Introduction
        The British government moved
toward greater democracy through
evolution rather than revolution.

•In ...
Electoral Reforms
• Factory workers, farm laborers, and the
  middle class began to demand that they
  receive a greater p...
Reform Movements
  •   The Reform Act of 1832 lowered the property qualifications
      for voting, and gave more middle-c...
1

          Reforming Parliament
In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy. Yet, it was far from democratic:
  • Les...
Political Leadership
• Prime Ministers William Gladstone and
  Benjamin Disraeli served under Queen
  Victoria.
“An 1867 p...
Queen Victoria
• Came to the throne in 1837 at
  the age of 18
• Reigned for 64 years, the
  longest monarchy in British
 ...
1

              The Victorian Age
From 1837 to 1901, the greatest symbol in British life was Queen
Victoria. Although she...
1

 A New Era in British Politics
In the 1860s, the old political parties regrouped under
new leadership:
    • The Tories...
William Gladstone
“The Great Ministry”
      • Liberal, created a civil
        service based on
        examinations, Edu...
Benjamin Disraeli
• Conservative, believed in
  preserving aristocratic
  traditions while adopting
  democratic reforms
•...
Growth of Democracy
            Rise of Labor
• In the late 1800s labor unions
  grew stronger and socialism
  gained foll...
A Constitutional Crisis
                     • The conservative House of Lords lost power
                       with the ...
2

     Social and Economic Reforms
  During the early and mid-1800s, Parliament passed a wide variety of important new
  ...
2

            Reforms for the Working Class
   By the early 1900s, Parliament gradually passed a series of reforms design...
2

                             Votes for Women
    In Britain, as elsewhere, women struggled for the right to vote agains...
2

                The Irish Question
The Irish never accepted English rule:
•  They resented English settlers, especially...
Potato Famine in Ireland
           • 1840s- “Great Hunger” potato
             famine struck Ireland, but Britain
       ...
Irish immigrants
looking for work in
 the United States
  often faced signs
 reading “No Irish
     need apply.”
Review
1. Group that promoted social justice and wanted to peacefully create a
     Socialist government
     a) Tories
  ...
Review
1. Group that promoted social justice and wanted to peacefully create a
     Socialist government
     a) Tories
  ...
Bibliography
• Farah, Mounir A., and Andrea Berens Karls. World
  History: The Human Experience The Modern Era. New
  York...
Chapter 14 Section 2
  By: Julie Krecko
1852- New
1760- influx of   1770- First       1838- Lord    Zealand                        1870-
   British        Europea...
1873- Prince     1890s- New
Edward Island    Zealand carries out 1905- Saskatchewan and
joins Canada     social reforms   ...
• Mid 1800’s Canada was
                            • In 1867 the British Parliament passed
  one part                    ...
• Divided Quebec into two colonies: Lower Canada
  and Upper Canada.
• Lower Canada
  – French speaking
• Upper Canada
  –...
Lord Durham was sent
 to Canada in 1838 to
 investigate the uprisings
 between upper and
 lower Canada. He wrote
 the “Rep...
The First Prime
        Minister and second
        longest serving of
        Canada.



            John was born in
   ...
3
    Canada, 1867–1914
3

        How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule?
Canada’s first European rulers were French.
When France lost Canada to Britai...
Geography of Australia and New Zealand
     3
• Australia was initially established as a
                                 prisoner’s colony, but after a gold rush
     ...
3

        Europeans in Australia
• In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was
  too ...
New
Zealand
The first Europeans to
settle in the New
Zealand were from
James Cook’s
expedition in 1770.

Firearms brought ...
3


  New                       In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for
                            Britain.
 Zealan...
Treaty of Waitangi in 1840
• Concluded by the
  British Naval
  officers and Maori
  Chiefs

• Protected the
  Maori
  rig...
• Americans loyal to Great Britain during
 Loyalists     the American Revolution

             • Self-governing territory ...
• The original people of Australia
 Aborigines



              • The original inhabitants of New
   Maori        Zealand
...
• In 1867 the British Parliament
                              passed the British North American
                         ...
1

                        Opposing
                        Ideologies

At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tr...
1


         What Were the Goals of Conservatives?


Conservatives pursued the following goals:
• Restore royal families t...
1

                    The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge

Challenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals an...
1
   Revolts Against the Old Order
 Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and
 nationalism, revolutionaries fought against th...
2


Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

  • Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830
    and 1848?

  • How did revolution sp...
2
Why Did Revolutions Occur in France in 1830 and 1848?

