Chapter 17: Restructuring the PostwarWorldChapter ObjectiveAnalyze the conflicts between competing economic systems andthe restructuring of alliances from 1945 to the present.SECTION 1 Cold War: Superpowers Face OffAnalyze the global competition between the United Statesand the Soviet Union.SECTION 2 Communists Take Power in ChinaExplain how the Communists took control of China.SECTION 3 Wars in Korea and VietnamDescribe the Korean and Vietnam Wars.SECTION 4 The Cold War Divides the WorldDescribe how the Cold War affected nations.SECTION 5 The Cold War ThawsTrace the development of the Cold War.Ch 18.4 Conflicts in theMiddle EastDescribe theformation of Israel andthe conflicts in theMiddle East.
The Buck StopsHereDESK SIGNThe sign "The Buck Stops Here" that was on President Trumans desk in his White House office was made in theFederal Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma. Fred M. Canfil, then United States Marshal for the Western District ofMissouri and a friend of Mr. Truman, saw a similar sign while visiting the Reformatory and asked the Warden if asign like it could be made for President Truman. The sign was made and mailed to President on October 2, 1945.Approximately 2-1/2" x 13" in size and mounted on walnut base, the painted glass sign has the words "Im FromMissouri" on the reverse side. It appeared at different times on his desk until late in his administration. The saying"the buck stops here" derives from the slang expression "pass the buck" which means passing the responsibilityon to someone else. The latter expression is said to have originated with the game of poker, in which a marker orcounter, frequently in frontier days a knife with a buckhorn handle, was used to indicate the person whose turn itwas to deal. If the player did not wish to deal he could pass the responsibility by passing the "buck," as the countercame to be called, to the next player.* On more than one occasion President Truman referred to the desk sign inpublic statements. For example, in an address at the National War College on December 19, 1952 Mr. Truman said,"You know, its easy for the Monday morning quarterback to say what the coach should have done, after the gameis over. But when the decision is up before you -- and on my desk I have a motto which says The Buck Stops Here --the decision has to be made." In his farewell address to the American people given in January 1953, PresidentTruman referred to this concept very specifically in asserting that, "The President--whoever he is--has to decide. He cant pass the buck to anybody. No one else can do the deciding for him. Thats hisjob. The sign has been displayed at the Library since 1957.
Executive Order #9981• Truman desegregated the military. Trumanbecame aware that the armed forces were stillsegregated and had been all through WWII.He simply said that that was not right and thatall of America’s fighting men were equal. Hemade it so by signing this executive order.
Jackie Robinson• Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), was the first blackperson to play modern major league baseball.Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 andplayed all 10 years of his major league career withthe Dodgers.• Robinson started as a first baseman for theDodgers but gained his greatest fame playingsecond base. Robinson was an outstanding hitterand finished with a .311 lifetime batting average.He was also a superior runner and base stealer. In1947, Robinson was named Rookie of the Year. In1949, he won the National Leagues Most ValuablePlayer award, as well as the leagues battingchampionship with a .342 average.• Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on Jan. 31,1919, in Cairo, Georgia. He starred in four sports atthe University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA).In 1945, Robinson played with the Kansas CityMonarchs of the Negro American League. In 1946,he played minor league baseball for the MontrealRoyals. In 1956, Robinson received the SpingarnMedal. He was elected to the National BaseballHall of Fame in 1962. He died on Oct. 24, 1972.Jackie Robinson, shown here sliding into home plate,became the first African American player in modernmajor league baseball. He joined the Brooklyn Dodgersin 1947. Robinson gained fame for his hitting and hisdaring base running.
Aftermath ofWarThe appalling costs of the war began to emerge.The world learned the full extent of the horrors of the Holocaust.War crimes trials were held in Germany, Italy, and Japan.People faced disturbing questions: What made the Nazi horrorspossible? Why had ordinary people collaborated with Hitler’s“final solution”?The Allies worked to strengthendemocracy in occupied Germany and Japan.5
The Founding ofIsrael• The United Nations Special Commissionon Palestine (UNSCOP) recommendedthat Palestine be divided into an Arabstate and a Jewish state. The commissioncalled for Jerusalem to be put underinternational administration The UNGeneral Assembly adopted this plan onNov. 29, 1947 as UN Resolution (GA 181).The plan for "partition with economicunion" divided the land into severalcantons. Both the Jewish state and theArab state had 3 cantons each thattouched each other south of Nazareth andnear Gaza. The borders of this plan areshown in the map below. This jigsawpuzzle would have been difficult toimplement for friendly populations, andwas impossible to implement given thehostility between Arabs and Jews.
An Israeli soldier and a Palestinian Arabpass each other in the street.Many Israelis believe that the quote from the Bible below promises the land ofIsrael to the Jewish people—the descendants of Abram, or Abraham. PalestinianArabs, who have lived in the region for centuries, also believe that the land istheirs. The land that they call Palestine includes what is now Israel.“On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, ’To yourdescendants I give this land . . .’”—Genesis 15:18Two Peoples Claim the Same Land“Palestine is the homeland of the ArabPalestinian people . . .”—The Palestinian National Charter,Article 1
A City Sacred to Many Jerusalem is dotted with many places that are sacred toMuslims, Christians, and Jewish people. This photograph shows the Western Wall,a Jewish holy place. In the background is the Dome of the Rock, an importantIslamic shrine.How might Jerusalem’s sacred status make it harder to resolve competing Israeliand Palestinian Arab claims to the city?
Creation of the State of Israel• Jewish, Arab pressure drives British to hand Palestine overto United Nations for the Balfour Resolution• Partition Plan of 1947 divides Palestine into seven regions:3 Jewish, 3 Arab, Jerusalem internationalized• May 1948 Jews declare independence of State of Israel• Arab states invade, Israel successfully defends itself
The Cold War and the Middle East• In their global rivalry, each of the superpowers tried to line upallies in the Middle East.• Each superpower sold arms to its ally in the region.• In the Arab-Israeli conflict, the United States helped Israel, whilethe Soviet Union gave aid to the Arabs.• During and after the Cold War, the development of weapons ofmass destruction in the Middle East became a global concern.During the Cold War, both the United States and theSoviet Union sought access to the oil and waterways ofthe Middle East. Superpower rivalries had a far-reachingimpact on the region.4
Arab-Israeli Issues…StillPalestinians demanded the right toreturn to lands they fled during theArab Israeli wars.Many Israelis insisted on the survivalof Israeli settlements that had beenbuilt on these occupied lands.Palestinians demanded that part ofJerusalem become the capital of afuture Palestinian nation.Israeli conservatives insisted thatJerusalem remain undivided as thecapital of Israel.After years of fighting and negotiations, peace in Israelremains an elusive goal. A number of specific issuescontinue to divide the two sides.4
Bob Daugherty/APAnwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin clasp hands onthe North Lawn of the White House after signing the Israel-EgyptPeace Treaty, March 26, 1979.Camp David Accords Turn into a Peace Treaty
In 1993 President Bill Clinton attempted to do for Israeli-Palestinian relations whatCarter had been able to do for Israeli-Egyptian relations. He brought Israeli PrimeMinister Yitzhak Rabin together with PLO leader Yasser Arafat. It was a time of greatpromise as at last both sides of the conflict recognized the legitimacy of the otherparty. Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli opponent in 1995.Yasser Arafat died in 2004Having led the PLO andits Intifada for 50+ years.
Mahmoud Abbas, currentPres. of PNA/PLO (on theleft) with President BarackObama in the Oval Office.Fatah party is notconsidered a terroristgroup, while Hezbollah(Shi’ia Party of God) andHamas are.Netanyahu was born in 1949 in Tel Aviv . Hewas initially raised/educated in Jerusalem. Butbetween 1956 and 1958, and again in 1963-67, his family lived in the United Statesin Cheltenham, Pennsylvania, a suburbof Philadelphia, where he attended andgraduated from Cheltenham High School.To this day, he speaks English with a definitePhiladelphia accent.
Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by U.S.President Harry S. Truman. It expanded on Executive Order 8802 byestablishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Servicesfor people of all races, religions, or national origins."In 1947, Randolph, along with colleague Grant Reynolds, renewed effortsto end discrimination in the armed services, forming the CommitteeAgainst Jim Crow in Military Service, later renamed the League for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience. On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Trumanabolished racial segregation in the armed forces through Executive Order9981." Taken from.The operative statement is:It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall beequality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armedservices without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. Thispolicy shall be put into effect as rapidlyas possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate anynecessary changes without impairingefficiency or morale.The order also established a committee to investigate andmake recommendations to the civilian leadership of themilitary to realize the policy. The Buck Stops Here!The Buck Stops Here! signwas on his Oval Office desk
A Widening Gulf Although Stalin and Truman were friendly at the PotsdamConference (above), this Soviet propaganda poster from 1949 shows that relationsbetween the two nations were becoming strained. The poster urges support “For astable peace! Against those who would ignite a new war.” The small caricatures ofChurchill and Uncle Sam in the lower corner indicate who “those” people are.
The Berlin Airlift After World War II,Germany, and Berlin within it, wasdivided into communist andnoncommunist zones. In the photobelow, children in West Berlin greet aplane delivering supplies during theBerlin Airlift.
Berlin Airlift1948• Russian dictator Joseph Stalin chose the night of June 23, 1948 to makegood his threat to cut overland supply lines to West Berlin. He wanted tovent his frustration at refusal by the western allied powers to accept EastBerlin as the capital of a communist puppet regime and at introduction ofthe Deutsche Mark in West Berlin. For nearly one year to come, the needsof West Berlin would be supplied byairlift on a scale never seen before.• The U.S. played a central role in the airlift. Operation Vittles, a round-the-clock airborne shuttle from U.S. airbases outside Frankfurt at Rhein Mainand nearby Wiesbaden, Germany, supplied food, fuel, and occasionallycandy to the beleaguered city and its children. Memories of the recentWorld War gave way to a new, human partnership as the months wore onand it became apparent the inconceivable would work.
The Iron Curtain Divides Germany While the Berlin Wall divided the city of Berlin, amuch longer series of concrete walls, barbed wire, and watchtowers ran along theborder between East and West Germany, forming part of the Iron Curtain.Why might East Germany have built a fortified border such as this?West Germany’s “Economic Miracle”Early in the Cold War, the United States rushed aid to its former enemy through the MarshallPlan and other programs. It wanted to strengthen West Germany against communist EasternEurope. From 1949 to 1963, Konrad Adenauer was West Germany’s chancellor, or primeminister. He guided the rebuilding of cities, factories, and trade. Because many of its oldfactories had been destroyed, Germany built a modern and highly productive industrial base.Despite high taxes to pay for the recovery, West Germans created a booming industrialeconomy.
Preparing for a Nuclear Attack“Duck and cover” air-raid drills were common during the Cold War, even though it isdoubtful that ducking and covering would offer much protection in an actual nuclear attack.What does this photo suggest about Americans’ fears during the Cold War?
Truman Doctrine• U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to the U.S.Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949).The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resistingcommunism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aidthat they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being adomino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region.• Truman signed the act into law on May 22, 1947 which granted $400 million inmilitary and economic aid to Turkey and Greece.• The Truman Doctrine also contributed to Americas first involvements in what isnow the nation of Vietnam. Truman attempted to aid Frances bid to hold onto itsVietnamese colonies. The United States supplied French forces with equipmentand military advisors in order to combat a young Ho Chi Minh and communistrevolutionaries. Trumans policy of containment was the first Americaninvolvement in the Vietnam War.• The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States wouldsupport "free peoples who are resisting attemptedsubjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."Specifically, the doctrine was a political response to Sovietaggression in Europe, illustrated through the communistmovements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a result,American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as GeorgeF. Kennan phrased it, to that of containment.
The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan, known officiallyfollowing its enactment as the EuropeanRecovery Program (ERP), was the main planof the United States for the reconstruction ofEurope following World War II. The initiativewas named for United States Secretary ofState George Marshall.Between 1948 and 1951, the United Statescontributed more than $13 billion dollars(nearly $100 billion at 2005 U.S. conversionrates) of economic and technical assistancetoward the recovery of 16 Europeancountries which had joined in theOrganization for European EconomicCooperation (OEEC, forerunner to todaysOECD) in response to Marshalls call for ajoint scheme for European reconstruction.
In a speech at Harvard University in June 1947, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshallmade the case for the Marshall Plan, a United States assistance program for WesternEurope. The plan was to rebuild Europe into Trading Partners and to make themprosperous enough so that they would not fall to Communism! The total cost of theMarshall Plan including American grants and loans to the world from 1945--53, came to$44.3 billion.“Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty,desperation, and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in theworld so as to permit the emergence of . . . conditions in which free institutions can exist.”
Wartime Destruction in Germany Berlin and other German cities suffered seriouswartime damage. In this photo, civilians walk through the rubble left by wartimebombing in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945.What challenges would residents of a city face after such heavy destruction?
This is the Iron Curtainafter WWII up to thelate 1980s.Warsaw Pact countriesto the east of the IronCurtain are shaded red;NATO members to thewest of it — blue.Militarily neutralcountries − grey.Yugoslavia, althoughcommunist-run, wasindependent of theEastern Bloc. Similarly,communist Albaniabroke with the SovietUnion in the early1960s, aligning itselfwith the PeoplesRepublic of China afterthe Sino-Soviet split.
The United NationsUnder the UN Charter, each of the member nations had one vote inthe General Assembly. A smaller body, the Security Council, wasgiven greater power. Its five permanent members were the UnitedStates, the Soviet Union (today Russia), Britain, France, and China.The UN’s work would go far beyond peacekeeping. Theorganization would take on many world problems.5World War II Allies set up an international organization to ensurepeace.
The United Nations• The name "United Nations", coined by United StatesPresident Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the"Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during theSecond World War, when representatives of 26 nationspledged their Governments to continue fighting togetheragainst the Axis Powers. States first established internationalorganizations to cooperate on specific matters. TheInternational Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal PostalUnion was established in 1874. Both are now United Nationsspecialized agencies.• In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in TheHague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully,preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted theConvention for the Pacific Settlement of InternationalDisputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration,which began work in 1902.
• The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, anorganization conceived in similar circumstances during the first WorldWar, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "topromote international cooperation and to achieve peace andsecurity." The International Labour Organization was also createdunder the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League.The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to preventthe Second World War.• In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at theUnited Nations Conference on International Organization to draw upthe United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basisof proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the SovietUnion, the United Kingdom and the United States at DumbartonOaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signedon 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland,which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later andbecame one of the original 51 Member States.• The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945,when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the SovietUnion, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority ofother signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 Octobereach year.
