Ch13 Cultural Revolution


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Ch13 Cultural Revolution

  1. 1. Chapter 13: Section 1 New Ideas <ul><li>In little more than 100 years, the Industrial Revolution converted Europe from a farming economy centered in the country to an industrial economy based in urban areas. </li></ul>Brian Donahue
  2. 2. Chapter 13 Cultural Revolution Section 1 New Ideas By: Carlee M. Cantwell
  3. 3. PEOPLE TO MEET <ul><li>- Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><li>- David Ricardo </li></ul><ul><li>-Jeremy Bentham </li></ul><ul><li>-John Stuart Mill </li></ul><ul><li>-Robert Owen </li></ul><ul><li>-Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>-Friedrich Engels </li></ul><ul><li>William Wilburforce </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Shaftesbury </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>IMPORTANT TERMS TO REMEMBER </li></ul><ul><li>- laissez-faire economics </li></ul><ul><li>-utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>-socialism </li></ul><ul><li>-proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>-bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>- communism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Start Of Capitalist Ideas <ul><li>- During the Industrial Revolution, Europeans studied capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>- laissez-faire- a policy allowing business to operate without government interference (comes from a French word meaning “let them alone) </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire was developed by Physiocrats, who valued land as the primary source of national wealth </li></ul>Viva la France!
  6. 6. Capitalist Ideas <ul><li>During the Industrial Revolution, European thinkers rejected mercantilism with its government controls. </li></ul><ul><li>These thinkers supported laissez-faire, a policy allowing business to operate without government interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire comes from a French term meaning “let them alone.” </li></ul><ul><li>European thinkers held that fewer taxes and regulations would enable farmers to grow more produce. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1800s, laissez-faire soon gained the support of middle-class owners of railroads, factories, and mines. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adam Smith <ul><li>- Scottish economist who set down the workings of laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>- wrote the Wealth of Nations in 1776, which stated that an economy works best when the natural forces of supply and demand operate without government interference </li></ul><ul><li>- thought sellers and buyers should act on self-interest and efficient producers make more profit, hire more workers, and continue to expand </li></ul>- As the Industrial Revolution sped up, Smith’s ideas influenced economic thought and practice
  8. 8. Adam Smith <ul><li>Adam Smith was a Scottish economist who set down the workings of a laissez-faire economy. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Wealth of Nation of 1776, Smith stated that businesses compete to produce goods as inexpensively as possible, and consumers buy the best goods at the lowest prices. Efficient producers make more profit, hire more workers, and continue to expand, to everyone’s benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1850s, Great Britain, the world’s leading industrial power, had adopted free trade and other laissez-faire policies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Malthus and Ricardo <ul><li>David Ricardo  British economist who was influenced by Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>-believed rapid population growth would only lead to fiercer competition, lower wages and higher unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Both men were strong believers in laissez-faire. </li></ul><ul><li>**Because of the theories, economics became known as “the dismal science”. </li></ul>Thomas Malthus was an Anglican clergyman -He wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798 -thought poverty famine, and misery were inevitable because population was increasing faster than the food supply.
  10. 10. Malthus and Ricardo <ul><li>Not all thinkers held Adam Smith’s optimism about the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Malthus, an Anglican clergyman, wrote in “An Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798) that poverty, famine, and misery were unavoidable because population was increasing faster than the food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence by Malthus, the British economist David Ricardo stated in his “iron law of wages” that rapid population growth would lead only to fierce competition for jobs, lower wages, and higher unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Malthus’s and Ricardo’s predictions were not fulfilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Population continued to rise, but as a result of the agricultural revolution, the food supply grew even faster. By the 1900s, higher living standards and lower birthrates prevailed in many Western countries such as Great Britain, the United States, and Germany. </li></ul>Thomas Malthus David Ricardo
  11. 11. Evangelicals and Reform <ul><li>- Reformers set out to improve the lives of the disadvantaged, especially enslaved people and the urban poor </li></ul><ul><li>- In the late 1700s-1800s a series of reforms swept through the Protestant churches  Evangelicalism , which joined personal faith with social improvement </li></ul><ul><li>- This group was split about laissez-faire economics . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evangelicals and Reform <ul><li>During the late 1700s and early 1800s, religious awakenings swept through the Protestant churches. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of these revivals was Evangelicalism, a movement that joined personal faith with social improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Evangelicals support strict lassez-faire. Others, thought that the government needed to improve the lives of the disadvantaged. </li></ul><ul><li>William Wilberforce, opposed to slavery, had Parliament pass a bill in 1807 that ended the British slave trade. Later, in 1833-the year Wilberforce died-Parliament abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Shaftesbury promoted laws to limit working hours for women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament responded passed factory laws during the 1830s and 1840s. These regulated child employment in factories, prohibited women and children from working in underground mines, and established a 10-hour day in textile factories for children under 18 and women. </li></ul>William Wilberforce Lord Shaftesbury
