20,000 had a date with Madame la Guillotinein 1942 and 1943.The last use of the guillotine was in 1977.Capital punishment has been abolished in France.
  42. 42. The official executioner of the French Revolution, Charles-Louis Sanson, said on April 25, 1792: ‖Today the machine invented for the purpose of decapitating criminals sentenced to death will be put to work for the first time. Relative to the methods of execution practiced heretofore, this machine has several advantages. It is less repugnant: no mans hands will be tainted with the blood of his fellow being, and the worst of the ordeal for the condemned man will be his own fear of death, a fear more painful to him than the stroke which deprives him of life.‖
  43. 43. 1789 Doctor of Death• A medical man’s humane gesture turns into a symbol of terror!• After the outbreak of the French Revolution, a doctor and member of the National Assembly beseeched his fellow revolutionaries to outlaw inhumane forms of execution.• He described in detail gory executions and advocated a less painful method.
  44. 44. Dr. Joseph Gullotin becamean instant celebrity afterchampioning this new meansof execution, and although heneither invented nor designedthe device, his name will bepermanently attached to it.Soon the Guillotine will takecenter stage in the drama ofthe French Revolution andfourteen thousand ―enemies ofthe state‖ shall bring hugecrowds to witness their deathsat Madame Guillotine.
  45. 45. ―With my machine I’ll take your head off in a flash,and you won’t even feel the slightest pain.‖
  46. 46. Execution of MarieAntoinette of France on16th October 1793 Queen Marie Antoinette of France just before the onset of the French revolution- Portrait by Alexandre Kucharsky
  47. 47. 3Radicals and the Convention Radicals took control of the Assembly and called for the election of a new legislative body called the National Convention. They granted suffrage, or the right to vote, to all male citizens, not just to property owners. (Universal male suffrage) The convention set out to erase all traces of the old order. It voted to abolish the monarchy and declare France a republic. The Jacobins, who controlled the Convention, seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility.
  48. 48. Georges-Jacques Danton• Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Dantons role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of According to a biographer, the First French Republic―. A "Dantons height was colossal, his make athletic, his features moderating influence on the strongly marked, coarse, Jacobins, he was guillotined by the and displeasing; his voice shook advocates of revolutionary terror after the domes of the halls". accusations of venality and leniency He said to his executioner: to the enemies of the Revolution. "Dont forget to show my head to the people. Its well worth seeing."
  49. 49. Maximilien Robespierre• Robespierre is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He largely dominated the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution in 1794. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre
  50. 50. Maximilien Robespierre • Robespierre was influenced by 18th century Enlightenment philosophes such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu, and he was a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wing bourgeoisie. He was described as physically unimposing and immaculate in attire and personal manners. His supporters called him "The Incorruptible", while his adversariesPortrait of Robespierre called him the "Tyrant" andafter his election to the dictateur sanguinaire (bloodthirstyEstates General, 1789 dictator).
  51. 51. Detail From Triumph of Marat, Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts)The Revolutionary Who Died For Royalty. Jean Paul Marat aroused hatred inthe hearts of the Paris mobs who vowed not to rest until every high-bornFrenchman was lying headless in a grave.
  52. 52. Charlotte Corday• As the French Revolution wore on, Charlotte Corday no longer believed that a Republic would be possible. She felt that Jean-Paul Marat, who daily demanded more and more heads, was in large part responsible for the misfortunes that the French people were undergoing. She resolved to rid the country of him. On July 9, 1793, Charlotte requested an appointment with Marat at his home Marat agreed; by stating that she had "information to give him" and that he could even "render a great service to France", she managed to obtain a meeting with him.
  53. 53. Charlotte CordayThe meetingtook place inhis bathroom;he was in hisbathtub. Itwas there thatCharlottekilled him,using a tableknife "with adark woodenhandle and asilver ferrule,bought for afew sols atthe Palais-Royal".
  54. 54. Jean-PaulMarat:Popularjournalist whoadvocatedextrememeasuresagainsttraitors andhoarders.Assassinatedin the bathin1793.