From World War to Cold War• What issues arose in the aftermathof war?• Why did the Allies organize theUnited Nations?• How did the breakup of the wartimealliance lead to new conflicts?5
The Iron Curtain• Coined by Winston Churchill after the Soviets refuseto surrender the lands they have “liberated” inEurope.• Most of the Warsaw Pact were behind the ironcurtain, and Yugoslavia, with Tito as its totalitarianruler.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization• The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), sometimes called NorthAtlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is aninternational organization for defense collaboration established in 1949, insupport of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4,1949.• The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them inEurope or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each ofthem, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defenserecognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist theParty or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concertwith the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the useof armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlanticarea.Belgium IcelandCanada PortugalDenmark United KingdomFrance ItalyLuxembourg NorwayUnited States NetherlandsLater:Bulgaria (2004)Czech Republic (1999)Estonia (2004)West Germany (1955)Greece (1952)Hungary (1999)Latvia (2004)Lithuania (2004)Poland (1999)Romania (2004)Slovakia (2004)Slovenia (2004)Spain (1982)Turkey (1952)
The WarsawPactMembers• Soviet Union• Albania, laterwithdrew.• Bulgaria• Romania• East Germany• Hungary• Poland• CzechoslovakiaThe Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially namedthe Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutualassistance, was a military alliance of the EasternEuropean Eastern Bloc countries, who intended toorganize against the perceived threat from the NATOalliance (which had been established in 1949). Thecreation of the Warsaw Pact was prompted by theintegration of a "re-militarized" West Germany intoNATO via ratification of the Paris Agreements. TheWarsaw treaty was drafted by Nikita Khrushchev in1955 and signed in Warsaw on May 14, 1955.
The RosenbergsEthel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were AmericanCommunists who captured and maintained world attention after being tried, convicted, andexecuted for spying for the Soviet Union. The accuracy of these charges remainscontroversial, though decades later, Soviet communications decrypted by the VENONAproject became publicly available and appeared to indicate that at least Julius Rosenbergwas actively involved in espionage (although they provided no new evidence that heperformed the specific acts of espionage for which he was convicted).The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for conspiracy to commitespionage during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Judge Irving Kaufman notedthat he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the KoreanWar:To the very end, the couple denied all charges and insisted they were innocent, but they wereexecuted in New Yorks Sing Sing in 1953, despite protests in the United States and abroad.The Rosenbergs were convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 of "conspiring to commitespionage in wartime" and sentenced to death, despite the fact that the US was not at warwith the Soviet Union at the time of the alleged offensesAt the time, some Americans believed both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh apunishment, and a grass-roots campaign was started to try to stop the couples execution.Other Americans felt that the couple got what they deserved. Pope Pius XII appealed toPresident Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but he refused on February 11, 1953and all other appeals were also unsuccessful.The couple were executed by the electric chair on June 19, 1953.
McCarthyism• Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin untilFebruary 1950 when he claimed to possess a list of 205 card-carrying Communistsemployed in the U.S. Department of State. From that moment Senator McCarthybecame a tireless crusader against Communism in the early 1950s, a period thathas been commonly referred to as the "Red Scare." As chairman of the SenatePermanent Investigation Subcommittee, Senator McCarthy conducted hearings oncommunist subversion in America and investigated alleged communist infiltrationof the Armed Forces. His subsequent exile from politics coincided with aconversion of his name into a modern English noun "McCarthyism," or adjective,"McCarthy tactics," when describing similar witchhunts in recent Americanhistory. [The American Heritage Dictionary gives the definition of McCarthyismas: 1. The political practice of publicizing accusations of disloyalty or subversionwith insufficient regard to evidence, and 2. The use of methods of investigationand accusation regarded as unfair, in order to suppress opposition.] SenatorMcCarthy was censured by the U.S. Senate on December 2, 1954 and died May 2,1957.
McCarthyism• McCarthy also began receiving information from hisfriend, J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the Federal Bureau ofInvestigation (FBI). William Sullivan, one of Hooversagents, later admitted that: "We were the ones whomade the McCarthy hearings possible. We fed McCarthyall the material he was using."This witch-hunt and anti-communist hysteria becameknown as McCarthyism. Some left-wing artists andintellectuals were unwilling to live in this type of societyleft the US and many people became opposed McCarty’s“Witch Hunt” for Commies and sensationalism in a “freesociety.”•In October, 1953, McCarthy began investigatingcommunist infiltration into the military. Attempts weremade by McCarthy to discredit the Secretary of theArmy. The president, Dwight Eisenhower, was furious andnow realized that it was time to bring an end toMcCarthys activities.• The United States Army now passed information about McCarthy tojournalists who were known to be opposed to him. He was now without apower base and the media lost interest in his claims of a communistconspiracy.• Joseph McCarthy died in the Bethesda Naval Hospital on 2nd May, 1957.As the newspapers reported, McCarthy had drunk himself to death.
The Cold War• Coined by Bernard Baruch as the alternative to a “hot”or shooting war.• The Cold War will shape American foreign policy andmilitary spending throughout the Baby-Boomers’youth. Until the fall of the Berlin Wall and thedissolution of the USSR, the Cold War was themotivation for a strong defensive democracy.• Now, we know the Bad guys are out to get us, we justdon’t know who they are now….
The Cold WarAs the United States and the Soviet Union becamesuperpowers, they also became tense rivals in anincreasingly divided world.The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility amongnations, without armed conflict between the major rivals.At first, the focus of the Cold War was Eastern Europe,where Stalin and the western powers had very differentgoals.5
Bond, James BondRoyal Navy Commander James Bond, fictional character created by novelist Ian Fleming in 1953.He is the main protagonist of the James Bond series of novels, films, comics and video games.He is portrayed as an SIS agent residing in London. From 1995 onwards, SIS would be officiallyacknowledged as MI6. Bond holds the code number 007, except in the novel You Only LiveTwice. The "double-0" prefix indicates his discretionary license to kill in the performance of hisduties. Bond is famous for introducing himself as "Bond, James Bond" and for ordering his vodkamartinis "shaken, not stirred”; his usual and characteristic formal clothing is a dinner jacket.
Sputnik—October 1958• History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfullylaunched Sputnik I. The worlds first artificial satellite was about the size ofa basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes toorbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political,military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputniklaunch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and theU.S.-U.S.S.R space race.• Immediately after the Sputnik I launch in October, the U.S. DefenseDepartment responded to the political furor by approving funding foranother U.S. satellite project. As a simultaneous alternative to Vanguard,Wernher von Braun and his Army Redstone Arsenal team began work onthe Explorer project.• Fear filled all American hearts when the Commies launched a successfulsatellite to orbit the earth—we feared nukes raining from the skies…deathand destruction. Some built bomb shelters in their back yards. Wepracticed Air Raid/Bomb drills at school.
2 Chinas: Mao Zedong vs. Chiang Kai-Shek• WHAT IF?If China had been a united country andcombined the forces of the PeoplesLiberation Army with the NationalistArmy instead of against each other, itcould well be that the Japanese forceswould have been forced to withdrawearly in the war. The self-seekingleaders of the two armies, Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalists and Mao (TseTung) Zedong of the Peoples LiberationArmy uselessly wasted time inconfrontation with each other insteadof concentrating on the commonenemy, Japan.ChairmanMao takesover ChinaChiang Kai-Shek loses andNationalists move to Taiwan
AssessmentHow many Russian civilians died in World War II?a) one millionb) 15 millionc) 100,000d) 4 millionWhich were the permanent members of the UN SecurityCouncil?a) United States, Soviet Union, France, Germany, andBritainb) United States, Soviet Union, France, Britain, andChinac) United States, Italy, France, Germany, and Chinad) United States, Soviet Union, France, Britain, andJapan5
Assessment5How many Russian civilians died in World War II?a) one millionb) 15 millionc) 100,000d) 4 millionWhich were the permanent members of the UN SecurityCouncil?a) United States, Soviet Union, France, Germany, andBritainb) United States, Soviet Union, France, Britain, andChinac) United States, Italy, France, Germany, and Chinad) United States, Soviet Union, France, Britain, andJapan
When is a warnot a war?When it’s apolice action:The Korean WarKorean War, conflict between Communist andnon-Communist forces in Korea from June 25,1950, to July 27, 1953. At the end of World War II,Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet(North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean) zones ofoccupation. In 1948 rival governments wereestablished: The Republic of Korea was proclaimedin the South and the Peoples Democratic Republicof Korea in the North. Relations between thembecame increasingly strained, and on June 25,1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea.The United Nations quickly condemned theinvasion as an act of aggression, demanded thewithdrawal of North Korean troops from the South,and called upon its members to aid South Korea.On June 27, U.S. President Truman authorized theuse of American land, sea, and air forces in Korea;a week later, the United Nations placed the forcesof 15 other member nations under U.S. command,and Truman appointed Gen.Douglas MacArthur supreme commander.