  13. 13. William Wilberforce and Lord Shaftesbury <ul><li>< William Wilberforce was a member of Parliament, who opposed slavery and passed a bill ending the British slave trade. </li></ul><ul><li>< Lord Shaftesbury promoted laws to limit working hours for women and children. His efforts started the Parliamentary Commissions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Parliamentary Commissions <ul><li>- Commission reports telling of miserable factory working conditions raised a public outcry  Parliament responded with the first factory laws. </li></ul><ul><li>- Passed in the 1830s and 1840s, these laws regulated child employment, prohibited women and children from working in underground mines, and established a 10-hour day for children under 18 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Utilitarian Reformers <ul><li>Utilitarianism  idea that society should work for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of citizens. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Utilitarian Reformers <ul><li>British philosopher Jeremy Bentham promoted utilitarianism, the idea that society should work for “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of citizens. Laws should be judged by their usefulness, whether they advance human happiness or reduced human misery. </li></ul><ul><li>Bentham called for a better code of law, education for all, a public health service, and improved prisons. </li></ul><ul><li>Bentham’s follower, John Stuart Mill, challenged strict views of laissez-faire economics, calling on government to distribute national wealth more justly by taxing income. </li></ul><ul><li>Mill also held a strong belief in individual freedom and equal rights for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Mill’s “On Liberty” (1859) stated that freedom of thought and discussion promoted social progress and supported extending the vote to all adults. </li></ul>Jeremy Betham John Stuart Mill
  17. 17. Jeremy Bentham <ul><li>- Jeremy Bentham promoted the utilitarian theories and said laws should be judged by their usefulness. </li></ul><ul><li>-He called for a better code of law, universal education, a public health service and improved prisons. </li></ul>
  18. 18. John Stuart Mill <ul><li>- John Stuart Mill was a follower of Bentham, who challenged laissez-faire. </li></ul><ul><li>- In 1859 he wrote On Liberty. In it Mill stated that freedom of thought and discussion promoted social progress. </li></ul><ul><li>He also supported extending the vote to all adults and advocated women's rights. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rise of Socialism <ul><li>- Socialism  a belief that the means of production should be owned and controlled by society </li></ul><ul><li>- Through this, wealth could be equally distributed among citizens. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Rise of Socialism <ul><li>Some people believed that ending the misery of workers required eliminating capitalism completely. They promoted socialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism is the belief that the means of production-capital, land, raw materials, and factories-should be owned and controlled by society, either directly or through the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth could be distributed equally among all citizens. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Early Socialism <ul><li>Early socialists planned and built communities where everyone was supposed to share equally in the benefits of the industrial age. Among the first to establish such a community was Robert Owen. </li></ul><ul><li>Owen reasoned that if cooperation replaced competition, life would improve. He created model industrial communities in New Lanark, Scotland (early 1800s) and New Harmony, Indiana (1825). </li></ul><ul><li>New Lanark had success. He greatly improved the people’s living and working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>New Harmony, however, did not meet with the same success as New Lanark. Feuding among Owen and the residents led Owen to return to Great Britain. </li></ul>Robert Owen
  22. 22. Robert Owen <ul><li>Owen believed that competition caused problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Bought New Lanark, a dreary Scottish town, and reconstructed it into a model industrious community. </li></ul><ul><li>-In 1825 Owen moved to New Harmony, Indiana in an attempt to repeat his achievement, but did not achieve the same success. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Owen was a wealthy Welsh manufacturer. </li></ul><ul><li>He established one of the first socialist communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation vs. competition </li></ul>
  23. 23. Karl Marx’s Theories and Friedrich Engels <ul><li>Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels met in Paris in 1844. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx later settled in London, and he and Engels became lifelong friends and collaborators. </li></ul><ul><li>German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel taught changing ideas were the major force in history. In Marx’s view, economics was the major force for change. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx stated that conflict between social classes was what pushed history forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx believed that capitalism was only a temporary phase. As the makers of goods, the proletariat, or the working class, was the true productive class. Proletariats could seize control from the bourgeoisie, or middle class, during an economic crisis and then build a society in which the people owned everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Without private property, classes would vanish, and the government would wither away. This would be known as communism, a society without class distinctions or private property. </li></ul>Karl Marx Friedrich Engels
  24. 24. Marx and Engels <ul><li>-Karl Marx, a German philosopher, dismissed early socialism as impractical and tried to find a scientific basis for it. </li></ul><ul><li>- Son of a German lawyer and had a doctorate of history and philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>-Marx met Engels in Paris in 1844 </li></ul>- Horrified by English factory conditions, Engels wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England.