  55. 55. Charlotte Corday• In the middle of the Terror, the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat, "the Friend of the People", made Charlotte Corday the heroine of the French people. After the event, she was immediately arrested and imprisoned in the Conciergerie. The verdict at her trial left no room for doubt : she was condemned to death. On July 17, 1793, at about seven oclock in the evening, she walked up the several steps to the scaffold and was guillotined.
  56. 56. La Marseill aiseFrench Nationalism―La Marseillaise‖ and a revolutionary-period drum helped rally the Frenchpeople.
  57. 57. 3From Convention to Directory By early 1793, France was at war with most of Europe. Within France, peasants and workers were in rebellion against the government. The Convention itself was bitterly divided. To deal with threats to France, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety. The Reign of Terror lasted from about July 1793 to July 1794. Under the guidance of Maximilien Robespierre, some 40,000 people were executed at the guillotine. In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates created another constitution, the third since 1789. The Constitution of 1795 set up a five-man Directory and a two-house legislature.
  58. 58. representatives.
  59. 59. 3Women in the Revolution Women of all classes participated in the revolution from the very beginning. Many women were very disappointed when the Declaration of the Rights of Man did not grant equal citizenship to women, especially Olympe de Gouges, who wrote her own that included women. Women did gain some rights for a time; however, these did not last long after Napoleon gained power.
  60. 60. Declaration of the Rights of Man and theCitizen Olympe de Gouges Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (17 91),
  61. 61. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen• The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Déclaration des droits de lHomme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, the rights of Man are universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself. Although it establishes fundamental rights for French citizens and all men without exception, it addresses neither the status of women nor slavery; despite that, it is a precursor document to international human rights instruments.
  62. 62. Omissions ! Just ask Olympe de Gouges• While it set forth fundamental rights, not only for French citizens but for "all men without exception," it did not make any statement about the status of women, nor did it explicitly address slavery.• Womens rights• The Declaration recognized most rights as belonging only to men. This was despite the fact that after The March on Versailles on 5 October1789, women presented the Womens Petition to the National Assembly in which they proposed a decree giving women equality. In 1790 Nicolas de Condorcet and Etta Palm d’Aelders unsuccessfully called on the National Assembly to extend civil and political rights to women. Condorcet declared that ―and he who votes against the right of another, whatever the religion, color, or sex of that other, has henceforth adjured his own". The French Revolution did not lead to a recognition of women’s rights and this prompted de Gouges to publish the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in September 1791.• The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen is modeled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and is ironic in formulation and exposes the failure of the French Revolution which had been devoted to equality It states that:• ―This revolution will only take effect when all women become fully aware of their deplorable condition, and of the rights they have lost in society‖.• The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen follows the seventeen articles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen point for point and has been described by Camille Naish as ―almost a parody... of the original document‖. The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen proclaims that:• ―Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.‖• The first article of Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen replied:• ―Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utility‖. De Gouges also draws attention to the fact that under French law women were fully punishable, yet denied equal rights, declaring ―Women have the right to mount the scaffold, they must also have the right to mount the speaker’s rostrum‖.• Women were eventually given these rights with the adoption of the 1946 Constitution of the French Fourth Republic
  63. 63. Slavery• The declaration did not revoke the institution of slavery, as lobbied for by Jacques-Pierre Brissots Les Amis des Noirs and defended by the group of colonial planters called the Club Massiac because they met at the Hôtel Massiac. Despite the lack of explicit mention of slavery in the Declaration, slave uprisings in Saint-Domingue that would later be known as the beginning of the Haitian Revolution took inspiration from its words, as discussed in C.L.R. James history of the Haitian Revolution, The Black Jacobins. Deplorable conditions for the thousands of slaves in Saint-Domingue, the most profitable slave colony in the world, also led to the uprisings which would be known as the first successful slave revolt in the New World. Slavery in the French colonies was abolished in 1794, but reinstated by Napoleon in 1802. The colony of Saint- Domingue (Haiti) declared its independence in 1804.