              1830                               1848
 Charles X,...
Revolt in France
                        • Charles X
• Wanted to restore absolute monarchs
• Had support of ultraroyalists...
The “Citizen King”
• Louis Philippe accepted the throne
  – Dressed and behaved like a middle class citizen
  – Favored we...
2
The revolts in Paris inspired uprisings   How Did Revolution
elsewhere in Europe. Most were             Spread in 1830?
...
2

Revolutions in
   Europe,
1830 and 1848
The Revolution of 1848
• Guizot feared a demonstration and cancelled a
  banquet
• February 22
  – Crowds flooded the stre...
2

                  Revolutions of 1848
   In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across
  ...
2

    Why Did the Uprisings Fail?
 By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of
 liberal revolution that had begun...
3

    Division and Democracy in France



• What domestic and foreign policies did
  Napoleon III pursue?

• What impact ...
•   Written and composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle

     – Allons, enfants de Patrie,                              ...
The Second Empire
• New Constitution
  –Legislative branch called the National
   Assembly
  –Election of a President
  –E...
The Rise of Louis Napoleon
Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte
– Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
– Popularity came from his name rather...
3


                Napoleon III
DOMESTIC POLICIES                FOREIGN POLICIES
Issued a new constitution
that extended...
The Crimean War
• France and Great Britain against Russia
   – Immediate cause was who had the right to protect the
     C...
Making Peace with Prussia


• France elected a new National Assembly
• Gave Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia
• Paid 5 billio...
The Commune of Paris
• Workers Socialist government
  – Refused to recognize the National Assembly
  – Called for the conv...
Florence Nightingale


• Founder of the modern nursing profession
• Head British nurse in the Crimean War
• Also known as ...
France:
   The Third Republic
• New Constitution
  – Two house legislature
  – President served four years and had little ...
3

Challenges of the Third Republic
 • In 1871, an uprising broke out, as rebels set up the
   Paris Commune. The governme...
Threats to the Republic
• General Georges Boulanger
  – Popular French war hero
  – Urged people to seek
    revenge again...
The Dreyfus Affair
• Alfred Dreyfus
   – Jewish French army officer
   – Convicted of selling military secrets to Germany
...
3

            The Dreyfus Affair
In Dreyfus affair, a Jewish officer was falsely accused of treason
to cover up corruptio...
The Panama Canal


• Canal would provide France with a passageway to
  the Pacific Ocean
• Panama Company collapsed
  – Fr...
3

           Reforms in France
France achieved serious reforms in the early 1900s.


    • New laws were passed regulatin...
End of the Empire

• Napoleon declared war on Prussia
  – French armies were slow to mobilize
  – German forces easily cro...
4

Expansion of the United States

• How did the United States extend its territory?

• How did American democracy grow be...
4
                   U S Territorial Expansion
From the earliest years of its history, the United States followed a policy...
4

             Expanding Democracy
 BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR                    AFTER THE CIVIL WAR


States slowly expanded ...
4
4

   Economic Growth in the United States
By 1900, the United States was the
  world’s leading industrial giant.
• Cotton...
4

             Social Reform
• The Industrial Revolution brought rapid
  industrialization and a growing need for reform....
4

            Political Problems
During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued
by revolts, civil war, and di...
4

  The Economics of Dependence

Economic dependence occurs when less-developed
nations export raw materials and commodit...
4

    The Influence of the United States
In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which
stated that the Ame...
Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917
          4
3

 Latin American Wars of Independence




• What caused discontent in Latin America?

• How did Haitians, Mexicans, and ...
3

       What Caused Discontent in Latin America?

By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western
Europe...
3

                                                               CENTRAL
         HAITI                     MEXICO       ...
Independence in
                 3



      South America
  In South America, Native Americans had
  rebelled against Span...
3
Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844
3

        Independence Movements in Latin America

      Long-Term Causes                               Immediate Causes
...
Ch14 Democracy & Reform
Ch14 Democracy & Reform
Ch14 Democracy & Reform
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Ch14 Democracy & Reform