  25. 25. Marx’s Theories <ul><li>Following the German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, Marx believed changing ideas were the major force in history and history advanced through conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx viewed economics as the major force for change. </li></ul>Marx Theory ECONOMIC BASE Law Social Systems Customs Religion Art
  26. 26. Marx’s Theories cont. The class that controlled production became the controlling class. They gave up control through revolutions. Therefore, clashes between the classes were inevitable.
  27. 27. Primitive
  28. 28. Slave
  29. 29. Feudal
  30. 30. C A P I T A L I S M
  31. 31. Marx’s Theories (cont.) <ul><li>Proletariat  working class </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie  middle class </li></ul><ul><li>-According to Marx, the proletariat would build a society in which people owned everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Without private property, classes and government would wither away. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism  governing principle would be “from each according to his ability, and each according to his need”. </li></ul><ul><li>These views were published in The Communist Manifesto of 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx developed them further in Das Kapital in 1867. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Socialist Legacy <ul><li>History did not proceed by Marx’s plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers could buy more with their wages. Rather than overthrow their governments, workers gained the right to vote to correct the worst social ills. Workers also remained loyal to their individual nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Socialists began to appear and urged public control of some means of production, but they respected individual values and democratic means to implement Socialist policies. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1900s, revolution swept Russia. Rising to power in the revolution, the Russian communists imposed their beliefs on the country and shunned democratic values. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism is a radical form of socialism first developed by a group of Marxist revolutionaries. Communism is a society without class distinction or private property. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Socialist Legacy <ul><li>-History did not proceed by Marx’s plan, however. </li></ul><ul><li>-Rather than overthrow their government, workers gained the right to vote and used it to correct social issues in many democratic countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic socialism developed in Europe, which urged public control of production, but respected individual values and favored democratic means. Many countries like Denmark, West Germany, Sweden, Finland, Japan, etc. adopt socialism especially after WWII. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Socialist Legacy (cont.) <ul><li>- In early 1900s revolution swept Russia. Marxist revolutionaries developed a radical form of socialism known as communism . </li></ul><ul><li>- Russian communists imposed their beliefs on the country and shunned democratic values. </li></ul>Pre-communist Russia
  35. 35. Countries by 2008 economic freedom index
  36. 41. Chapter 13 Section 2 The New Science
  37. 42. People and Terms in Section <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Jenner </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><li>John Dalton </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Sklodowska Curie </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Curie </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul>
  38. 43. New Look at Living Things <ul><li>In the 1600s scientists had observed cells that make up living things, but they did not understand what they saw </li></ul><ul><li>In 1838 Mathias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann formulated the cell theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cell theory – all living things are made up of tiny units of matter called cells; these cells divide and multiply, causing organisms to grow and mature </li></ul>
  39. 44. The Diversity of Life <ul><li>The cell theory could not explain why the world has so many kinds of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1800s, scientists proposed a theory that all plants and animals descended from a common ancestor by evolution over millions of years </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck observed similarities between fossils and living organisms and concluded that an animal’s body parts (legs for example) may grow smaller/larger depending on their use (his theory was later proved wrong) </li></ul>
  40. 45. Charles Darwin <ul><li>While traveling, Charles Darwin became curious about the great variety of plants and animals and wondered why some had become extinct </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin wrote the book On the Origins of Species and stated that most animal groups are constantly struggling for survival. These animals that survive are better adapted for their habitat </li></ul><ul><li>In his controversial book, The Descent of Man , Darwin traced human evolution from animal species </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s books angered religious leaders because they contradicted the creation story and other biblical accounts </li></ul>
  41. 46. Development of Genetics <ul><li>Gregor Mendel wondered how plants and animals pass characteristics between generations </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1860s, he experimented with pea plants and concluded that characteristics are passed from one generation to another by tiny particles (genes) </li></ul><ul><li>his work became the basis of genetics , the study of heredity </li></ul>
  42. 47. Clara Barton is the US equivalent.