  64. 64. 3Changes in Daily Life By 1799, the French Revolution had dramatically changed France. It had dislodged the old social order, overthrown the monarchy, and brought the Church under state control. Many changes occurred in everyday life: • New symbols, such as the tricolor, emerged. • Titles were eliminated. • Elaborate fashions were replaced by practical clothes. • Men’s haircuts grew shorter—exposed neck. • People developed a strong sense of national identity. • Nationalism, a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country, spread throughout France.
  65. 65. What do Croissants and Bagels have in common with the French Revolution?• Both were invented in Austria by Bakers.• Both were invented because of the battle in 1683 between the Ottoman Empire and Europe over Vienna. The Bakers saved Vienna—they heard the enemy digging tunnels in the wee morning hours when only bakers are up!• Bakers created crescents—like the Muslim flag symbol. Kipfels went to France with Marie Antoinette and became croissants.• And they baked stirrups (bugels) in honor of Poland’s King John, whose cavalry won the battle.
  66. 66. Pre-1789 French Revolution TimelineA series of social and political tensions build within France, before beingunleashed by a financial crisis in the 1780s. 1789 – 91The Estates General is called, but instead of bowing to the king it takesradical action, declaring itself a Legislative Assembly and seizingsovereignty. It starts tearing down the old regime and creating a new France. 1792A second revolution occurs, as Jacobins and sans culottes force the creationof a French Republic. The Legislative Assembly is replaced by the newNational Convention. 1793 – 4 The Reign of TerrorWith foreign enemies attacking from outside France and violent oppositionoccurring within, the ruling Committee of Public Safety put into practicegovernment by terror. Their rule is short, but bloody. 1795 – 1799The Directory is created and put in charge of France, as the nation’sfortunes wax and wane. 1800 – 1802A young General called Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, ending theRevolution and consolidating some of its reforms. First Empire
  67. 67. 3Section 3 Assessment In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates set up the a) Convention. b) Directory. c) National Assembly. d) ―Great Fear.‖ Which of the following was true of women in the French Revolution? a) The rights of women increased under Napoleon. b) Women were granted equal citizenship under the Declaration of the Rights of Man. c) Peasant women were confined to the home and did not participate at all. d) Women of all classes participated from the very beginning.
  68. 68. 3Section 3 Assessment In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates set up the a) Convention. b) Directory. c) National Assembly. d) ―Great Fear.‖ Which of the following was true of women in the French Revolution? a) The rights of women increased under Napoleon. b) Women were granted equal citizenship under the Declaration of the Rights of Man. c) Peasant women were confined to the home and did not participate at all. d) Women of all classes participated from the very beginning.
  69. 69. Napoleon Crossing Mont SaintBernard, Jacques-Louis David,1801Imprisoned after moderates turnedagainst the Reign of Terror, Davidbarely escaped with his life. WhenNapoleon rose to power, Daviddeftly switched his politicalallegiance to the new Emperor ofFrance and became one ofBonaparte’s chief portraitists. Noticethe names carved into the rocks.David included these names ofgreat past rulers to showNapoleon’s level of greatness.David’s depictions of Napoleonhelped cement him as a strong andheroic leader.
  70. 70. NapoleonCrossing theAlps on thebackof Marengo(1800),by Jacques-Louis David
  71. 71. 4The Age of Napoleon Begins• How did Napoleon rise to power?• How were revolutionary reforms changed under Napoleon?• How did Napoleon build an empire in Europe?
  72. 72. Unfinished portrait of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David and Napoleon’ssignature
  73. 73. 4The Rise ofNapoleon1769 Born on island of Corsica1793 Helps capture Toulon from British; promoted to brigadier general1795 Crushes rebels opposed to the National Convention with a ―whiff of grapeshot‖1796–1797 Becomes commander in chief of the army of Italy; wins victories against Austria1798–1799 Loses to the British in Egypt and Syria1799 Overthrows Directory and becomes First Consul of France1804 Crowns himself emperor of France
  74. 74. 4France Under NapoleonNapoleon consolidated his power bystrengthening the central government.Order, security, and efficiency replacedliberty, equality, and fraternity as theslogans of the new regime. Napoleon instituted a number of reforms to restore economic prosperity. Public schools were opened—lycee Napoleon developed a new law code, the Napoleonic Code, which embodied Enlightenment principles. Napoleon undid some of the reforms of the French Revolution: • Women lost most of their newly gained rights. • Male heads of household regained complete authority over their wives and children.