Korean Conflict1950-1953• Brinkmanship• Domino theory• Containment• Police action• UN Peacekeepers• MASHU.S. Forces patrol the Demilitarized Zone.
• After months of heavy fighting, the center of the conflict was returned to the38th parallel, where it remained for the rest of the war. MacArthur, however,wished to mount another invasion of North Korea. When MacArthur persistedin publicly criticizing U.S. policy, Truman, on the recommendation of the JointChiefs of Staff removed (Apr. 10, 1951) him from command and installed Gen.Matthew B. Ridgway as commander in chief.• The wars unpopularity played an important role in the presidential victory ofDwight D. Eisenhower, who had pledged to go to Korea to end the war.Negotiations broke down four different times, but after much difficulty andnuclear threats by Eisenhower, an armistice agreement was signed (July 27,1953).• Casualties in the war were heavy. U.S. losses were placed at over 54,000 deadand 103,000 wounded, while Chinese and Korean casualties were each at least10 times as high. Korean forces on both sides executed many alleged civilianenemy sympathizers, especially in the early months of the war.• No treaty was ever signed between North and South Korea.• After three years of fighting, over 54,000 dead, the country was divided alongthe 38th Parallel with a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
Anti-WarpropagandaM*A*S*H was set in South Korea, near Seoul,during the Korean War. The series focused on thegroup of doctors and nurses whose job was to healthe wounded who arrived at this "Mobile ArmySurgical Hospital" by helicopter, ambulance or bus.The hospital compound was isolated from the restof the world. One road ran through the camp; amountain blocked one perimeter and a minefieldthe other. Here the wounded were patched up andsent home--or back to the front. Here, too, theloyal audience came to know and respond to anexceptional ensemble cast of characters.
Kilroy was here is an Americanpopular culture expression, oftenseen in graffiti. Its origins areindistinct, but recognition of it andthe distinct doodle of "Kilroy"peeking over a wall is almostubiquitous in the US.There was one person who led orparticipated in every combat,training or occupation operationduring WWII and the Korean War.This person could always bedepended on. GIs began to considerhim the "super GI." He was one whoalways got there first or who wasalways there when they left. I am, ofcourse, referring to Kilroy Was Here.Somehow, this simple graffiticaptured the imagination of GIseverywhere they went. Thescribbled cartoon face and wordsshowed up everywhere - worldwide.Stories (some even true) abound.A number of years ago the Philadelphia Inquirer respondedto a question about the Kilroy Was Here signs.According to them, they were started by a Quincy MAshipyard inspector named James F. Kilroy. He first chalkedthe slogan on tank tops and cargo boxes to show theyd beenchecked. Cargo went everywhere and GIs spread the slogan.The Kilroy slogan soon became a special pal of scaredsoldiers. To show that an area had been cleared GIs wrotethe slogan Kilroy was here.James Kilroyno relation to the original
A Divided NationKorea was an independent kingdom until Japan conquered it in the early twentiethcentury. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Soviet and American forces agreed to divideKorea temporarily along the 38th parallel of latitude. However, North Korea, ruled by thedictator Kim Il Sung, became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. In South Korea, theUnited States backed the dictatorial—but noncommunist—leader, Syngman Rhee.
Winter Battle Scene in KoreaU.S. soldiers rest after winning a battle for a snowy hill in Korea, February 1951.Based on the photograph, what advantage did these soldiers gain by winningcontrol of this hill?
South Korea RecoversAfter the war, South Korea slowly rebuilt its economy. By the mid-1960s,South Korea’s economy had leapt ahead. After decades of dictatorship andmilitary rule, a prosperous middle class and fierce student protests pushedthe government to hold direct elections in 1987. These elections began asuccessful transition to democracy. Despite the bloody Korean War, mostSouth Koreans during the Cold War years wanted to see their ancientnation reunited, as did many North Koreans. All Koreans shared the samehistory, language, and traditions. For many, this meant more than Cold Wardifferences.North Korea Digs InUnder Kim Il Sung, the command economyincreased output for a time in North Korea.However, in the late 1960s, economic growthslowed. Kim’s emphasis on self-reliance keptNorth Korea isolated and poor. Thegovernment built a personality cult aroundKim, who was constantly glorified as the “GreatLeader” in propaganda. Even after its Sovietand Chinese allies undertook economicreforms in the 1980s, North Korea clung tohard-line communism.Kim Jong IlKim Il SungKim Jong Un at left front, Kim Jong Il at right front
In February 2013, North Korea held its thirdunderground nuclear test. The act has been roundlycondemned by the international community, includingthe United States, Russia, Japan and China. In the faceof further sanctions, analysts have stated that Kimscontinued focus on armament. Having disavowed hiscountrys armistice with South Korea and threatenedto fire his increasingly capable missiles toward theUnited States, Kim has put the Korean peninsula andWashington on a war footing. His behavior follows theplaybook of his predecessors, with one notable andpotentially dangerous departure that appears to havehim backed into a corner.Kim Jong-un became the leader of North Korea in2011, having inherited his position from his fatherKim Jong-il.Kim withformer NBAStar DennisRodman
All of the following countries have strong economies and are“Asian tigers” excepta) Singapore.b) Taiwan.c) North Korea.d) South Korea.Which of the following correctly describes the Korean War?a) The United States backed the noncommunist north while theSoviet Union backed the communist south.b) The United States backed the communist north while the SovietUnion backed the noncommunist south.c) The United States backed the noncommunist south while theSoviet Union backed the communist north.d) The United States backed the communist south while the SovietUnion backed the noncommunist north.Assessment3
Assessment3All of the following countries have strong economies and are“Asian tigers” excepta) Singapore.b) Taiwan.c) North Korea.d) South Korea.Which of the following correctly describes the Korean War?a) The United States backed the noncommunist north while theSoviet Union backed the communist south.b) The United States backed the communist north while the SovietUnion backed the noncommunist south.c) The United States backed the noncommunist south while theSoviet Union backed the communist north.d) The United States backed the communist south while the SovietUnion backed the noncommunist north.
Trouble in FrenchIndochinaIn 1945, an American intelligence team codenamed Deer parachuted into thejungles of Asia to help a band of guerrillas fighting the Japanese. They found theleader of these guerrillas, Nguyen Ai Quoc, seriously ill from malaria and dysentery.“This man doesn’t have long for this world," exclaimed the team medic, but hesuccessfully nursed him back to health. The grateful leader agreed to provideintelligence and rescue downed American pilots in return for ammunition andweapons.The team suggested that the United States continue to support Quoc after the war,but the recommendation was considered to controversial since Quoc wanted hisnation’s freedom from our ally France. His request for help was ignored, althoughthe rebel leader pleaded with President Truman to support his movement forindependence from the French. The US decided that they didn’t like Quoc’s politics.Nguyen Ai Quoc is known by another name: “He who enlightens”, or inVietnamese—Ho Chi Minh. Sixty thousand Americans died in the Vietnam War,battling a former ally whose life we had once saved.In the 1920s, Ho worked as a busboy in a hotel in Boston. By 1954, he waspresident of an independent North Vietnam. By the 1960s, he America’s publicenemy #1.
Letter from Ho Chi Minh to President Harry S. Truman,02/28/1946.