  43. 48. Medical Advances - Fighting Diseases <ul><li>smallpox was one of the most dreaded diseases at the time </li></ul><ul><li>In 1796 Edward Jenner noticed that workers who had caught cowpox (a mild disease) never caught smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Once proven right, he began injecting people with cowpox so they would contract smallpox; this was the first vaccination </li></ul>
  44. 49. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>50 years later, Louis Pasteur learned why this vaccination worked </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1850s he discovered bacteria and proved that they cause infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>He also concluded that they don’t appear spontaneously but reproduce like any living being and could therefore be killed, preventing many diseases </li></ul>
  45. 50. New Approaches in Surgery <ul><li>Before surgery was improved, surgeons could operate only when their patients were forcibly held down, which was gruesome and often fatal </li></ul><ul><li>By using ether and chloroform, patients sleep through their operations without feeling any pain (discovered by Sir James Simpson) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Lister introduced carbolic acid to sterilize instruments and limit the chance of infection </li></ul>
  46. 51. Breakthroughs in Physics <ul><li>Atomic theory – idea that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms </li></ul><ul><li>In 1895 Wilhelm K. Roentgen discovered X rays, electromagnetic waves that could penetrate solid matter </li></ul><ul><li>Max Planck theorized that energy </li></ul><ul><li>Is not continuous but is released in </li></ul><ul><li>separate units called quanta </li></ul>
  47. 52. John Dalton <ul><li>John Dalton provided proof of the </li></ul><ul><li>atomic theory </li></ul><ul><li>He discovered that elements are composed of atoms and that all atoms of an element are identical and unlike the atoms of any other element </li></ul><ul><li>He also determined the chemical formulas showing which atoms make up specific elements </li></ul>
  48. 53. Marie and Pierre Curie <ul><li>These beginning steps led scientists to frame modern physics </li></ul><ul><li>In 1898 Marie Sklodowska Curie and Pierre Curie discovered the highly radioactive element radium </li></ul><ul><li>They also proved that this new element emits energy </li></ul>
  49. 54. Social Sciences <ul><li>Meanwhile other scientists used the scientific method to study human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology – study of human behavior in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology – study of human behavior in individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Auguste Comte believed that society, like nature, operated by certain laws and stated that once these laws were discovered, people could apply scientific methods to the study of human social groups </li></ul>
  50. 55. Ivan Pavlov and Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov experimented with animals to see what effects outside stimuli had on their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>His finding suggested that human actions were unconscious reactions and could be changed by training </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud’s theories (that an unconscious part of the mind governs human behavior) led to psychoanalysis, a method of treatment to discover people’s motives </li></ul>
  51. 56. Review of Chapter 13 – 2 <ul><li>What advances made in science between 1750 and 1914 have improved life today? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Charles Darwin theorize and why was it controversial to the church? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the first vaccination come about? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the breakthroughs in physics </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between sociology and psychology? </li></ul>
  52. 57. Immigration
  53. 59. <ul><li>Between 1790 and 1820, the population of the United States more than doubled to nearly 10 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>Remarkably, this growth was almost entirely the result of reproduction, as the immigration rate during that period had slowed to a trickle. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 250,000 immigrants entered the United States due to doubts about the viability of the new republic and travel restrictions in Europe during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. </li></ul>
  54. 60. <ul><li>Soon after Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, immigration to the United States began to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing shippers who needed westbound payloads kept transatlantic fares low enough to make immigration affordable, and migrants were interested in the prospect of abundant land, high wages, and what they saw as endless economic opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many also migrated to America because Europe seemed to be running out of room, and numerous people were displaced from their homelands. </li></ul><ul><li>For the next several decades, the number of immigrants continued to rise. In the 1820s, nearly 150,000 European immigrants arrived; in the 1830s, nearly 600,000; by the 1840s, nearly 1.7 million; and during the 1850s, the greatest influx of immigrants in American history—approximately 2.6 million—came to the United States. </li></ul>
  55. 61. <ul><li>During the 1800s, most European immigrants entered the United States through New York. Ships would discharge their passengers, and the immigrants would immediately have to fend for themselves in a foreign land. It did not take long for thieves and con-men to take advantage of the newcomers. Some of the immigrants brought infectious diseases with them to the States. In 1855, the New York legislature, hoping to curb some of these problems, turned the southern tip of Manhattan into an immigration receiving center. The immigration center recorded their names, nationalities, and destinations; gave them cursory physical examinations; and sometimes assisted them with finding jobs. </li></ul>