  75. 75. 4Building an Empire As Napoleon created a vast French empire, he redrew the map of Europe. • He annexed, or added outright, some areas to France. • He abolished the Holy Roman Empire. • He cut Prussia in half. Napoleon controlled much of Europe through forceful diplomacy. • He put friends and relatives on the thrones of Europe. (Nepotism) • He forced alliances on many European powers. Britain alone remained outside Napoleon’s empire.
  76. 76. Napoleon in EgyptThe Egyptian Campaign (1798–1801)was Napoleon Bonapartes unsuccessfulcampaign in Egypt and Syria to protectFrench trade interests and undermineBritains access to India. Despite severalvictories and an expedition into Syria,Napoleon and his Armée dOrient wereeventually forced to withdraw by local hostility, British naval power, Turkish elite new infantry units and politics in Paris.In addition to its significance in the wider French Revolutionary Wars, the campaignhad a powerful impact on the Ottoman Empire in general and the Arab world inparticular. The invasion demonstrated the military, technological, and organizationalsuperiority of the Western European powers to the Middle East, leading to profoundsocial changes in the region. The invasion introduced Western inventions, suchas the printing press, and ideas, such as incipient nationalism, to the MiddleEast, eventually leading to the establishment of Egyptian independence andmodernization under Muhammad Ali Pasha in the first half of the 19th century andeventually the Nahda, or Arab Renaissance.
  77. 77. The Egyptian CampaignThe Battle of the Pyramids, July 21,1798, painted by Louis-Francois Lejeune.How did Napoleon hide the fact that theEgyptian campaign was a disaster?
  78. 78. The Rosetta Stone• The Rosetta Stone is a block of black basalt bearing inscriptions that eventually supplied the key to the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphic script. The stone was found accidentally in August 1799 by a group of soldiers in Napoleons army while they were conducting engineering works at Fort Julien, near Rosetta (Arabic: Rashid), approximately 56 km (35 mi) northeast of Alexandria. Under the Treaty of Capitulation, signed in 1801, the stone was ceded to the British military authorities and taken to England for preservation in the British Museum. Its inscriptions, which record a decree issued in 196 B.C. under Ptolemy V Epiphanes, are written in two The Rosetta Stone languages, Egyptian and Greek. The Egyptian version is is a multilingual stele, written twice, once in hieroglyphics and once in demotic, That allowed linguists to begin the process of a cursive development of the hieroglyphic script. hieroglyph decipherment.
  79. 79. The Third of May, 1808, Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, 1814Oneof the consequences of the French Revolution and Napoleon’s rise wasthat France soon found itself at war with the rest of Europe. FranciscoGoya saw firsthand the impact of these wars. Born in northern Spain, herose to become the official painter of the Spanish court. When Napoleoninvaded Spain and deposed its king, Goya chronicled the horrors of theresulting guerrilla warfare.
  80. 80. 4Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812
  81. 81. The First French EmpireThe First French Empire, commonly known as the FrenchEmpire, the Napoleonic Empire or simply as The Empire,covers the period of the domination of France and of muchof continental Europe by Napoleon I of France.Constitutionally, it refers to the period of 1804 to 1814, fromthe Consulate to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in thehistory of the French state, with a coda in the Hundred Days of1815.The First French Empire stands distinct from its imitator andwould-be successor the Second French Empire of Napoleon III(1852-1870).Bonapartes march to empire began with the Constitution of theyear X (August 1802). Having become "First Consul", heattracted more power and gravitated towards imperial status,gathering support on the way for his internal rebuilding ofFrance and its institutions. He gradually dampened oppositionand Republican enthusiasm, using exile, systematicbureaucratic oppression and constitutional means. The decisionof the Senate on May 18, 1804, giving him the title of emperor,was the counterblast to the dread he had excited.