#34 Dwight D.EisenhowerBringing to the Presidency his prestige as commanding general of the victorious forces inEurope during World War II, Dwight D. Eisenhower obtained a truce in Korea andworked incessantly during his two terms to ease the tensions of the Cold War. Hepursued the moderate policies of "Modern Republicanism," pointing out as he leftoffice, "America is today the strongest, most influential, and most productive nationin the world."Born: October 14, 1890; Denison, Texas...Republican who served two terms. 1953-1961Vice President: Richard M. NixonEisenhower was the first president to work with three sessions of Congress controlled byan opposing political party...Dwight Eisenhower entered the White House intending to preside over a period ofnational recovery from the tumult of the Roosevelt/Truman administrations. His"hidden-hand" style of governing indicated to some an air of conformity andaloofness, yet the general public held him in high esteem.Confounding caricature, the military legend cut defense spending and warned against theunchecked growth of a military-industrial complex...Died: March 28, 1969.
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)• Premier of Russia• First Secretary of the Communist Party of the SovietUnion 1953-1964.• Certainly the most colorful Soviet leader, Khrushchevis best remembered for his dramatic, oftentimesboorish gestures and "harebrained schemes"designed to attain maximum propaganda effect, hisenthusiastic belief that Communism would triumphover capitalism, and the fact that he was the onlySoviet leader ever to be removed peacefully fromoffice--a direct result of the post-Stalin thaw he hadinstigated in 1956.
Khrushchev• Khrushchevs enthusiasm for flashy gestures had not been liked by moreconservative elements from the very start; many Soviets were greatly embarrassedby his antics, such as banging a shoe on the podium during a speech to the UNGeneral Assembly. There were elements in the Party who were actively looking foran opportunity to oust him. Their opportunity came with the Cuban Missile Crisis.• In yet another case of showmanship that he was unable to back up with deeds, in1962 Khrushchev deployed nuclear missiles in newly Communist Cuba, within easystriking distance of most major American population centers. Thanks tointelligence received from Oleg Penkovsky, a Soviet double agent, the UnitedStates was aware that the missiles were still only partially developed and did notpose an immediate threat. President John Kennedy called Khrushchevs bluff, andthe latter was forced to remove the missiles from Cuba, with great loss of faceboth at home and abroad. Khrushchev never regained his prestige after theincident, and was quietly ousted two years later by opponents in the Politburo--significantly, with no bloodshed. He spent the rest of his life in peacefulretirement, and was the only Soviet leader not to be buried in the Kremlin wallafter his death.
Sergei Khrushchev• PROVIDENCE, R.I. -- Sergei Khrushchev will take the oath of U.S. citizenship on Monday,July 12, 1999, at 2 p.m. in Bishop McVinney Auditorium, One Cathedral Square,Providence.• Khrushchev, whose father, Nikita, was the leader of the Soviet Union during the ColdWar, is a senior fellow at Browns Watson Institute for International Studies. He and hiswife, Valentina Golenko, will be sworn in as citizens along with 250 other candidates byU.S. District Court Chief Judge Ronald Lagueux.• To become citizens, Khrushchev and his wife passed a test of history, government, andEnglish writing skills on June 23 administered by the U.S. Immigration andNaturalization Service in Providence.• Khrushchev, 64, decided to become a citizen after eight years at Brown University,where he writes and teaches a senior seminar on relations among the post-Sovietstates.• Khrushchevs fields of expertise are Soviet and Russian political and economicdevelopment, Soviet history, international security, and computer science. He haswritten numerous books, including Nikita Khrushchev: Creation of a Superpower andKhrushchev on Khrushchev: An Inside Account of the Man and His Era, by His Son.
Fidel CastroFidel Castro ruled Cuba since 1959, when he overthrew the military dictatorship ofFulgencio Batista. Castro established a dictatorship and made Cuba the firstCommunist state in the Western Hemisphere. He became famous for his fiery, anti-American speeches.Castro was born on Aug. 13, 1926, in Biran, near Mayari, Cuba. His given and familyname was Fidel Castro Ruz. His father was a Spanish immigrant who owned a smallplantation. Castro graduated from the University of Havana in 1950 with a lawdegree. Afterwards, Castro opened a law office in Havana. In 1952, he ran forelection to the Cuban House of Representatives. But troops led by Batista haltedthe election and ended democracy in Cuba.As a result of Batistas actions, Castro tried to start a revolution against the Batistadictatorship. On July 26, 1953, Castros forces attacked the Moncada army barracksin the city of Santiago de Cuba. Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years inprison. Batista released him in 1955, however. Castro then formed the 26th of JulyMovement, a group of revolutionaries named after the date of his first revolt. Hethen went into exile in Mexico. Castros forces landed in Cuba in December 1956.Many rebels were killed, and Castro and other survivors fled to the Sierra Maestra,a mountain range in southeast Cuba. People from the surrounding countrysidejoined the rebellion. Batista fled from Cuba on Jan. 1, 1959, and Castro tookcontrol of the government.
Communism in CubaIn the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communiststate.Castro:• nationalized foreign-owned sugar plantations and otherbusinesses• put most land under government control• distributed land to peasantsEffects of communist rule:Castro imposed harsh authoritarian rule.Conditions for the poor improved, basic health care was providedfor all, the literacy rate increased, and equality for women waspromoted.Critics were jailed or silenced and hundreds of thousands fled tothe United States.When the Cold War ended, Soviet aid disappeared, and Cuba’seconomy collapsed.
INVASION atBay of Pigs• Richard M. Nixon proposed it | Dwight D. Eisenhower planned it | RobertF. Kennedy championed it | John F. Kennedy approved it | The CIA carriedit out | 1,197 invaders were captured | 200 of them had been soldiers inBautistas army (14 of those were wanted for murder in Cuba) | One CIAsoldier fired the first shot | A volunteer teacher was the first Cubancasualty | 4 American pilots and over 100 Cuban invaders were killed inbattle | 1,400 Cuban invaders felt betrayed by their sponsor | One U.S.senator lied to the United Nations | One U.S. president was embarrassedin front of the world. April 17.• Cuban exiles, trained, armed and funded by the CIA, invade Cuba at Bay ofPigs (known in Cuba as Playa Girón). After three days of fighting theinvading force is defeated by the Cuban army.
• The plan included: 1) the creation of a responsible and unified Cuban opposition tothe Castro regime located outside of Cuba, 2) the development of a means for masscommunication to the Cuban people as part of a powerful propaganda offensive, 3)the creation and development of a covert intelligence and action organizationwithin Cuba which would respond to the orders and directions of the exileopposition, and 4) the development of a paramilitary force outside of Cuba forfuture guerrilla action. These goals were to be achieved “in such a manner as toavoid the appearance of U.S. intervention.”• Invasion• The counterrevolutionary forces, known as Brigade 2506, were assembled on thewest coast of Guatemala, where U.S. engineers refurbished the airport especially forthe mission. On April 14 six ships sailed from Nicaragua’s Puerto Cabezas, cheeredon by Nicaraguan president and U.S.-friendly dictator Luis Somoza., The Cubangovernment knew an invasion was coming, but could not guess exactly when orwhere the attack would take place. When teams of U.S. B-26 bombers beganattacking four Cuban airfields simultaneously on Saturday, April 15, the Cubans wereprepared. The few planes belonging to the Cuban Air Force were dispersed andcamouflaged, with some obsolete, unusable planes left out to fool the attackers anddraw the bombs. As part of the CIA cover story, the attacking B-26 planes weredisguised to look as if they were Cuban planes flown by defecting Cuban pilots. Priorto the start of the operation, CIA operatives were sent to Cuba. Their job was to aidthe invading forces by blowing up key bridges and performing other acts ofterrorism that would make it appear that the people of Cuba were joining theinvasion. Shortly after the attack started,• Ambassador Adlai Stevenson, at the United Nations, flatly rejected Cuba’s Ministerof Foreign Affairs Raúl Roa’s report of the attack to the assembly, saying that theplanes were from the Cuban Air Force and presenting a copy of the photographpublished in the newspapers. In the photo, the plane shown has an opaque nose,whereas the model of the B-26 planes used by the Cubans had a Plexiglas nose.Stevenson was extremely embarrassed a few hours later when the truth wasrevealed and he learned that Kennedy had referred to him as “my official liar.”