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Ch14 Democracy & Reform

  1. 1. Introduction The British government moved toward greater democracy through evolution rather than revolution. •In the 1800s, Britain had a limited constitutional monarchy •The Cabinet led by the Prime Minister held most of the executive power •Parliament held legislative power •The House of Commons represented the people, but middle and working class citizens had no voting rights until the 1800s House of Commons
  2. 2. Electoral Reforms • Factory workers, farm laborers, and the middle class began to demand that they receive a greater political voice in the early 1800s. • Whigs- liberal minority party that supported voting rights for more people and fair apportion (divide and share) of electoral districts • Tories- conservative party that opposed the ideas of the Whigs • -1832- Whigs forced the king to announce that he would create as many new lords as necessary to give the reform bill a majority in the House of Lords, but the lords gave in and passed the bill “Whig and Tory” by Walter Dendy Sadler
  3. 3. Reform Movements • The Reform Act of 1832 lowered the property qualifications for voting, and gave more middle-class males the right to vote, but took representation rights away from areas that had declined in population • Industrial and farm workers remained disenfranchised (deprived of the right to vote) • the Chartists (reform group of the working class) wrote A People’s Charter, which demanded voting rights for all adult men, a secret ballot, salaries for members of Parliament, and equal electoral districts • Anti-Corn Law League eventually had Parliament repeal the Corn Law, which had forced the middle class to pay higher wages to workers • After 1832 the Tory and Whig parties began to change into the modern Conservative and Liberal parties • Aristocracy supported the Conservative party • Industrial and commercial classes supported the Liberal party
  4. 4. 1 Reforming Parliament In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy. Yet, it was far from democratic: • Less than five percent of the people had the right to vote. • Wealthy nobles and squires dominated politics. • The House of Lords could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons. • Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants could not vote or serve in Parliament. • Populous new cities had no seats in Parliament, while rural towns with few or no voters still sent members to Parliament. • In 1832, Parliament finally passed the Great Reform Act. • It redistributed seats in the House of Commons. • It enlarged the electorate by granting suffrage to more men.
  5. 5. Political Leadership • Prime Ministers William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli served under Queen Victoria. “An 1867 political cartoon depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Queen Victoria an imperial crown in exchange for a royal one. Disraeli cultivated a public image of himself as an Imperialist with grand gestures such as conferring on Queen Victoria the title ‘Empress of India’. “ Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Disraeli#Imperialism
  6. 6. Queen Victoria • Came to the throne in 1837 at the age of 18 • Reigned for 64 years, the longest monarchy in British history • First Empress of India at the British Raj, or period of British colonial rule in India • Granddaughter of George III of the Hanoverian Dynasty • Preceded by William IV, and succeeded by Edward VII
  7. 7. 1 The Victorian Age From 1837 to 1901, the greatest symbol in British life was Queen Victoria. Although she exercised little real political power, she set the tone for what is now called the Victorian age. • Victoria embodied the values of duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and respectability. She embraced a strict code of morals and manners. • Under Victoria, the British middle class — and growing numbers of the working class — felt great confidence in the future. That confidence grew as Britain expanded its already huge empire.
  8. 8. 1 A New Era in British Politics In the 1860s, the old political parties regrouped under new leadership: • The Tories became the Conservative party, led by Benjamin Disraeli. • The Whigs evolved into the Liberal party, led by William Gladstone. In the late 1800s, these two parties pushed little by little for suffrage to be extended. By century’s end, almost-universal male suffrage had been achieved. In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to limit the power of the House of Lords. In time, the House of Lords would become a largely ceremonial body, while the elected House of Commons would reign supreme.
  9. 9. William Gladstone “The Great Ministry” • Liberal, created a civil service based on examinations, Education Act of 1870 divided country into local districts • Created a secret ballot, Redistribution Act of 1885 divided Britain into equal electoral districts
  10. 10. Benjamin Disraeli • Conservative, believed in preserving aristocratic traditions while adopting democratic reforms • Reform Bill of 1867 extended the vote to all male homeowners and most men who rented property (including many working-class)
  11. 11. Growth of Democracy Rise of Labor • In the late 1800s labor unions grew stronger and socialism gained followers • The Fabians promoted social justice and wanted to peacefully create a Socialist government The Fabian Crest • The Labour Party represented the working class and promoted old-age pensions, minimum wage, unemployment assistance, and health and unemployment insurance A 1940s Labour Party poster
  12. 12. A Constitutional Crisis • The conservative House of Lords lost power with the 1911 Parliament Act that passed the House of Commons’ call for higher taxes Women Demand Greater Rights • 1850s- women’s rights activists fought to win property rights for married women, which led to the passage of the Married Women’s Property Acts of 1870 and 1882 • 1903- Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which led suffragettes in voting rights campaigns and succeed in winning voting rights for women over 21 Emmeline Pankhurst being arrested