  82. 82. • Never did a harder master ordain more imperiously, nor understand better how to command obedience. "This was because," as Goethe said, "under his orders men were sure of accomplishing their ends. That is why they rallied round him, as one to inspire them with that kind of certainty."• No head of the state gave expression more imperiously than this Corsican to the popular passions of the French of that day: abhorrence for the emigrant nobility, fear of the ancien régime, dislike of foreigners, hatred of England, an appetite for conquest evoked by revolutionary propaganda, and the love of glory.• In this Napoleon was a soldier of the people: because of this he judged and ruled his contemporaries. Having seen their actions in the stormy hours of the French Revolution, he despised them and looked upon them as incapable of disinterested conduct, conceited, and obsessed by the notion of equality. Hence his colossal egoism, his habitual disregard of others, his jealous passion for power, his impatience of all contradiction, his vain untruthful boasting, his unbridled self-sufficiency and lack of moderation - passions which were gradually to cloud his clear faculty of reasoning.
  83. 83. • His genius, assisted by the impoverishment of two generations, was like the oak which admits beneath its shade none but the smallest of saplings. With the exception of Talleyrand, after 1808 he would have about him only mediocre people, without initiative, prostrate at the feet of the giant: his tribe of paltry, rapacious and embarrassing Corsicans; his admirably subservient generals; his selfish ministers, docile agents, apprehensive of the future, who for fourteen long years felt a prognostication of defeat and discounted the inevitable catastrophe. • So First Empire France had no internal history outside the plans and transformations to which Napoleon subjected the institutions of the Consulate, and outside the after-effects of his wars. Well knowing that his fortunes rested on the delighted acquiescence of France, Napoleon expected to continue indefinitely fashioning public opinion according to his pleasure.
  84. 84. 4Section 4 Assessment Which of the following never became a part of Napoleon’s empire? a) Prussia b) the Holy Roman Empire c) Britain d) Spain Which of the following was an immediate cause of the French Revolution? a) the storming of the Bastille b) the Reign of Terror c) the establishment of the Napoleonic Code d) Napoleon’s rise to power
  85. 85. 4Section 4 Assessment Which of the following never became a part of Napoleon’s empire? a) Prussia b) the Holy Roman Empire c) Britain d) Spain Which of the following was an immediate cause of the French Revolution? a) the storming of the Bastille b) the Reign of Terror c) the establishment of the Napoleonic Code d) Napoleon’s rise to power
  86. 86. Cool interactive map!
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  89. 89. 5The End of an Era • What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire? • What events led to Napoleon’s downfall? • What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna?
  90. 90. 5Challenges to Napoleon’s EmpireThe impact of nationalism Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon and his armies as foreign oppressors.Resistance in Spain Napoleon had replaced the king of Spain with his own brother, but many Spaniards remained loyal to their former king. Spanish patriots conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the French.War with Austria Spanish resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against the French.Defeat in Russia Nearly all of Napoleon’s 400,000 troops sent on a campaign in Russia died, most from hunger and the cold of the Russian winter.
  91. 91. Downfall of Napoleon 51812—Napoleon’s forces were defeated in Russia.Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia form a new allianceagainst a weakened France.1813—Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Nationsin Leipzig.1814—Napoleon abdicated, or stepped down from power, and wasexiled to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean Sea.―Able Was I Ere I Saw Elba‖—palindrome.  RACECAR1815—Napoleon escaped his exile and returned to France. 100 Days .Combined British and Prussian forces defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.Napoleon was forced to abdicate again, and was this time exiled to St.Helena, an island in the South Atlantic.1821—Napoleon died in exile.