  56. 62. <ul><li>By 1860, the number of states had more than doubled to 33 from the original 13. Russia, France, and Austria were the only other countries in the western world that were more populous than the United States. Forty-three cities in the United States boasted populations of more than 20,000 people. </li></ul>
  57. 63. <ul><li>Most of the immigrants coming to the United States came from Ireland and Germany, but some also came from China, Britain, and the Scandinavian countries. In the 1840s, Ireland experienced a potato blight when a rot attacked the potato crop, and nearly two million people died of disease and hunger. Tens of thousands of Irish fled the country during the “Black Forties,” many of them coming to America. By the end of the century, more Irish lived in American than in Ireland, with nearly 2 million arriving between 1830 and 1860. As they arrived in the United States, they were too poor to move west and buy land, so they congregated in large cities along the eastern coast. By 1850, the Irish made up over half the populations of Boston and New York City. </li></ul>
  58. 64. Immigrants Landing at Castle Garden, New York
  59. 65. <ul><li>The Irish accepted whatever wages employers offered them, working in steel mills, warehouses, and shipyards or with construction gangs building canals and railways. As they competed for jobs, they were often confronted with “No Irish Need Apply” signs. Race riots were common between the Irish and the free African Americans who competed for the same low-status jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>As a rule, Irish immigrants lived in crowded, dirty tenement buildings that were plagued by high crime rates, infectious disease, prostitution, and alcoholism. They were stereotyped as being ignorant, lazy, and dirty. They also faced severe anti-Catholic prejudices. Partially due to the hostility they faced, the Irish cultivated a strong cultural identity in America, developing neighborhood newspapers, strong Catholic churches, political groups, and societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Although most Irish had a rough start in America, many eventually improved their position by acquiring small amounts of property. The Irish eventually controlled the police department in New York City, driving around in police vans called “paddy wagons.” </li></ul>
  60. 66. <ul><li>During the eighteenth century, many Germans moved to America in response to William Penn’s offer of free religious expression and cheap land in Pennsylvania. Consequently, when a new wave of Germans immigrated to America starting in the 1830s, there were already enclaves of Germans in the United States. Between 1830 and 1860, more than 1.5 million Germans migrated to American soil. Many of them were farmers, but many were also cultured, educated, professional people who were displaced by the failed democratic revolution in Germany in 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to the Irish, the Germans possessed modest amounts of material things and, as a result, were able to afford to settle in rural areas in the Midwest, such as Ohio and Wisconsin. They often migrated in families or groups, enabling them to sustain the German language and culture in their new environments. The German communities preserved traditions of abundant food, beer, and music consumption. Their culture contributed to the American way of life with such things as the Christmas tree and Kindergarten (children’s garden), but their cultural differences often garnered suspicion from their “native” American neighbors. </li></ul>
  61. 67. <ul><li>America had always been a land of immigrants, but for many American “natives,” the large influx of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s posed a threat of unknown languages and customs. Some Americans feared that foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. The natives saw the mass settlements of Irish and German Catholics as a threat to their hard-won religious and political liberties. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in several armed clashes between Protestants and Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1849, nativists formed a group in New York called the “Order of the Star Spangled Banner,” which developed into a political party called the “American Party.” When asked about the organization, members refused to identify themselves saying, “I know nothing,” which eventually led the group to be labeled the “Know-Nothing” Party. The anti-Catholic group won many elections up until the 1850s, when the anti-Catholic movement subsided and slavery became the focal issue of the time. Throughout this critical growth period in America, immigrants were helping to form the United States into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world. </li></ul>
  62. 68. <ul><li>Approximately two to three million immigrants entered the United States during each decade from 1850 to 1880. In the 1880s, the number of immigrants swelled to over five million. Prior to 1880, the majority of immigrants were from the British Isles and western Europe. Many were literate and came from countries with representative governments. Most of them were Protestant, except for the Catholics from Ireland, France, and Germany. Although not all spoke English, many of the cultural customs of these immigrants allowed them to assimilate to life in America relatively easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting in the late 1870s and continuing through the 1880s, the source of the immigrants pouring onto America’s shores began to change. People from southern and eastern Europe, including Italians, Slovenes, Croats, Slovaks, Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians, Russians, and Greeks, began immigrating to America. After the 1880s, they made up the majority of immigrants entering the country, and from 1900 to 1910, they comprised nearly 70 percent of all immigrants. </li></ul>