  13. 13. 2 Social and Economic Reforms During the early and mid-1800s, Parliament passed a wide variety of important new laws. • In 1807, Britain became the first leading European power to outlaw the slave trade. In 1833, Parliament passed a law banning slavery in all British colonies. • Laws were passed to reduce the number of capital offenses and end public hanging. Additional reforms improved prison conditions and outlawed imprisonment for debt. • Some British tariffs were repealed in the 1820s. • In 1846, Parliament finally agreed to repeal the Corn Laws, which imposed high tariffs on imported grain.
  14. 14. 2 Reforms for the Working Class By the early 1900s, Parliament gradually passed a series of reforms designed to help the workers whose labor supported the new industrial society. • Parliament passed laws to regulate the conditions in factories and mines. • Government and business leaders slowly accepted worker organizations. Workers won higher wages and shorter hours. • Social reforms were enacted to benefit the working class. These included improved public health and housing for workers, free elementary education for all children, and protection for the poor and disadvantaged.
  15. 15. 2 Votes for Women In Britain, as elsewhere, women struggled for the right to vote against strong opposition. • Suffragists led by Emmeline Pankhurst used aggressive tactics and sometimes resorted to violent protest. • Many middle-class women disapproved of such radical actions. Yet they, too, spoke up in increasing numbers. • Some women, including Queen Victoria, opposed suffrage altogether. • Despite these protests, Parliament refused to grant women’s suffrage. Not until 1918 did Parliament finally grant suffrage to women over age 30. Younger women did not win the right to vote for another decade.
  16. 16. 2 The Irish Question The Irish never accepted English rule: • They resented English settlers, especially absentee landlords. • Many Irish peasants lived in poverty while paying high rents to landlords living in England. • The Irish, most of whom were Catholic, were forced to pay tithes to the Church of England. Irish nationalists campaigned for freedom and justice. In 1845, a disease destroyed the potato crop, causing a terrible famine called the “Great Hunger.” At least one million Irish died while the British continued to ship healthy crops outside Ireland. The Great Hunger left a legacy of Irish bitterness that still exists today. The Irish struggled for years to achieve home rule, or local self-government. However, Parliament did not pass a home rule bill until 1914. It then delayed putting the new law into effect until after World War I.
  17. 17. Potato Famine in Ireland • 1840s- “Great Hunger” potato famine struck Ireland, but Britain sent inadequate aid to the Irish, and many emigrated to the US, Canada, and Australia • Charles Stewart Parnell (Irish-born to a Protestant family) led nationalists in hope of home rule (self-government) • Gladstone tried to pass legislation for Irish home rule, but it split the Liberal party and was defeated • 1914- Parliament passed home rule bill, but it never went into effect
  18. 18. Irish immigrants looking for work in the United States often faced signs reading “No Irish need apply.”
  19. 19. Review 1. Group that promoted social justice and wanted to peacefully create a Socialist government a) Tories b) Fabians c) Whigs d) Labour Party 2. British Prime Minister William Gladstone a) was a liberal who created a civil service system based on examinations b) was a conservative who believed in preserving the traditions of the aristocracy c) was a Fabian who wanted to create a Socialist government d) was a fervent supporter of the Women’s Suffrage Movement 3. Which of the following was NOT a problem concerning the Irish? a) A potato famine caused starvation b) English and Scottish Protestants rented the land at high prices c) They were engaged in a violent civil war d) They wanted to rule the country independently from Great Britain
  20. 20. Review 1. Group that promoted social justice and wanted to peacefully create a Socialist government a) Tories b) Fabians c) Whigs d) Labour Party 2. British Prime Minister William Gladstone a) was a liberal who created a civil service system based on examinations b) was a conservative who believed in preserving the traditions of the aristocracy c) was a Fabian who wanted to create a Socialist government d) was a fervent supporter of the Women’s Suffrage Movement 3. Which of the following was NOT a problem concerning the Irish? a) A potato famine caused starvation b) English and Scottish Protestants rented the land at high prices c) They were engaged in a violent civil war d) They wanted to rule the country independently from Great Britain
  21. 21. Bibliography • Farah, Mounir A., and Andrea Berens Karls. World History: The Human Experience The Modern Era. New York: Glencoe/Mcgraw-Hill, 1999. Print. • Wikipedia. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. <http://www.wikipedia.com>. • "Images." Google. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. <http://www.google.com/images>.
  22. 22. Chapter 14 Section 2 By: Julie Krecko
  23. 23. 1852- New 1760- influx of 1770- First 1838- Lord Zealand 1870- British Europeans Durham becomes a 1867- North Province of immigrants to settle New investigates self-governing American Act Manitoba is Canada Zealand Canada colony passed. formed 1763- British 1791- British Mid-1800s- 1860- A gold 1869- Canada 1871- British gained passed the Canada is rush brought added the Columbia control of Constitutional British immigrants to Northwest becomes a Quebec Act of 1791 colonies and Territory province Australia government.
  24. 24. 1873- Prince 1890s- New Edward Island Zealand carries out 1905- Saskatchewan and joins Canada social reforms Alberta join Canada Late 1800s- Australia 1901- Parliament 1907- New Zealand becomes is made up of 6 makes Australia a a dominion with the British provinces dominion Empire