• Without supplies or air cover, the invading forces fell. To them, the lack of aircover was a direct betrayal. In the end, 200 rebel soldiers were killed, and1,197 others were captured.• The reality,” wrote Schlesinger, “was that Fidel Castro turned out to be a far more formidable foeand in command of a far better organized regime than anyone had supposed. His patrols spottedthe invasion at almost the first possible moment. His planes reacted with speed and vigor. His policeeliminated any chance of sabotage or rebellion behind the lines. His soldiers stayed loyal and foughthard. He himself never panicked; and, if faults were chargeable to him, they were his overestimateof the strength of the invasion and undue caution in pressing the ground attack against thebeachhead. His performance was impressive.”• The controversial inspector general’s report concluded that ignorance, incompetence, andarrogance on the part of the CIA was responsible for the fiasco. It criticized nearly every aspect ofthe CIA’s handling of the invasion: misinforming Kennedy administration officials, planning poorly,using faulty intelligence and conducting an overt military operation beyond “agency responsibilityas well as agency capability.” The report added, “The agency reduced the exile leaders to the statusof puppets.”• Aside from being at once a major victory for the Cuban Revolution and a major embarrassmentfor Kennedy and the CIA, the attack at the Bay of Pigs set the stage for the major confrontationbetween the U.S. and the Soviet Union: the missile crisis that brought the world to the brink ofnuclear war.• In the meantime, perhaps as a result of the Bay of Pigs embarrassment, Kennedy’s obsession witheliminating Castro grew. A plan code-named “Operation Mongoose” spurred by Attorney GeneralRobert F. Kennedy, attempted to eliminate Castro by any means necessary.Bay of Pigs concluded
Cuban Missile Crisis• October 14. The Cuban Missile Crisisbegins when U.S. reconnaissanceaircraft photograph Sovietconstruction of intermediate-rangemissile sites in Cuba.President Kennedy demands thewithdrawal of Soviet missiles andimposes a naval blockade. Khrushchevagrees on condition that Cuba receivesguarantee of non-aggression from theU.S. and Jupiter missiles aimed at theSoviet Union are removed fromTurkey.
• One of the most serious incidents of the Cold War—a period of intense rivalry between theUnited States and the Soviet Union—was the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Communists hadcome to power in Cuba in 1959. In October 1962, the United States learned that the SovietUnion had installed missiles in Cuba that could launch nuclear attacks on United Statescities. The crisis passed after Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev and U.S. President John F.Kennedy agreed that the Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba in return for theremoval of U.S. nuclear missiles from Turkey and Kennedys promise that the United Stateswould not invade Cuba. Shown here is an aerial photograph of a missile launch site in SanCristobal, Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis• Cuban missile crisis occurred in October 1962 when the United States learned thatthe Soviet Union had secretly installed missiles in Cuba, about 90 miles (140kilometers) from Florida. The missiles could have been used to launch nuclearattacks on American cities. The crisis was one of the most serious incidents of theCold War, a period of intense U.S.-Soviet rivalry that had begun after World War IIended in 1945. Most experts believe that the missile crisis brought the UnitedStates and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war.• The Soviet Union had placed the missiles in Cuba earlier in 1962, after Cuban leaders became convincedthat the United States was planning to attack Cuba. During the Cold War, Cuba was an ally of the SovietUnion. President John F. Kennedy of the United States learned of the missiles presence on October 16 anddemanded that the Soviet Union remove them. On October 22, he ordered a naval quarantine (blockade)of Cuba to stop further shipment of arms.• At first, the United States expected to invade Cuba to destroy the missiles. At one point, an invasion wasscheduled for October 29 or October 30. Nearly all of Kennedys advisers agreed that a landing of U.S.forces in Cuba would probably mean war—most likely nuclear war—with the Soviet Union.• The Soviet Union offered to remove the missiles if the United States would promise not toinvade Cuba. It later said that it would not remove the missiles unless the United Stateswould dismantle its military bases in Turkey. Turkey was a U.S. ally that bordered the Soviet Union.Kennedy agreed publicly to dismantle all U.S. missile bases in Turkey. However, to complete the deal, Kennedyand Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev also made a private agreement in which Khrushchev promised toremove all Soviet missiles in Cuba in exchange for Kennedys promise that the United States would notinvade the island. On October 28, the two leaders completed the agreement, ending the crisis.• The agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev was kept secret because many Americans opposedsuch a deal. Almost all Americans thus thought that Kennedy had forced the Soviet Union to remove themissiles simply by threatening war. Some experts believe that, as a result, U.S. foreign policy used greatertoughness and more threats of force after the crisis.
Cuban Missile Crisis• In Cuba this event is known as the October Crisis of 1962, and in the former Soviet Union it wasknown as the Caribbean Crisis.• For nearly two weeks the U.S. and the Soviets stood on the brink of nuclear war, and only theleadership of Kennedy and Khrushchev kept the crisis from escalating into a full nuclear war.• For many of us the Cuban Missile Crisis seems like a legend from the past, yet it has continuallybaffled historians with every new bit of information declassified and each new memoir or re-examination published.• We know that the Kennedy brothers were largely responsible for the positive outcome.Not only were they able to resist the war lust and manipulations of the Joint Chiefs ofStaff (JCS), but they were able to maintain peace and not fire their weapons. This wasnot easy.• We also know that Khrushchev had similar problems with his war machine, and he also managedto overcome them.• We still cant seem to grasp that past U.S.-Cuba relations played a major part in the reasons for thecrisis.• This website will not try to tell the whole story of the crisis. Instead it will point you to books andwebsites that will tell that story better than I could, and will help us all to get a more completeperspective on the crisis, its reasons, and the aftermath.The closest the world ever came to its owndestruction was the event known to us as theCuban Missile Crisis.
• Castro seized property owned by Americans and other foreigners as well asCubans. In 1960, the Castro government took over United States oil refineries inCuba. The United States then stopped buying Cuban sugar. Castro responded bytaking over all United States businesses in Cuba.• Castro has supported a number of revolutionary movements in South America,Central America, and Africa. The Castro government has provided improvededucation and health facilities for many Cubans. But the economy has often beentroubled.• In the early 1960s, Cuba began depending heavily on the Soviet Union foreconomic support. This support ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union wasdissolved. Castro vowed that Cuba would remain a Communist country. However,in the early 1990s, Cuba undertook limited reforms that loosened state controlover parts of the countrys economy.• Castro has been closely assisted by his brother Raul. He has named Raul as hissuccessor.
Consider what might have turned out differently had Fidel taken up a careerin professional baseball rather than politics: no revolution overthrowing theBatista regime, no establishment of a Soviet-aligned government in Cuba,and thus no Bay of Pigs or Cuban Missile Crisis — watershed events in thehistory of the Cold War. Would the results of this alternate scenario havebeen a profound difference in the course of world events or merely ahistorical footnote of minor global significance?Even if one opts for the "historical footnote" interpretation, the Castrolegend is still appealing because of its unconventionality.One of the quirkier historical "What if?"scenarios involves the legend that Cubanleader Fidel Castro was once given a tryout(and rejected) by an American majorleague baseball team (usually specified aseither the Washington Senators or theNew York Yankees).URBAN LEGEND ?