  92. 92. Napoleon FallsFrom PowerA defeatedNapoleon after hisabdication on April6, 1814, in apainting by PaulDelaroche.―Able was I ere ISaw Elba‖-- apalindrome
  93. 93. Napoleon saw himself an Imperial Caesar with a Roman RepublicIn middle age, Fortune turned, and probably stomach cancerNapoleon’s Grand Army is demolished by A young, dashing Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcolethe Russian Winter
  94. 94. As shown in this painting, the Russian winter took its toll on Napoleon’s army. @ 500,000 died. Philippe Paul de Ségur, an aide to Napoleon, describes the grim scene as the remnants of the Grande Armee returned home. What were the effects of this disaster in Russia?―In Napoleon’s wake [was] a mob of tattered ghosts draped in . . . oddpieces of carpet, or greatcoats burned full of holes, their feet wrapped in allsorts of rags. . . . [We] stared in horror as those skeletons of soldiers wentby, their gaunt, gray faces covered with disfiguring beards, without weapons. . . with lowered heads, eyes on the ground, in absolute silence.‖—Memoirs of Philippe Paul de Ségur
  95. 95. Admiral Horatio NelsonLord Nelson Nelson statue at Trafalgar Square
  96. 96. The Duke of Wellingtondefeats Napoleon at theBattle of Waterloo
  97. 97. Sherry Filet de Bœuf en Croûte (Beef Wellington)Beef Wellington is named after Arthur Wellesy, FirstDuke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleons army atWaterloo. The original dish probably called for a simpleflour and water crust to prevent the meat frombrowning. The foie gras and Truffles are a Continentaladdition. They were worn and popularized by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. This novel "Wellington" boot then became a fashionable style emulated by the British aristocracy in the early 19th century.
  98. 98. Napoleon’s Desperate Housewives• Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was twenty- six; she was a thirty-two-year old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as Rose, a name which he disliked. He called her Joséphine instead, and she went by this name henceforth. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. He formally adopted her son Eugène and cousin Stéphanie, and arranged dynastic marriages for them. Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleons brother, Louis.• Joséphine had lovers, including a Hussar lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleons Italian campaign. Napoleon learnt the full extent of her affair with Charles while in Egypt, and a letter he wrote to his brother Joseph regarding the subject was intercepted by the British. The letter appeared in the London and Paris presses, much to Napoleons embarrassment. Napoleon had his own affairs, too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. She became known as Cleopatra after the Ancient Egyptian ruler. Napoleon ultimately chose divorce so he could remarry in hopes of an heir. In March 1810, he married by proxy Marie Louise Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette; thus he had married into the German royal family. They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811– 1832), known from birth as the King of Rome. He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.
  99. 99. Marie-Louise, Empress of France with Her son Napoleon II by Baron François GérardEmpress Marie-Louise and theKing of Rome, by JosephFranque, 1812. Marie Louise,Duchess ofParma with Napoleon II Napoléon-François-Charles-Joseph Bonaparte, King of Rome, called Napoléon II
  100. 100. ―Napoleon onSt. Helena‖ byCharlesAugusteSteubenDeath Mask of Napoleon
  101. 101. Napoleonin Death
  102. 102. Napoleon’s TombThe most notable tomb at Les Invalides is that ofNapoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821).Napoleon was initially interred on Saint Helena,but King Louis-Philippe arranged for his remainsto be brought to St Jeromes Chapel in Paris in1840, in what became known as theretour des cendres.A renovation of Les Invalides tookmany years, but in 1861 Napoleon was moved to the most prominentLocation under the dome at Les Invalides. The sarcophagus is the tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte. He is buried in his favorite uniform and he rests in successive coffins - Inside Napoleon is buried in 7 coffins. The first coffin is tin, the second mahogany, the third and fourth lead, the fifth ebony, and the sixth oak. These are within a sarcophagus made of red quartzite and resting on a green granite base. His 8 famous victories are inscribed on the floor around the tomb. He is guarded by 12 statues. Nearby, under a statue of Napoleon in his royal robes, lies his son, Napoleon II.
  103. 103. Legacy of Napoleon 51. The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution.2. Napoleon turned France into a centralized state with a constitution.3. Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage.4. Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education.5. French citizens lost many rights promised to them during the Convention.6. On the world stage, Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideas of the revolution and nationalism.7. Napoleon failed to make Europe into a French empire, but Continental System will almost work…8. The abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would eventually contribute to the creation of a new Germany.9. Napoleon’s decision to sell France’s Louisiana Territory to America doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion.