  63. 69. <ul><li>In contrast to earlier immigrants, many of these new immigrants were illiterate and poor, had little experience with democratic governments, and included followers of Judaism and Orthodox Christianity. This new wave of immigrants also included large numbers of Catholics. Although many of the immigrants in the late 1800s originated from rural areas of Europe, they preferred to seek industrial work in the cities of America. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon arrival, most new immigrants settled in New York, Chicago, and other cities in neighborhoods with their own ethnic groups, which became known as “Little Italy,” “Little Hungary,” and so on. The number of immigrants in these areas soon outnumbered the population of some of the largest cities in their home countries. By 1910, one-third of Americans were foreign born or had one parent who was foreign born. Although these ethnic neighborhoods offered new immigrants a connection with others from their homeland, they also served to segregate the immigrants from mainstream American society. </li></ul>
  64. 70. <ul><li>Others, namely Jews from the Polish areas of Russia, fled to America in the 1880s to escape violent persecution in their homeland. Unlike many of the other European immigrants at the time, the Jews were accustomed to city life. Many of them made their new home in New York and were able to transfer their skills as tailors and shopkeepers to the New World. However, once they were in America, they faced resentment from the German Jews who had arrived years earlier. Some German Jews took advantage of the destitute circumstances of the new arrivals and hired them as cheap labor in their businesses. </li></ul>
  65. 71. <ul><li>In addition to the hardships faced in Europe, a number of other factors added to the appeal of America that lured many Europeans to make the voyage across the Atlantic. In Europe, people saw America as the land of opportunity, a viewpoint partially created by the letters from friends and family already in America that told of the opportunities that awaited immigrants. Another factor attracting immigrants was that America was free of the compulsory military service required in many European countries. Expanding American industries needing new sources of low-wage labor recruited workers in Europe and at American ports, and railroads advertised in multiple languages to find buyers for their land grants and create traffic on their lines. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government also encouraged immigration under the Contract Labor Law of 1864. Although the law was repealed in 1868, during the time it was in effect the federal government would pay for immigrants’ travel to the U.S. and then recoup the money by garnishing their wages once they arrived. American businesses made similar contract agreements with workers until the Foran Act eliminated the practice in 1885. </li></ul>
  66. 72. <ul><li>Of the millions of new immigrants who made the passage either to escape the hardships of Europe or to seize the promise of the New World, most entered America through New York. Other ports that saw many immigrants were Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Galveston, Mobile, and New Orleans. Those that came through New York before 1890, entered through the state-run Castle Garden reception center at the southern tip of Manhattan. </li></ul>
  67. 73. <ul><li>The discovery of gold in California in 1848 prompted people from all over the world to seek their fortunes on the Pacific Coast of the United States. The discovery came during a period of political turmoil and economic hardship in China. The Chinese Empire was losing control of the nation and imperial powers from Europe were forcing their way into the country. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, many Chinese left their homeland to make a living in America. They sailed to San Francisco, which the Chinese immigrants had named the &quot;golden mountain.&quot; The number of Chinese entering the country grew to a steady rate of four to five thousand a year in the mid-1850s. Most of these immigrants settled on the west coast and began work in the gold mines. </li></ul><ul><li>An unrestricted influx of Chinese immigrants provided cheap labor for the expanding railroads. The number of Chinese immigrants entering the United States more than doubled following the Treaty. By 1880, the 75,000 Asian immigrants living in California constituted nine percent of the state's population. </li></ul>
  68. 74. The Service Industry <ul><li>When the railroads were completed and little gold was left to be mined, as many as half of the Chinese who had arrived before the 1880s went back to China. Those who stayed had to compete for jobs with white workers and faced incredible hardships. Most Chinese men found themselves working as domestic servants to wealthy western women. In these positions, they had to learn how to cook, sew, clean, and do laundry; tasks not required of them in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese men soon took advantage of the desire of most white women for someone else to take care of their laundry. As a result, many Chinese men left their roles as servants and opened laundry cleaning storefronts all across the American west. They often formed their own settlements, or &quot;Chinatowns,&quot; wherever economic opportunities existed. Within these areas, they could socialize with other Chinese, speak their native language, and find some escape from the prejudice they faced. Since many did not intend to stay in the United States, they felt no need to assimilate into American society. Chinatowns provided these men some sense of community in a foreign environment. </li></ul>