Counterpoint• There is a well-known baseball trivia question that makes its way around mostpress boxes involving Fidel Castro as a 21 year-old pitching prospect for thePittsburgh Pirates. Seems two corpulent scouts, hired by the parent club, went toHavana to watch the diminutive lefty break nasty curves and dip sinkers in andaround the aggressive Latin competition, but were somewhat lukewarm about hisspeed. “The kid Castro has some command of breaking pitches (stop),” the reporttold the front office the next morning via Western Union. “Has nothing on the fastball (stop) Double AA talent at best (stop).”• The Pirates never did have the patience to develop short Cuban kids with little popon the cheese, so a dejected Fidel attended law school, went to prison, anddisappeared into the Cuban socialist underground. Those were the days when hisfamily and friends were subsisting on a steady diet of dung beetles and palmleaves chased by rotten disease-ridden water, while the mob ran numbers for adictatorship backed by the muscle of Harry Truman’s United States.• It was a short walk from the entrance of Forbes Field to the den of hate. And hateturned into revolution on New Year’s Eve 1959, when the failed pitcher becamechampion of the weak and an American thorn; followed closely by the CIA’sspring invasion gone terribly wrong two years later. And when the Bay of Pigssent the slugs from Florida’s underbelly to the right people, Jack Kennedy paidwith his life in Dallas two years after that.
Raúl Castro23rd President of Cubaborn 3 June 1931IncumbentAssumed office24 February 2008Acting: 31 July 2006 – 24 February 2008• Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz is the President of theCuban Council of State and the President (AsPremier) of the Council of Ministers of Cuba. Theyounger brother of Fidel Castro, he is alsoSecond Secretary of the Political Bureau of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party ofCuba (PCC), and Commander in Chief (MaximumGeneral) of the Armed Forces (Army, Navy, andAir Force).On 31 July 2006, Raúl Castro assumed the duties of President of the Council of State in atemporary transfer of power due to Fidel Castros illness. According to the Cuban Constitutionof 1976, Article 94, the First Vice President of the Council of State assumes presidential dutiesupon the illness or death of the president.Raúl Castro was elected President at the 24 February 2008 National Assembly as Fidel Castrohad announced his intention not to stand for President again on 19 February 2008.
• Since assuming the presidency in February 2008, Raúl Castros government hasannounced several economic reforms. In March 2008, the government removedrestrictions against the purchase of numerous products not available underFidel Castros government including DVD-players, computers, rice cookers, andmicrowaves. In an effort to boost food production, the government turned overunused state-owned land to private farmers and cooperatives and moved muchof the decision-making process regarding land use from the national level to themunicipal level.• In mid-2008, the government overhauled the salary structure of all state-runcompanies so that harder-working employees could be rewarded with higherwages. In addition, the government has removed restrictions against the use ofcell phones and is investigating loosening travel restrictions on Cubans.• In March 2009, Raúl Castro dismissed some officials. In the article Purge Aims toHalt Cubas Economic Free Fall, Miami Herald suggested that the purpose wasto get rid of the people who may have stood in the way of economic reforms.• On the other hand, Yoani Sánchez wrote "If the intention was to stimulateprogressive measures, no functionary in charge of a ministry could have slowedthem down. The intention, however, has been to delay the changes, to dullthem, to buy time in the game of politics, while we lose months and months oftime in our lives."
The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of aSuperpower• What ideas guided Soviet political, economic, andforeign policy?• Why did the Soviet Union collapse?• What problems have Russia and the other republicsfaced since the fall of the Soviet Union?4
Soviet Nuclear Missiles Every year on May 1, the Soviet Uniondemonstrated its military strength, including nuclear weaponry, in aparade through Moscow’s Red Square.Why might the Soviet Union have wanted to show off its nuclearmight?
Soviet Government and EconomyKhrushchev pursued a policy ofde-Stalinization and sought athaw in the Cold War.Brezhnev suppressed dissidents,people who spoke out against thegovernment.The Soviet Union rebuilt itsshattered industries.Citizens enjoyed benefits such aslow rent, cheap bread, free healthcare, and day care for children.Collectivized agriculture remainedunproductive.The Soviet Union could not matchthe free-market economies of theWest in producing consumergoods.People spent hours waiting online to buy food and other goods.Because workers had lifetime jobsecurity, they had little incentiveGOVERNMENT ECONOMY4
Soviet Foreign PolicySoviet-Americanrelations swungback and forthbetweenconfrontation anddétente.The Soviet Unionsought alliesamong thedevelopingnations.The Soviets offeredmilitary andeconomic aid inorder to win andkeep allies.Stalin and hissuccessorsasserted Sovietcontrol overEastern Europe.Khrushchev set upthe Warsaw Pact tosuppress dissentwithin EasternEurope.UNITED STATESDEVELOPINGWORLDEASTERNEUROPE4
Collapse of the Soviet Union: Causeand Effect4Low output of cropsand consumer goodsCold War led to highmilitary spendingEthnic and nationalistmovementsDenial of rights andfreedomsWar with AfghanistanFood and fuelshortagesDemonstrations in theBaltic statesGorbachev’s rise topowerSoviet Union breaksup into 15 republicsRussian republicapproves a newconstitutionChangeover tomarket economy inRussiaCold War endsWar in ChechnyaEffectsImmediateCausesLong-TermCauses
Problems in The Russian Republic• The changeover to a market economy caused unemployment to soarand prices to skyrocket.• Criminals flourished, and gangs preyed on the new business class.In Russian slang, protection is called krysha (literally the roof). ...• In 1998, Russia defaulted, or failed to make payments, on much ofits foreign debt.• The value of Russia’s currency collapsed. People lost their savingsand their jobs.• Minorities within Russia sought greater autonomy or independence.4
The Other Republics• The new nations faced unrest, corruption, and political divisions.• In some countries, authoritarian rulers gained power.• Ethnic conflict erupted in republics with a mix of national groups.• Other conflicts arose over border disputes.• The new nations endured hard times as they switched to marketeconomies.4
Assessment4Who pursued a policy of de-Stalinization?a) Brezhnevb) Khrushchevc) Stalind) YeltsinWhich of the following was not a cause of the collapse ofthe Soviet Union?a) war with Afghanistanb) the end of the Cold Warc) Gorbachev’s rise to powerd) food and fuel shortages
Assessment4Who pursued a policy of de-Stalinization?a) Brezhnevb) Khrushchevc) Stalind) YeltsinWhich of the following was not a cause of the collapse ofthe Soviet Union?a) war with Afghanistanb) the end of the Cold Warc) Gorbachev’s rise to powerd) food and fuel shortages
A New Era in Eastern Europe• How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet dominationand strive for democracy?• What were the effects of the fall of communism?• What were the causes and effects of civil war in Yugoslavia?5
Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much ofEastern Europe.1949 Most Eastern European countries are undercommunist rule.1956 Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact and ends one-party rule; Soviet troops crush Hungarian uprising.1968 Czechoslovakia introduces reforms; Soviets use force torestore communist dictatorship.1980 Polish government, under Soviet pressure, cracksdown on trade union movement and arrests itsleaders.
Poland Embraces SolidarityPoland led the way in the new surge of resistance that shattered the Soviet satellite empire. In1980, economic hardships ignited strikes by shipyard workers. Led by Lech Walesa , theyorganized Solidarity, an independent labor union. It won millions of members and demandedpolitical as well as economic change.Under pressure from the Soviet Union, the Polish government outlawed the union and arrestedits leaders, including Walesa. Still, unrest continued. Walesa became a national hero, and thePolish government eventually released him from prison. Pope John Paul II visited Poland, metwith Solidarity leaders, and criticized communist policies. The pope was the former KarolWojtyla, archbishop of the Polish city of Cracow.