  25. 25. • Mid 1800’s Canada was • In 1867 the British Parliament passed one part the British North American Act and French, another established Canada as a dominion. The immigrant British and a voters elected their first parliament and third part descendants prime minister, John A. Macdonald. of the Loyalists. • At first the Dominion of Canada consisted of four provinces in the southeast, extending from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. Then, in 1869 the dominion acquired the Northwest Territory. • Most of the Northwest Territory was populated by Native Americans and European and American fur traders.
  26. 26. • Divided Quebec into two colonies: Lower Canada and Upper Canada. • Lower Canada – French speaking • Upper Canada – English speaking • Each colony had an assembly whose laws were subject to veto by the British government. • By the late 1830’s, the French began to feel threatened by the English-speaking people.
  27. 27. Lord Durham was sent to Canada in 1838 to investigate the uprisings between upper and lower Canada. He wrote the “Report on Affairs of British North America” in 1839 in which he recommended a self-government and legislative union in Canada. Lord Durham was married twice, first to Lady Harriet in 1812 and second, to Lady Grey in 1816. Durham died in 1840 at the age of 48 and was succeeded by his son George.
  28. 28. The First Prime Minister and second longest serving of Canada. John was born in Glasgow, Scotland and his family emigrated to Canada in 1820. He became a lawyer in Kingston, Ontario in 1836. Macdonald died June 6, 1891.
  29. 29. 3 Canada, 1867–1914
  30. 30. 3 How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule? Canada’s first European rulers were French. When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking settlers remained. In 1791 Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces: English- speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada. During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies. In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and given control over their own affairs. In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward self- government. As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George Étienne Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces. Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self-governing nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union.
  31. 31. Geography of Australia and New Zealand 3
  32. 32. • Australia was initially established as a prisoner’s colony, but after a gold rush increased the population, transporting prisoners there was stopped. • Many Europeans treated the Aborigines badly and killed many of them. • By the late 1800’s Australia was made up of six British colonies. » New South Wales » Victoria » Queensland » Tasmania » Western Australia » South Australia • By 1901, Parliament made Australia a dominion that included the colonies and a region known as the Northern Territory.
  33. 33. 3 Europeans in Australia • In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was too distant to attract European settlers. • Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously. • In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony. • In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines. • In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom. • By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy.
  34. 34. New Zealand The first Europeans to settle in the New Zealand were from James Cook’s expedition in 1770. Firearms brought to New Zealand by foreigners brought many problems to the Maori.
  35. 35. 3 New In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain. Zealand Missionaries arrived to convert the local people, the Maoris, to Christianity. New Zealand pioneered in several areas of democratic In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand. reform. In 1893, it became the first nation to give White New Zealanders won independence. suffrage to women. Later, it was in the forefront of other By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many Maoris died in social reforms. the struggle. Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in fierce wars with the Maoris.
  36. 36. Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 • Concluded by the British Naval officers and Maori Chiefs • Protected the Maori rights, including property rights and gave the British sovereignty over New Zealand
  37. 37. • Americans loyal to Great Britain during Loyalists the American Revolution • Self-governing territory owing allegiance dominion to the British king or queen • First Canadian prime minister John A. Macdonald • A Scottish-born lawyer
  38. 38. • The original people of Australia Aborigines • The original inhabitants of New Maori Zealand • Ordered by British Parliament to Lord Durham investigate Canada after the uprisings
  39. 39. • In 1867 the British Parliament passed the British North American Act and established Canada as a Mid 1800’s Canada was one part French, another dominion. The voters elected their immigrant British and a first parliament and prime third part descendants of minister, John A. Macdonald. the Loyalists. • At first the Dominion of Canada consisted of four provinces in the southeast, extending from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. Then, in 1869 the dominion acquired the Northwest Territory. • Most of the Northwest Territory was populated by Native Americans and European and American fur traders.
  40. 40. 1 Opposing Ideologies At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to turn the clock back to the way things had been before 1789. Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposed by the Congress of Vienna. The clash of people with opposing ideologies, or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil.
  41. 41. 1 What Were the Goals of Conservatives? Conservatives pursued the following goals: • Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe. • Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors. • Maintain an established church. • Suppress revolutionary ideas.