  104. 104. Napoleon’s LegacyNapoleon died in 1821, but his legend lived on in Franceand around the world. His contemporaries as well ashistorians today have long debated his legacy.Was he ―the revolution on horseback,‖ as he claimed?Or was he a traitor to the revolution?No one, however, questions Napoleon’s impact on France and on Europe.The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution.The France of Napoleon was a centralized state with a constitution.Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage.Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education thanunder the old regime.Still, French citizens lost many rights promised so fervently by republicansduring the Convention.
  105. 105. What Were the Goals of the Congress of Vienna?The chief goal of the Congress was to create a lasting peaceby establishing a balance of power and protecting the systemof monarchy.To achieve this goal, the peacemakers did the following:• They redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambition, they ringed France with strong countries.• They promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated.• To protect the new order, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain extended their wartime alliance into the postwar era.
  106. 106. Leaders Meet at the Congress of ViennaTo turn back the clock to 1792, thearchitects of the peace promoted theprinciple of legitimacy, restoringhereditary monarchies that theFrench Revolution or Napoleon hadunseated. Even before the Congressbegan, they had put Louis XVIII onthe French throne.Later, they restored ―legitimate‖monarchs in Portugal, Spain, andthe Italian states. Louis XVIII
  107. 107. Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 5 1815
  108. 108. 5Section 5 Assessment The alliance that formed to defeat Napoleon was made up of a) Britain, Switzerland, and Prussia b) Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria c) Britain, Italy, Poland, and Austria d) Russia, Prussia, and Italy Which of the following was an action taken by the peacemakers at the Congress of Vienna? a) They restored hereditary monarchs to their thrones. b) They set up representative governments in France and Austria. c) They helped France regain some of its lost power. d) They dissolved the alliance that had defeated Napoleon.
  109. 109. 5Section 5 Assessment The alliance that formed to defeat Napoleon was made up of a) Britain, Switzerland, and Prussia b) Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria c) Britain, Italy, Poland, and Austria d) Russia, Prussia, and Italy Which of the following was an action taken by the peacemakers at the Congress of Vienna? a) They restored hereditary monarchs to their thrones. b) They set up representative governments in France and Austria. c) They helped France regain some of its lost power. d) They dissolved the alliance that had defeated Napoleon.
  110. 110. • Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles.
  111. 111. In the cartoon shown here, the figure on the left representsthe British, and the other figure represents Napoleon. Whatare the figures carving, and why?
  112. 112. During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriouslyby some in the British press as a dangerous tyrant,poised to invade. A nursery rhyme warned childrenthat Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; thebogeyman. become a cliché in popular culture. He isoften portrayed wearing a comically large bicorne anda hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812paintings by Jacques-Louis David.The British Tory press sometimes depicted Napoleonas much smaller than average height and this imagepersists. Confusion about his height also results fromthe difference between the French pouce and Britishinch—2.71 and 2.54 cm respectively; he was 5 ft 7 intall, average height for the period, sometimes quotedas 5 ft 6 in.
  113. 113. • In 1908 psychologist Alfred Adler cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex where short people adopt an overaggressive behavior to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex. The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a comically large bicorn and a hand-in- waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David.
  114. 114. • The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver• Britains King George III examines a tiny Napoleon Bonaparte through a spyglass. The cartoon shows Britains contempt for France and its leader. - Printed 26 June, 1803.•
  115. 115. Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich• Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich was a German- Austrian politician and statesman. He was one of the most important diplomats of his era.[2] He was a major figure in the negotiations before and during the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paragon of foreign-policy management and a major figure in the development of diplomatic praxis. He was the archetypal practitioner of 19th-century diplomatic realism, being deeply rooted in the postulates of the balance of power. After World War I, some historians suggested that one of the main reasons for his opposition to giving power to the people was his apprehension that it would eventually lead to the political dominance of German nationalism.