  69. 75. Revolution in the Arts Chapter 13 Section 4 Andrew Quintois
  70. 76. Key Terms <ul><li>Romanticism - The artistic movement of the early 1800s emphasizing individuality and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Realism - The artistic and literary style of the mid-1800s that pictured the realities of everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism - Antirealism artistic movement that focused on dreamlike images and symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionism - artistic style in which painters tried to capture quick impressions and the effects of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Postimpressionism - Artistic movement whose members experimented with form and color. </li></ul>
  71. 77. Romanticism Composers tried to stir deep emotions. Ludwig van Beethoven combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound. Frederic Chopin conveyed the sorrow of people living under foreign occupation. Writers created a new kind of hero, a mysterious, melancholy figure out of step with reality. Lord Byron described the romantic hero in his poetry. Charlotte Bront ë wove a mysterious tale in Jane Eyre . Painters broke free from the discipline and rules of the Enlightenment. J.M.W. Turner captured the beauty and power of nature. Eug è ne Delacroix painted dramatic action. MUSIC LITERATURE ART Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason. They glorified nature and sought to excite strong emotions in their audiences. 4
  72. 78. Romanticism : The emphasis of human emotion over reason <ul><li>Romantic artists tried to free themselves from the rigid forms and structures of neoclassical art. In doing this, the rejected the mechanization and the ugliness of industrialized society, and turned to nature, glorifying its awesome power and beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Romantic artists looked to the past, admiring the mythical heroes of old. </li></ul><ul><li>- Romantic Music </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to stir emotions, either in large works, aka symphonies, written by Russian composer Peter Tchaikovsky , or in smaller works like piano pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>- Romantic Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic writers created emotion-filled, imaginative works. One early leader of the romantic movement in literature is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . France’s most popular romantic writer was probably Aurore Dupin AKA George Sand . </li></ul><ul><li>- Romantic Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic painters, like writers and composers, reflected romantic ideals. Painters began to portray exotic, powerful subjects in a dramatic and colorful way. Most of the romantic works were meant to stir emotions, and not appeal to the intellect. </li></ul>
  73. 79. Romanticism in Music
  74. 80. <ul><li>Beethoven </li></ul><ul><li>Chopin </li></ul><ul><li>Wagner </li></ul>
  75. 81. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) <ul><li>Tchaikovsky wrote music across a range of genres, including symphony, opera, ballet, instrumental, chamber and song. </li></ul>
  76. 82. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) <ul><li>He was a German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher. </li></ul><ul><li>Goethe was one of the greatest figures in Western literature. </li></ul><ul><li>He is best known for Faust , a drama about human striving and the need for redemption: the classic bargain with the Devil. </li></ul>
  77. 83. Aurore Dupin AKA George Sand (1804-1876) <ul><li>Aurore was a French author who made peasants and workers heroes in her fiction. </li></ul><ul><li>She was born with the name Aurore, but she was called George Sand, her pen name. </li></ul>
  78. 85. Return from the tournament
  79. 90. Realism : The presentation of real and concrete things. <ul><li>In the mid-1800s, some artists began to reject the sentimentality of romanticism. They wanted to portray life in a realistic manner. </li></ul><ul><li>- Realism in Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Realism also flourished in literature. French writer Honore de Balzac described the greed and stupidity that he saw in The Human Comedy. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Dickens was the foremost English realistic writer. He spoke out on behalf of the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian writer Leo Tolstoy also reflected his compassion for the peasants and gave his analysis of social customs. </li></ul>
  80. 91. Realism <ul><li>By the mid-1800s, a new artistic movement, realism , took hold in the West. Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was. </li></ul><ul><li>Realists often focused their work on the harsh side of life in cities or villages. Many writers and artists were committed to improving the lot of the unfortunates whose lives they depicted. </li></ul><ul><li>The English novelist Charles Dickens vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen wrote plays that attacked the hypocrisy he observed around him. </li></ul><ul><li>The French painter Gustave Courbet focused on ordinary subjects. </li></ul>4
  81. 92. Realism Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term also describes works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Realism often refers to the artistic movement, which began in France in the 1850s. The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography—a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look “objectively real.”