Boris Yeltsin standing on tankoutside Parliament building inMoscow
The Crumbling Soviet UnionThis cartoon shows Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachevwith an egg-shaped head sitting on a wall markedwith the national symbol of the Soviet Union.The cartoon draws on the nursery rhymeHumpty Dumpty.What does it imply about Gorbachev’s future?How does this cartoon communicate ideas without using any words?DefendingLithuania’sIndependenceWhat does the cartoon suggest about the state of the Soviet Union under Gorbachev?
Soviets Have Their Own “Vietnam” in AfghanistanIn 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in a long war in Afghanistan, an Islamiccountry just south of the Soviet Union. A Soviet-supported Afghan government had triedto modernize the nation. Its policies included social reforms and land redistribution thatwould reduce the power of regional landlords. Afghan landlords—who commandedarmed men as warlords—and Muslim conservatives charged that both policiesthreatened Islamic tradition. When these warlords took up arms against the government,Soviet troops moved in.Battling mujahedin or Muslim religious warriors, in the mountains of Afghanistan,however, proved as difficult as fighting guerrillas in the jungles of Vietnam had been forAmericans. By the mid-1980s, the American government began to smuggle modernweaponry to the mujahedin. The Soviets had years of heavy casualties, high costs, andfew successes. Like America’s Vietnam War, the struggle in Afghanistan provoked a crisisin morale for the Soviets at home.And now we are there andthe enemy has weapons supplied by USCharlie Wilsons War is a 2007 American biographicalcomedy drama film recounting the true story of U.S.Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-TX) who partnered with "bareknuckle attitude" CIA operative Gust Avrakotos tolaunch Operation Cyclone, a program to organize and supporttheAfghan mujahideen in their resistance to the Sovietoccupation of Afghanistan.
In 2000, Vladimir Putin was electedpresident in Russia’s second freeelection. Putin projected toughness andcompetence, promising to endcorruption and build Russia into a strongmarket economy. He also secured Russiaa consulting status with NATO.Protesting Putin Demonstratorsgather in Moscow in 2004 toprotest Putin’s policies.What point do you think theprotesters were making byholding up photos likening Putinto Adolf Hitler?DmitryMedvedevcurrentPresident of theRussianFederation. Hewon thepresidentialelection heldon 2 March2008However, Putin repeatedly cameunder fire for increasing the power ofthe central government at theexpense of people’s civil liberties. Theinternational community began toquestion his policies, concerned thathe was becoming more autocraticthan democratic.Medvedev & Putin
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia,which took effect on 1January 1993, was an event thatsaw the self-determinedseparation of the federal stateof Czechoslovakia. The CzechRepublic and Slovakia, entitieswhich had arisen in 1969 withinthe framework of Czechoslovakfederalization, became immediatesubjects of the international law in1993. It is sometimes known asthe Velvet Divorce, a reference tothe bloodless Velvet Revolution of1989 that led to the end of therule of the Communist Party ofCzechoslovakia and the formationof a democratic government.
Fall of Communist GovernmentsEastern European countries withdrew from the WarsawPact and requested that Soviet troops leave.Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments andfree-market economies.The many changes contributed to rising inflation, highunemployment, and crime waves.Consumer goods became more plentiful, but many people couldnot afford them.Former communists were sometimes returned to office whenpeople became disillusioned with reform.In the 1990s, Eastern European nations looked to the West for aid.Ethnic tension arose is some areas.5
Civil War in YugoslaviaYugoslavia consisted of a broad mixtureof ethnic and religious groups.Tito had silenced nationalist andreligious unrest for decades. When hedied, nationalism tore Yugoslavia apart.Communism fell.Four of the six republics declaredindependence.Tens of thousands of BosnianMuslims were killed in a campaign ofethnic cleansing by SlobodanMiloševid.The Balkan region remained unstable.New nations needed massive aid torebuild.Large numbers of refugees remainedin temporary shelter for years afterthe war.Ethnic feuds were hard to contain.CAUSES EFFECTS5
A boy dodging sniper fire to get water, Sarajevo, Bosnia, 1993
Ethnic, nationalist, and religious tensions tore Yugoslavia apart during the1990s. Before 1991, Yugoslavia was multiethnic, or made up of several ethnicgroups. These groups included Serbs, Montenegrins, and Macedonians, whowere Orthodox Christians; Croats and Slovenes, who were Roman Catholics;and the mostly Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians. A majority of Yugoslavians—including the Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, and Bosniaks—all spoke the samelanguage, Serbo-Croatian, but these groups had different religions. Albanians,Slovenes, and Macedonians spoke minority languages.Yugoslavia was made up of six republics, similar to states in the United States.These were Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (often known asBosnia for short), Montenegro, and Macedonia. Each republic had a dominantethnic group but also was home to ethnic minorities. Serbs formed themajority in Serbia but were an important ethnic minority in several of theother republics. Serbs dominated Yugoslavia, which was held together andcontrolled by its Communist Party.
Zlata Filipovic was 11 years old in1992 when she began a diary abouther life in war-torn Sarajevo, thecapital of Bosnia. Here is an excerpt:“Today a shell fell on the park infront of my house, the parkwhere I used to play and sit withmy girlfriends. A lot of peoplewere hurt . . . AND NINA IS DEAD. . . She was such a sweet, nicelittle girl.”—Zlata Filipovic, Zlata’s DiaryBosnia is just one of the nations thathave faced ethnic, religious, ornational conflicts in recent decades.
Grozny in RuinsGrozny, the capital of Chechnya, lay in ruins in 2000after Russian troops won a battle for control of the city.
However, NATO air strikes eventually forced Yugoslavia to withdraw itsforces from Kosovo. UN and NATO forces restored peace. As Kosovo rebuilt,tensions remained high between ethnic Albanians and Serbs living there.Although Kosovo remained part of Serbia in theory, the region was underUN control after 1999. The majority ethnic Albanians sought independence,while ethnic Serbs wantedThe Fight for KosovoAs Bosnia reached a tense peace, a crisisbroke out in the Serbian province ofKosovo. Ethnic Albanians made up about 90percent of Kosovo’s population. The rest of thepopulation was mostly Serbian.In 1989, Serbian president SlobodanMilosevic (an extreme Serbian nationalist, hadbegun oppressing Kosovar Albanians.Peaceful protests led to more repression. In the mid-1990s, a smallguerrilla army of ethnic Albanians began to respond with armed attackson Serbian targets. Milosevic, however, rejected international peaceefforts. In 1999, NATO launched air strikes against Serbia. Yugoslav forcesattempted ethnic cleansing of Albanian civilians.
Assessment5What happened when Hungary withdrew from the WarsawPact?a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’sindependence.b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising.c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew.d) Hungary was permitted to install a democraticgovernment.Which of the following was not a former territory ofYugoslavia?a) Slovenia c) Bulgariab) Croatia d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
Assessment5What happened when Hungary withdrew from the WarsawPact?a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’sindependence.b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising.c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew.d) Hungary was permitted to install a democraticgovernment.Which of the following was not a former territory ofYugoslavia?a) Slovenia c) Bulgariab) Croatia d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
Chapter 18: The Colonies BecomeNew NationsChapter ObjectiveTrace independence movements and political conflicts in Africaand Asia as colonialism gave way after World War II.SECTION 1 The Indian Subcontinent Achieves FreedomTrace the struggles for freedom on the Indian subcontinent.SECTION 2 Southeast Asian Nations Gain IndependenceTrace the independence movements in the Philippines, Burma,Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.SECTION 3 New Nations in AfricaExplain the independence movements and struggles in Ghana,Kenya, Congo, and Angola.SECTION 4 Conflicts in the Middle EastDescribe the formation of Israel and the conflicts in theMiddle East.SECTION 5 Central Asia StrugglesSummarize the struggles for independence in Central Asia.