  42. 42. 1 The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge Challenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals and nationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. LIBERALISM NATIONALISM Liberals wanted: • National groups who • Governments based on shared a common heritage written constitutions and set out to win their own separation of powers. states. • Natural rights of • Nationalism gave people liberty, equality, and with a common heritage a prosperity. sense of identity. • Rulers elected by the • Nationalism often bred people and responsible intolerance and led to to them. persecution of other • A republican form of ethnic or national groups. government. • Laissez-faire economics.
  43. 43. 1 Revolts Against the Old Order Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order. • In the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers. • In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy.
  44. 44. 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 • Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830 and 1848? • How did revolution spread in 1830? • What were the results of the 1848 revolutions?
  45. 45. 2 Why Did Revolutions Occur in France in 1830 and 1848? 1830 1848 Charles X, a strong believer in When the government tried absolutism, suspended the to silence critics and legislature, limited the right to prevent public vote, and restricted the press. meetings, angry crowds took to the streets. Liberals and radicals rebelled and took control of Paris. Louis Philippe abdicated. Moderate liberals put in place a constitutional Revolutionary leaders monarchy, and chose Louis proclaimed a Second Philippe as king. Republic.
  46. 46. Revolt in France • Charles X • Wanted to restore absolute monarchs • Had support of ultraroyalists- nobles favoring a return to the old order • Dissolved the Assembly and held new elections • Issued the July Ordinances – Measures that showed the dissolved assembly, ended press freedom, and restricted voting rights • Les Trois Glorieuses – Three glorious days – Parisian workers and students forced Charles to give up the throne and flee to Great Britain
  47. 47. The “Citizen King” • Louis Philippe accepted the throne – Dressed and behaved like a middle class citizen – Favored wealthy and ignored middle class demands • Francois Guizot – Prime minister of France – Also refused middle class demands
  48. 48. 2 The revolts in Paris inspired uprisings How Did Revolution elsewhere in Europe. Most were Spread in 1830? suppressed by military force. But here and there, rebels did win changes from conservative governments. Even when they failed, revolutionaries frightened rulers badly enough to encourage Poland Nationalists reform later in the century. in Poland staged an Belgium The one notable success for uprising in 1830. However, the rebels failed Europe’s revolutionaries in 1830 took to gain widespread place in Belgium. The Congress of support, and were Vienna had united Belgium and Holland brutally crushed by under the Dutch king. The Belgians Russian forces. resented this arrangement and pushed for independence. In 1831, Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution.
  49. 49. 2 Revolutions in Europe, 1830 and 1848
  50. 50. The Revolution of 1848 • Guizot feared a demonstration and cancelled a banquet • February 22 – Crowds flooded the streets singing “The Marseillaise” and shouted protests to Guizot – Troops called to calm it sided with the rebels and joined the parade – 52 civilians were killed or wounded – Louis Philippe fled to Great Britain – Rebels declared France a republic
  51. 51. 2 Revolutions of 1848 In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across Europe. • In Austria, revolts caused Metternich to resign. The Austrian government agreed to reforms, but these gains were temporary. With Russian help, Austrian forces defeated the rebels. Many were imprisoned, executed, or exiled. • Nationalists in Italy rebelled against Austrian Hapsburg rulers. They expelled the pope and installed a nationalist government. Before long, Austrian troops ousted the new government and the French army restored the pope to power. • In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly. • Within a year, Frederick dissolved the assembly and issued his own constitution keeping power in his own hands.
  52. 52. 2 Why Did the Uprisings Fail? By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789. • Rulers used military force to suppress the uprisings. • Revolutionaries did not have mass support. • A growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reforms.
  53. 53. 3 Division and Democracy in France • What domestic and foreign policies did Napoleon III pursue? • What impact did the Dreyfus affair and other challenges have on the Third Republic? • How did the French government take steps toward reform in the early 1900s?
  54. 54. • Written and composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle – Allons, enfants de Patrie, http://www.nationalanthems.info/fr.htm Le jour de gloire est arrive; Contrenous de la tyranne, L'etendard sanglant est leve, L'etendard sanglant est leve, Entendezvous, dans les campagnes, « The Marseillaise » Mugir ces feroces soldats? Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras, Egorger nos fils, nos compagnes. Arise children of the fatherland Aux armes, citoyens! The day of glory has arrived Formez vos bataillons! Against us tyranny's Marchons, marchons! Bloody standard is raised Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons! Listen to the sound in the fields The howling of these fearsome soldiers They are coming into our midst To cut the throats of your sons and consorts To arms citizens Form your battalions March, march Let impure blood Water our furrows
  55. 55. The Second Empire • New Constitution –Legislative branch called the National Assembly –Election of a President –Extension of voting rights to all adult men