  82. 93. Honore de Balzac (1799-1850) <ul><li>He is a French journalist and writer, and also one of the creators of realism in literature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Comedy was about 90 of his novels and short stories of French life, grouped together </li></ul>
  83. 94. Charles Dickens (1812-1870) <ul><li>Dickens is probably the most known English realistic writer. </li></ul><ul><li>He focused on the deplorable conditions in the prisons, hospitals, and poorhouses of London. </li></ul><ul><li>In his novel Hard Times , he attacked the materialism of Coketown, a fictional city. </li></ul>
  84. 95. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) <ul><li>He was a Russian author, essayist and philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>War and Peace is a family novel in which Tolstoy takes five families through the stage of life. </li></ul>
  85. 96. Symbolism <ul><li>Some writers became disgusted with what they viewed as the ugly and brutal realities of European industrial civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism spread to the other arts and to other countries. </li></ul>
  86. 97. Photography
  87. 98. <ul><li>Boulevard du Temple, Paris, 1838, by Daguerre. The first picture of a person. The image shows a busy street, but because exposure time was over ten minutes, the traffic was moving too much to appear. The exception is the man at the bottom left, who stood still getting his boots polished long enough to show. </li></ul>A daguerreotype (original French: daguerréotype ) is an early type of photograph, developed by Jacques Daguerre, in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. In later developments bromine and chlorine vapors were also used, resulting in shorter exposure times. The daguerreotype is a negative image, but the mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the image and makes it appear positive when the silvered surface has a dark ground reflected into it. Thus, daguerreotype is a direct photographic process without the capacity for duplication.
  88. 99. Mathew Brady <ul><li>Mathew Brady (1822 – January 15, 1896) was one of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and the documentation of the American Civil War. He is credited with being the father of photojournalism. </li></ul>
  89. 100. Impressionism <ul><li>During the 1870s, a group of French artists developed a style called impressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Monet , one of the most famous impressionists, painted series of paintings on the same subject to show variations in light and color during various times of the day and seasons of the year. </li></ul>
  90. 101. Claude Monet <ul><li>T he most lyrical of the impressionist painters, Claude Oscar Monet, b. Nov. 14, 1840, d. Dec. 5, 1926, was also the most committed to recording transient effects of light and atmosphere. This aim led Monet and his colleagues to develop the techniques of impressionism. Monet advised his fellow painters to concentrate on the play of light and color of the objects that they had before them. </li></ul>
  91. 106. EDGAR DEGAS <ul><li>T he art of Edgar Degas, b. Paris, July 19, 1834, d. Sept. 26, 1917, reflects a concern for the psychology of movement and expression, the harmony of line and continuity of contour. These characteristics set Degas apart from the other impressionist painters, although he took part in all but one of the 8 impressionist exhibitions between 1874 and 1886. </li></ul>
  92. 108. Postimpressionism <ul><li>In the late 1880s some artists turned away from impressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>By this time, Paul Cezanne had laid the foundation for Postimpressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Georges Seurat , another Postimpressionist, applied science to his paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Vincent van Gogh used brilliant colors and distorted forms to make intense statements in his paintings. </li></ul>
  93. 109. Georges-Pierre Seurat A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
  94. 110. Pointillism is a style of painting in which small distinct dots of color create the impression of a wide selection of other colors and blending. Aside from color &quot;mixing&quot; phenomena, there is the simpler graphic phenomenon of depicted imagery emerging from disparate points. Historically, Pointillism has been a figurative mode of executing a painting, as opposed to an abstract modality of expression. The technique relies on the perceptive ability of the eye and mind of the viewer to mix the color spots into a fuller range of tones and is related closely to Divisionism, a more technical variant of the method. It is a style with few serious practitioners and is notably seen in the works of Seurat, Signac and Cross. The term Pointillism was first coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists and is now used without its earlier mocking connotation.
  95. 111. Paul Cézanne <ul><li>Paul Cézanne 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. The line attributed to both Matisse and Picasso that Cézanne &quot;is the father of us all&quot; cannot be easily dismissed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cézanne's work demonstrates a mastery of design, color, composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of color and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields, at once both a direct expression of the sensations of the observing eye and an abstraction from observed nature. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects, a searching gaze and a dogged struggle to deal with the complexity of human visual perception. </li></ul>Self portrait c. 1875
  96. 114. Vincent Van Gogh
  97. 115. Starry Night