  116. 116. Concert of Europe• The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, was the balance of power that existed in Europe between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) until the• outbreak of the First World War (1914), albeit with major alterations after the revolutions of 1848. Its founding powers were Austria, Prussia, Russian Empire and the United Kingdom, the members of the Quadruple Alliance responsible for the downfall of the First French Empire. In time France was established as a fifth member of the concert. At first, the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich and Russian tsar Alexander I.• The age of the Concert is sometimes known as the Age of Metternich, due to the influence of the Austrian chancellors conservatism and the dominance of Austria within the German Confederation, or as the European Restoration, because of the reactionary efforts of the Congress of Vienna to restore Europe to its state before the French Revolution. The rise of nationalism, the unification of Germany and the Risorgimento in Italy, and the Eastern Question were among the factors which brought an end to the Concerts effectiveness.
  117. 117. Concert of Europe As the Napoleonic Wars wound down, the victors gathered in Austria to make peace at the Congress of Vienna. The Holy Alliance had two major tasks before it: to make peace with France, and to restore order and stability to the continent.• As its host, the charm and communication skills that Prince Metternich possessed gave him much personal influence. The ease and versatility with which he handled intricate diplomatic issues elicited admiration. The Holy Alliance had intended to make its major decisions behind closed doors; but he counseled compromise and mutual concessions, and under pressure from Talleyrand, included France in the negotiations. The Duchy of Warsaw, a Napoleonic creation from the Peace of Tilsit, formed an important part of the discussions in order to resolve the Congresss top-priority issue, namely the division of Poland. The Austrian Netherlands (what is now Belgium) were surrendered by Austria to the newly- independent Kingdom of the Netherlands. Austria received the Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia as its settlement. Metternich was the architect of what he hoped would be an enduring European peace. For the next 30 years he would dominate foreign policy in Europe. In the view of some historians, the self-styled "coachman of Europe" had brought modern world history into being.
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  119. 119. National anthems--••• Robert• with words• US•• UK•
  120. 120. Louis Braille• Louis Braille is the inventor of the braille code. He was born on January 4, 1809, in Coupvray, France. At the age of 3, while playing in his fathers shop, Louis injured his eye on a sharp tool. Despite the best care available at the time, infection set in and soon spread to the other eye, leaving him completely blind.• Barely 16, Braille, then a student at the National Institute for Blind Youth in Paris in 1825, spent every waking moment outside class poking holes in paper, trying to come up with a more efficient way to represent print letters and numbers tactually. Until then, he and his fellow blind students read by tracing raised print letters with their fingers. It was painfully slow and few blind students mastered the technique. Writing required memorization of the shapes of letters and then an attempt to reproduce them on paper, without being able to see or read the results.
  121. 121. Louis got his inspiration to use embossed dots to represent letters after he watched Charles Barbier, a retired artillery officer in Napoleons army, demonstrate a note-taking system he invented of embossed dots to represent sounds (most of the soldiers were illiterate) that would allow notes to be passed among the ranks without striking a light, which might alert the enemy to their position. The army was not impressed, so Barbier brought his system to the school for the blind. Louis immediately recognized its merits and spent the next three years improving upon Barbiers idea.• By 1924, Louis had in place the code that bears his name and is used today in almost every country in the world, adapted to almost every known language from Albanian to Zulu. Louis Braille died on January 6, 1852 at the age of 43, having lived a successful life as teacher, musician, researcher, and inventor. In 2009, the world celebrated Brailles Bicentennial.
  122. 122. Braille• In 1821, Charles Barbier, a former Captain in the French Army, visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing", a code of 12 raised dots and a number of dashes that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. The code was too difficult , finishing at age 15, in 1824. Inspired by the wooden dice his father gave to him, his system used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbiers used 12. The six-dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. These dots consisted of patterns in order to keep the system easy to learn. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Haüys raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Another very notable benefit is that because they were dots just slightly raised, there was a significant difference in make up.• Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. In 1829, he published the first book in Braille, entitled Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 he published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. With his friend Pierre Foucault, he went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.
  123. 123. Timeline of the French Revolution