  56. 56. The Rise of Louis Napoleon Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte – Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte – Popularity came from his name rather than political skills – Wanted to win support of the army, the Church, and the middle class and the peasants • Supported Catholics by helping the Pope and giving the Church more authority on French education • Support angered Parisians, started a demonstration in the streets • National Assembly revoked voting rights – Convinced citizens the republic was a failure – Directed a coup d'état • Dissolved the National Assembly and arrested opponents • Reinstated voting rights and earned popularity – Made France a hereditary empire and named himself emperor, Napoleon III • Restricted the press and limited civil liberties • Industrial growth doubled foreign trade tripled • Built new railroads and made the boulevards
  57. 57. 3 Napoleon III DOMESTIC POLICIES FOREIGN POLICIES Issued a new constitution that extended democratic Unsuccessfully tried to rights. turn Mexico into a French Promoted investment in satellite. industry and large-scale Helped Italian nationalists ventures. defeat Austria and gained Legalized labor Nice and Savoy. unions, extended public education to girls, and created a small public health program.
  58. 58. The Crimean War • France and Great Britain against Russia – Immediate cause was who had the right to protect the Christians in the empire or those visiting the Holy Land. The Ottomans sided with France – French and British troops invaded Crimean Peninsula • Disease caused more deaths than war conflict • Florence Nightingale (British nurse, 1820-1910) Also known as: Lady with the Lamp • improved hospital conditions – Fall of 1855 Russia was defeated • Treaty of Paris ended the war • Russia returned Ottoman territory and banned warships and forts around the Black Sea • England’s Poet Laureate Tennyson pens “The Charge of the Light Brigade”—depicting military bungling that costs many lives on both sides.
  59. 59. Making Peace with Prussia • France elected a new National Assembly • Gave Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia • Paid 5 billion francs, 1 billion dollars, to Prussia • Prussia then staged a parade through Paris • National Assembly – Ordered Parisians to pay the rents and debts that were suspended during the siege – Stopped making payments to the National Guard
  60. 60. The Commune of Paris • Workers Socialist government – Refused to recognize the National Assembly – Called for the conversion of France into a decentralized federation of independent cities – Declared war on the propertied classes and the Church – Wanted to end government support of religion, adopted a revolutionary calendar, and introduced the 10 hour workday • Civil War with the National Assembly – Assembly reasserted power of Paris – “ Bloody Week” Assembly arrested over 40,000 people and killed more than 20,000 – Ended the commune but caused distrust within France
  61. 61. Florence Nightingale • Founder of the modern nursing profession • Head British nurse in the Crimean War • Also known as The Lady with the Lamp • Improved sanitary conditions and ordered supplies • 1907 the King awarded her the Order of Merit, the first woman recipient • Declined a burial and national funeral at Westminster Abbey because she wanted a simple grave
  62. 62. France: The Third Republic • New Constitution – Two house legislature – President served four years and had little real power – Every official act needed full support of both houses – Cabinet of ministers was for government policy – Post of premier was for all executive business
  63. 63. 3 Challenges of the Third Republic • In 1871, an uprising broke out, as rebels set up the Paris Commune. The government violently suppressed the Paris Commune, leaving bitter memories that deepened social divisions within France. • In the first ten years of the Third Republic, 50 different coalition governments were formed and fell. • A series of political scandals shook public trust in the government.
  64. 64. Threats to the Republic • General Georges Boulanger – Popular French war hero – Urged people to seek revenge against Prussia – Won great support from royalists – Government ordered for his arrest and he fled to Belgium
  65. 65. The Dreyfus Affair • Alfred Dreyfus – Jewish French army officer – Convicted of selling military secrets to Germany – Sentenced to life on Devil's Island (Île du Diable), the smallest and northernmost island of the three Îles du Salut, located about 6 nautical miles off the coast of French Guiana. It was a small part of the notorious French penal colony in French Guiana until 1952. – Anti- Semites believed conviction – Official evidence proved his innocence – Received Presidential pardon – Divided France • Republicans, Socialists, and anti-Catholics against Royalists, Nationalists, Catholics, and Anti- Semites • Republican Government could survive disruption – Brought power to radical Republicans and Socialists Devil's Island was where the most important prisoners were held. It was considered escape proof because of its inaccessible cliffs, the strong currents and the sharks. It is best known for the incarceration of Alfred Dreyfus, falsely accused of espionage for the Germans, for five years (1895-99).
  66. 66. 3 The Dreyfus Affair In Dreyfus affair, a Jewish officer was falsely accused of treason to cover up corruption in the military. The controversy scarred French politics and society for decades. • Royalists, ultranationalists, and Church officials charged Dreyfus supporters with undermining France. • Dreyfus supporters upheld ideals of justice and equality in the face of massive public anger. The Dreyfus affair reflected the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe. It also helped to stir Theodor Herzl to call for a Jewish state.
  67. 67. The Panama Canal • Canal would provide France with a passageway to the Pacific Ocean • Panama Company collapsed – French stockholders lost all of invested money – Charges of dishonesty and poor management erupted – Members of both houses admitted to accepting bribes for more funding on the project – After this 50 socialists won seats in the national legislature
  68. 68. 3 Reforms in France France achieved serious reforms in the early 1900s. • New laws were passed regulating wages, hours, and safety conditions for workers. • A system of free public elementary schools was created. • A law was passed to separate church and state. • The women’s rights movements made some gains, but women were not granted suffrage until after World War II.
  69. 69. End of the Empire • Napoleon declared war on Prussia – French armies were slow to mobilize – German forces easily crossed into France – Prussians defeated France in a little over six weeks – Took Napoleon as prisoner – Parisians forced the collapse of the Second Empire – Endured a Prussian siege for four months until a truce was signed
  70. 70. 4 Expansion of the United States • How did the United States extend its territory? • How did American democracy grow before and after the Civil War? • What impact did economic growth and social reform have on the United States?
  71. 71. 4 U S Territorial Expansion From the earliest years of its history, the United States followed a policy of expansionism, or extending a nation’s boundaries.
  72. 72. 4 Expanding Democracy BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR AFTER THE CIVIL WAR States slowly expanded suffrage Three amendments to the so that by the 1830s, most Constitution banned slavery white men had the right to throughout the country and vote. granted political Some Americans, called rights, including the right to abolitionists, called for an vote, to African American men. immediate and complete end to slavery. Still, African Americans faced segregation and economic The women’s rights movement hardships. fought for equality and the right to vote.
  73. 73. 4
  74. 74. 4 Economic Growth in the United States By 1900, the United States was the world’s leading industrial giant. • Cotton mills turned out great quantities of mass-produced goods. • Rich coals and iron resources fed other industries. • A huge work force, swelled by immigrants, labored in the mines and factories. • Farm output soared as settlers flooded the fertile Midwest. • A growing network of transportation and communication aided economic growth.
  75. 75. 4 Social Reform • The Industrial Revolution brought rapid industrialization and a growing need for reform. • In the late 1800s, farmers and city workers supported the new Populist party. The Populists sought reforms, such as an eight-hour workday. • By 1900, reformers known as Progressives again pressed for change. They sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and grant suffrage to women.
  76. 76. 4 Political Problems During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. • Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. • With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.
  77. 77. 4 The Economics of Dependence Economic dependence occurs when less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before.
  78. 78. 4 The Influence of the United States In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers. In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. • In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments. In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal. • To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of “Yankee Imperialism.”
  79. 79. Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 4
  80. 80. 3 Latin American Wars of Independence • What caused discontent in Latin America? • How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence? • How did nations of South America win independence?
  81. 81. 3 What Caused Discontent in Latin America? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. • Peninsulares were those born of Spanish parents in Spain; therefore, they had the most wealth, education, & status. • Creoles resented their second-class status. • Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. • Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. • Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
  82. 82. 3 CENTRAL HAITI MEXICO AMERICA In 1791, Toussaint Father Miguel Hidalgo and Spanish-ruled lands L’Ouverture led slaves in José Morales led popular declared their revolt. revolts. independence in the By 1798, enslaved Rebels led by Agustín de early 1820s. Haitians had been freed. Iturbide overthrew the Local leaders set up the In 1802, Napoleon sent Spanish viceroy, creating United Provinces of an army to recapture an independent Mexico. Central America. Haiti. Napoleon’s forces Iturbide took the title of The union soon agreed to a truce, or emperor, but was quickly fragmented into temporary peace. overthrown. separate republics of Liberal Mexicans set up Guatemala, Nicaragua, In 1804, Haitian leaders Honduras, El the Republic of Mexico. declared independence. Salvador, and Costa Rica. Struggles for Independence
  83. 83. Independence in 3 South America In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence. Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. • In 1816, José de San Martín helped Argentina win freedom from Spain. He then joined forces with Bolívar. • Bolívar tried to unite the liberated lands into a single nation called Gran Columbia. However, bitter rivalries made that dream impossible. Before long, Gran Columbia split into three independent countries: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador.
  84. 84. 3 Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844
  85. 85. 3 Independence Movements in Latin America Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes European domination of Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Spread of Enlightenment ideas Revolutionary leaders emerge American and French revolutions Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish Growth of nationalism in Latin America king Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Toussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave revolt Attempts made to rebuild economies in Haiti 18 separate republics set up Bolívar, San Martín, and others lead successful revolts in Latin America Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain Colonial rule ends in much of Latin economic independence America

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